Gangrenous Necrotizing Cutaneous Mucormycosis in an Immunocompetent Neonate: A Case Report from Oman

Gangrenous Necrotizing Cutaneous Mucormycosis in an Immunocompetent Neonate: A Case Report from Oman Abstract We describe a case of progressive cutaneous mucormycosis, which caused gangrenous necrotizing fasciitis, in an immunocompetent neonate from Oman. Extensive wound contamination and a favorable environment for the growth of Mucorales were the predisposing factors. Early aggressive management including frequent wound debridement, targeted pharmacotherapy with liposomal amphotericin B and supportive care is pivotal for improved outcomes. mucormycosis, cutaneous mucormycosis, gangrenous necrotizing fascitis, immunocompetent neonate, neonate, Oman INTRODUCTION Mucormycosis is the third most common invasive fungal infection after candidiasis and aspergillosis in all age groups [1]. Gastrointestinal and cutaneous mucormycosis are the most common forms of mucormycosis in neonates [2]. Cutaneous mucormycosis can be life threatening if not diagnosed early, and aggressive treatment not initiated promptly [3]. We describe the first reported case of cutaneous mucormycosis in Oman. CASE REPORT A female neonate, 5–7 days of age, was found abandoned in a remote area in the midst of grass and stones covered by insects and ants. She was rushed to a nearby hospital by the emergency medical services. On arrival, she exuded an offensive body odor, with injuries on the scalp, abdomen and back and was lethargic, severely dehydrated, with hypothermia, bradycardia and bradypnea. After resuscitation and correction of hypoglycemia, she was transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit of Nizwa Hospital, Oman. At admission, she was a term, small for gestational age, critically ill neonate weighing 1950 g. She had 10% dehydration with a doughy feel to the skin, umbilical discharge, a right parieto-occipital hematoma, measuring 5 cm × 6 cm in size and ill-defined abrasions and wounds in the right iliac fossa and the lumbar paraspinal region. The skin over the back was parched with excoriated areas. Her body temperature was 36.5 °C, respiratory rate 36 breaths per minute, heart rate 115 per minute, blood pressure 54/39 mm Hg and oxygen saturation of 92% in room air. Respiratory, cardiovascular, abdominal and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Baseline investigations revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis, hypernatremic dehydration, deranged renal function and thrombocytopenia. Radiological investigations revealed a normal skeletal survey and an unremarkable abdominal ultrasound. Blood gas showed mixed respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Lumbar puncture was not contemplated owing to local infection. A heavy growth of Streptococcus agalactiae was recovered from the scalp abscess, umbilical swab and wound swabs from the loin. Results of serological tests for syphilis, gonorrhea and human immunodeficiency virus and ‘TORCH’ screen were negative. Her initial treatment included gradual correction of hypernatremic dehydration, broad spectrum antibiotics, local care of wounds, drainage of scalp abscess, need-based analgesia and incremental feeds. After 48 h of admission, she developed a brief tonic-clonic seizure, which was attributed to the rapid decrease in serum sodium levels during correction of hypernatremic dehydration. Blood culture revealed no bacterial or fungal growth. After initial improvement, on the fifth day of admission, a blackish discoloration (2 cm × 2 cm) was noted in the left paraspinal area in relation to thoraco-lumbar spine, which was tender without crepitus or discharge. She also developed intermittent fever (up to 39 °C). Neither did ultrasound examination show subcutaneous collection nor did KOH smear reveal fungal elements. She was started on piperacillin-tazobactam, and clindamycin was continued. However, the blackish area continued to enlarge and by seventh day of admission was 4 cm × 5 cm (Fig. 1). The neonate underwent debridement of necrotic skin and subcutaneous tissues. Tissue samples were sent for bacterial and fungal cultures. A whitish cotton like growth was seen on the surface of the debrided area with a black necrotic eschar. Although the initial KOH smear was negative for fungal elements, there was a strong suspicion of mucormycosis. Liposomal amphotericin B (5 mg.kg/day) was added to the ongoing antibiotic regimen. She underwent debridement of the wound thrice with extensive excision of necrotic areas. During the subsequent 3 days, despite aforementioned treatment, there was a relentless worsening of the wound with marked blackening and active erythematous edges (Fig. 2). She developed refractory hypotension and multi-organ failure and died on the 12th day of admission despite intensive care support. A markedly elevated C-reactive protein, progressive hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytopenia were the key laboratory markers of her deterioration. Tissue biopsy revealed typical hyphae of Mucorales with angioinvasion and tissue necrosis suggestive of invasive cutaneous mucormycosis. Fungal cultures revealed growth of Mucorales but no subtyping was possible. Biopsy and culture confirmation reports were available only postmortem. Autopsy could not be conducted owing to local customs and absence of valid consent. Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide Cutaneous mucormycosis with blackened area and pinkish red margins. Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide Cutaneous mucormycosis with blackened area and pinkish red margins. Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide ‘Hairy Pus’ with black necrotic eschar. Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide ‘Hairy Pus’ with black necrotic eschar. DISCUSSION Mucormycosis is an emerging, aggressive, rapidly progressive opportunistic infection caused by environmental fungi of the order Mucorales, family Mucoraceae, and class Zygomycetes [4]. Cutaneous mucormycosis is the third most common form of mucormycosis after rhino-orbito-cerebral and pulmonary forms in all age groups although it is the most common form seen in children [4]. In a review of 78 cases of cutaneous mucormycosis in all age groups, Skiada and Petrikoss (2009) reported that 28% were children and 10% were infants [5]. Prematurity, low birth weight, corticosteroid therapy, broad spectrum antibiotic usage and local trauma to the skin are the most common predisposing factors [6]. There are few published reports in the English literature on cutaneous mucormycosis in neonates [2, 6–9]. Clinical manifestations of cutaneous mucormycosis are variable, often resembling ecthyma gangrenosum or superficial granulomatous pyoderma [10]. The diagnosis may be confused to be polymicrobial infections, especially because gram negative bacteria may co-exist. In most cases of cutaneous mucormycosis, there is a central blackened necrotic eschar, surrounded by pinkish purple soft tissue induration. In open wounds, mucormycosis has a cottony bread mold appearance, a clinical sign known as ‘hairy pus’ [11]. On failure of early recognition, the lesion can progress to invade subcutaneous tissues, fasciae, muscles, tendons or bones leading to mucormycotic gangrenous cellulitis or aggressive necrotizing fasciitis, with a high mortality, as in our case [1]. Depending on the severity, cutaneous mucormycosis is classified as localized, deep or disseminated [12]. Two salient features of cutaneous mucormycosis are that it often occurs in immunocompetent hosts as in our case; and the fungi Apophysomyces and Saskenea are the most common species involved [1, 11, 12]. Trauma is a major trigger of cutaneous mucormycosis (posttraumatic cutaneous mucormycosis [PTM]) [13]. Trauma could be trivial such as insect or spider bites, scorpion stings, pecking by birds, animal bites or scratches, or major such as road traffic accidents, burns, crush injuries and injuries during natural disasters [13, 14]. During trauma, implantation of fungal spores from contaminated soil occurs into damaged skin or open wound. Extensive tissue damage and poor tissue viability of soil-contaminated wounds promote acidosis and local immunosuppression, which enhance the pathogenicity of Mucorales. Bacterial co-infections should make clinicians suspect mucormycosis because it generally indicates a massive soiled contamination. Lelievre et al. [13] studied 122 cases of PTM. They reported that symptoms occurred at a mean age of 9.5 days after trauma, with necrosis and bacterial co-infection found in 76.2% and 41% of the cases, respectively; most patients did not present any underlying condition. Interestingly, they found that 19% of the cases occurred in the Middle East or in India. Absidia corymbifera and Apophysomyces elegans were the leading pathogens (21.1% and 31.7%, respectively) in their series [13]. Nosocomial cutaneous mucormycosis occurs as a sequelae of iatrogenic trauma owing to intravenous (IV) access sites or long lines, adhesive tapes, Elastoplast bandages, occlusive dressings, burns, postoperative wounds and environmental contamination at construction sites of hospital expansion projects [15]. An outbreak of cutaneous infection with Rhizopus microsporus in a nursery was reported in preterm infants in association with the use of wooden tongue depressors as splints for IV and arterial cannulation sites [16]. Recently, an outbreak of cutaneous mucormycosis in a pediatric hospital was attributed to contaminated hospital linens [17]. The gold standard for confirmation of diagnosis of mucormycosis is histopathological examination of the tissues, which typically shows broad, hyaline, ribbon like, pauciseptate, irregular fungal hyphae with right angle branching, accompanied by tissue necrosis and angioinvasion, which is mandatory to establish the diagnosis. Detection of typical hyphae on KOH-smeared scrapings on direct microscopy helps in preliminary diagnosis. All Mucorales grow rapidly on Sabouraud dextrose agar [18]. However, cultures may be negative or, when positive, could represent wound contamination and not true infection. Fungal elements can be stained with Gomori methenamine-silver, Periodic acid-Schiff or calcofluor-white stains. Management of cutaneous mucormycosis includes surgical debridement, prompt antifungal therapy and supportive therapy, including control of any underlying illness. At the first suspicion of cutaneous mucormycosis, broad-spectrum antifungal therapy with liposomal amphotericin should be initiated without waiting for tissue culture/biopsy results [2]. Debridement should be performed early, and repeated if progression continues unabated till all necrotic tissue is removed. Amputation may be required in cases of extensive cutaneous infection over extremities [19]. Split skin grafting is required once the lesion is fully healed, usually by the tumescent technique in neonates [20]. Posaconazole and caspofungin are suitable antifungal alternatives in selected cases [21, 22]. Negative pressure wound therapy is helpful [23]. The newer add-on therapies such as hyperbaric oxygen, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and oral iron chelating agents hold promise for management of refractory mucormycosis [24]. The mortality of cutaneous mucormycosis varies and is 4–10% in localized infection, 26–29% in deep extension and 83–94% in disseminated disease [5, 12]. This case underscores the need for increased awareness of cutaneous mucormycosis among pediatric health-care professionals and early, aggressive intervention to achieve better outcomes. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I thank the staff of the NICU, Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Surgery, Nizwa Hospital who were involved in the clinical management of the neonate. REFERENCES 1 Prabhu RM , Patel R. Mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis: a review of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment . Clin Microbiol Infect 2004 ; 10(Suppl. 1) : 31 – 47 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 2 Roilides E , Zaoutis TE , Walsh TJ. Invasive zygomycosis in neonates and children . Clin Microbiol Infect 2009 ; 15(Suppl. 5) : 50 – 4 . 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02981.x. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 3 Chakrabarti A. Cutaneous zygomycosis: major concerns . Indian J Med Res 2010 ; 131 : 739 – 41 . Google Scholar PubMed 4 Linder N , Keller N , Huri C , et al. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in a premature infant: case report and review of literature . Am J Perinatol 1998 ; 15 : 35 – 8 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-993895 Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 5 Skiada A , Petrikkos G. Cutaneous zygomycosis . Clin Microbiol Infect 2009 ; 15(Suppl. 5) : 41 – 5 . 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02979.x. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 6 Oh D , Notricia D. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in infants and neonates: case report and review of literature . J Pediatr Surg 2002 ; 37 : 1607 – 11 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/jpsu.2002.36193 Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 7 Inoue S , Odaka A , Hashimoto D , et al. Rare case of disseminated neonatal zygomycosis mimicking necrotizing enterocolitis with necrotizing fasciitis . J Pediatr Surg 2011 ; 46 : E29 – 32 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 8 Mirakhur H , Sekhon V , Luthra M. Neonatal cutaneous mucormycosis . J Clin Neonatol 2016 ; 5 : 262 – 4 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS 9 Lowe CD , Sainato RJ , Stagliano DR , et al. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in an extremely preterm infant successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B . Pediatr Dermatol 2017 ; 34 : e116 – 19 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 10 du Plessis PJ , Wentzel LF , Delport SD , van Damme E. Zygomycotic necrotizing cellulitis in a premature infant . Dermatology 1997 ; 195 : 179 – 81 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 11 Bouza E , Muñoz P , Guinea J. Mucormycosis: an emerging disease? Clin Microbiol Infect 2006 ; 12 : 7 – 23 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS 12 Roden MM , Zaoutis TE , Buchanan WL , et al. Epidemiology and outcome of zygomycosis: a review of 929 reported cases . Clin Infect Dis 2005 ; 41 : 634 – 53 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 13 Lelievre L , Garcia-Hermoso D , Abdoul H , et al. Posttraumatic mucormycosis: a nationwide study in France and review of the literature . Medicine 2014 ; 93 : 395 – 404 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 14 Neblett Fanfair R , Benedict K , Bos J , et al. Necrotizing cutaneous mucormycosis after a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, in 2011 . N Engl J Med 2012 ; 367 : 2214 – 25 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 15 Rammaert B , Lanternier F , Zahar JR , et al. Healthcare-associated mucormycosis . Clin Infect Dis 2012 ; 54(Suppl. 1) : S44 – 54 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 16 Mitchell SJ , Gray J , Morgan ME , et al. Nosocomial infection with Rhizopus microsporus in preterm infants: association with wooden tongue depressors . Lancet 1996 ; 348 : 441 – 3 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(96)05059-3 Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 17 Duffy J , Harris J , Gade L , et al. Mucormycosis outbreak associated with hospital linens . Pediatr Infect Dis J 2014 ; 33 : 472 – 6 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 18 Lass-Flöri C. Zygomycosis: conventional laboratory diagnosis . Clin Microbiol Infect 2009 ; 15(Suppl. 5) : 60 – 5 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 19 Scheffler E , Miller GG , Classen DA. Zygomycotic infection of the neonatal upper extremity . J Pediatr Surg 2003 ; 38 : E16 – 17 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 20 Kumar V , Aggarwal A , Taneja R , et al. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in a premature neonate and its management by tumescent skin grafting . Br J Plast Surg 2005 ; 58 : 852 – 4 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2005.01.005 Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 21 Bulent Ertugrul M , Arikan-Akdagli S. Chapter 23: Mucormycosis. In: Ergonul O , Can F , Akova M , et al. (eds). Emerging Infectious Diseases. Clinical Case Studies . 2014 , 304 – 21 . 22 Van Burik JA , Hare RS , Solomon HF , et al. Posaconazole is effective as salvage therapy in zygomycosis: a retrospective summary of 91 cases . Clin Infect Dis 2006 ; 42 : e61 – 5 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 23 Zahoor B , Kent S , Wall D. Cutaneous mucormycosis secondary to penetrative trauma . Injury 2016 ; 47 : 1383 – 7 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 24 Spellberg B , Edwards J Jr , Ibrahim A. Novel perspectives on mucormycosis: pathophysiology, presentation, and management . Clin Microbiol Rev 2005 ; 18 : 556 – 69 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.18.3.556-569.2005 Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Tropical Pediatrics Oxford University Press

Gangrenous Necrotizing Cutaneous Mucormycosis in an Immunocompetent Neonate: A Case Report from Oman

Loading next page...
 
/lp/ou_press/gangrenous-necrotizing-cutaneous-mucormycosis-in-an-immunocompetent-GI6wf2b0I3
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Copyright
© The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
ISSN
0142-6338
eISSN
1465-3664
D.O.I.
10.1093/tropej/fmx094
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract We describe a case of progressive cutaneous mucormycosis, which caused gangrenous necrotizing fasciitis, in an immunocompetent neonate from Oman. Extensive wound contamination and a favorable environment for the growth of Mucorales were the predisposing factors. Early aggressive management including frequent wound debridement, targeted pharmacotherapy with liposomal amphotericin B and supportive care is pivotal for improved outcomes. mucormycosis, cutaneous mucormycosis, gangrenous necrotizing fascitis, immunocompetent neonate, neonate, Oman INTRODUCTION Mucormycosis is the third most common invasive fungal infection after candidiasis and aspergillosis in all age groups [1]. Gastrointestinal and cutaneous mucormycosis are the most common forms of mucormycosis in neonates [2]. Cutaneous mucormycosis can be life threatening if not diagnosed early, and aggressive treatment not initiated promptly [3]. We describe the first reported case of cutaneous mucormycosis in Oman. CASE REPORT A female neonate, 5–7 days of age, was found abandoned in a remote area in the midst of grass and stones covered by insects and ants. She was rushed to a nearby hospital by the emergency medical services. On arrival, she exuded an offensive body odor, with injuries on the scalp, abdomen and back and was lethargic, severely dehydrated, with hypothermia, bradycardia and bradypnea. After resuscitation and correction of hypoglycemia, she was transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit of Nizwa Hospital, Oman. At admission, she was a term, small for gestational age, critically ill neonate weighing 1950 g. She had 10% dehydration with a doughy feel to the skin, umbilical discharge, a right parieto-occipital hematoma, measuring 5 cm × 6 cm in size and ill-defined abrasions and wounds in the right iliac fossa and the lumbar paraspinal region. The skin over the back was parched with excoriated areas. Her body temperature was 36.5 °C, respiratory rate 36 breaths per minute, heart rate 115 per minute, blood pressure 54/39 mm Hg and oxygen saturation of 92% in room air. Respiratory, cardiovascular, abdominal and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Baseline investigations revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis, hypernatremic dehydration, deranged renal function and thrombocytopenia. Radiological investigations revealed a normal skeletal survey and an unremarkable abdominal ultrasound. Blood gas showed mixed respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Lumbar puncture was not contemplated owing to local infection. A heavy growth of Streptococcus agalactiae was recovered from the scalp abscess, umbilical swab and wound swabs from the loin. Results of serological tests for syphilis, gonorrhea and human immunodeficiency virus and ‘TORCH’ screen were negative. Her initial treatment included gradual correction of hypernatremic dehydration, broad spectrum antibiotics, local care of wounds, drainage of scalp abscess, need-based analgesia and incremental feeds. After 48 h of admission, she developed a brief tonic-clonic seizure, which was attributed to the rapid decrease in serum sodium levels during correction of hypernatremic dehydration. Blood culture revealed no bacterial or fungal growth. After initial improvement, on the fifth day of admission, a blackish discoloration (2 cm × 2 cm) was noted in the left paraspinal area in relation to thoraco-lumbar spine, which was tender without crepitus or discharge. She also developed intermittent fever (up to 39 °C). Neither did ultrasound examination show subcutaneous collection nor did KOH smear reveal fungal elements. She was started on piperacillin-tazobactam, and clindamycin was continued. However, the blackish area continued to enlarge and by seventh day of admission was 4 cm × 5 cm (Fig. 1). The neonate underwent debridement of necrotic skin and subcutaneous tissues. Tissue samples were sent for bacterial and fungal cultures. A whitish cotton like growth was seen on the surface of the debrided area with a black necrotic eschar. Although the initial KOH smear was negative for fungal elements, there was a strong suspicion of mucormycosis. Liposomal amphotericin B (5 mg.kg/day) was added to the ongoing antibiotic regimen. She underwent debridement of the wound thrice with extensive excision of necrotic areas. During the subsequent 3 days, despite aforementioned treatment, there was a relentless worsening of the wound with marked blackening and active erythematous edges (Fig. 2). She developed refractory hypotension and multi-organ failure and died on the 12th day of admission despite intensive care support. A markedly elevated C-reactive protein, progressive hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytopenia were the key laboratory markers of her deterioration. Tissue biopsy revealed typical hyphae of Mucorales with angioinvasion and tissue necrosis suggestive of invasive cutaneous mucormycosis. Fungal cultures revealed growth of Mucorales but no subtyping was possible. Biopsy and culture confirmation reports were available only postmortem. Autopsy could not be conducted owing to local customs and absence of valid consent. Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide Cutaneous mucormycosis with blackened area and pinkish red margins. Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide Cutaneous mucormycosis with blackened area and pinkish red margins. Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide ‘Hairy Pus’ with black necrotic eschar. Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide ‘Hairy Pus’ with black necrotic eschar. DISCUSSION Mucormycosis is an emerging, aggressive, rapidly progressive opportunistic infection caused by environmental fungi of the order Mucorales, family Mucoraceae, and class Zygomycetes [4]. Cutaneous mucormycosis is the third most common form of mucormycosis after rhino-orbito-cerebral and pulmonary forms in all age groups although it is the most common form seen in children [4]. In a review of 78 cases of cutaneous mucormycosis in all age groups, Skiada and Petrikoss (2009) reported that 28% were children and 10% were infants [5]. Prematurity, low birth weight, corticosteroid therapy, broad spectrum antibiotic usage and local trauma to the skin are the most common predisposing factors [6]. There are few published reports in the English literature on cutaneous mucormycosis in neonates [2, 6–9]. Clinical manifestations of cutaneous mucormycosis are variable, often resembling ecthyma gangrenosum or superficial granulomatous pyoderma [10]. The diagnosis may be confused to be polymicrobial infections, especially because gram negative bacteria may co-exist. In most cases of cutaneous mucormycosis, there is a central blackened necrotic eschar, surrounded by pinkish purple soft tissue induration. In open wounds, mucormycosis has a cottony bread mold appearance, a clinical sign known as ‘hairy pus’ [11]. On failure of early recognition, the lesion can progress to invade subcutaneous tissues, fasciae, muscles, tendons or bones leading to mucormycotic gangrenous cellulitis or aggressive necrotizing fasciitis, with a high mortality, as in our case [1]. Depending on the severity, cutaneous mucormycosis is classified as localized, deep or disseminated [12]. Two salient features of cutaneous mucormycosis are that it often occurs in immunocompetent hosts as in our case; and the fungi Apophysomyces and Saskenea are the most common species involved [1, 11, 12]. Trauma is a major trigger of cutaneous mucormycosis (posttraumatic cutaneous mucormycosis [PTM]) [13]. Trauma could be trivial such as insect or spider bites, scorpion stings, pecking by birds, animal bites or scratches, or major such as road traffic accidents, burns, crush injuries and injuries during natural disasters [13, 14]. During trauma, implantation of fungal spores from contaminated soil occurs into damaged skin or open wound. Extensive tissue damage and poor tissue viability of soil-contaminated wounds promote acidosis and local immunosuppression, which enhance the pathogenicity of Mucorales. Bacterial co-infections should make clinicians suspect mucormycosis because it generally indicates a massive soiled contamination. Lelievre et al. [13] studied 122 cases of PTM. They reported that symptoms occurred at a mean age of 9.5 days after trauma, with necrosis and bacterial co-infection found in 76.2% and 41% of the cases, respectively; most patients did not present any underlying condition. Interestingly, they found that 19% of the cases occurred in the Middle East or in India. Absidia corymbifera and Apophysomyces elegans were the leading pathogens (21.1% and 31.7%, respectively) in their series [13]. Nosocomial cutaneous mucormycosis occurs as a sequelae of iatrogenic trauma owing to intravenous (IV) access sites or long lines, adhesive tapes, Elastoplast bandages, occlusive dressings, burns, postoperative wounds and environmental contamination at construction sites of hospital expansion projects [15]. An outbreak of cutaneous infection with Rhizopus microsporus in a nursery was reported in preterm infants in association with the use of wooden tongue depressors as splints for IV and arterial cannulation sites [16]. Recently, an outbreak of cutaneous mucormycosis in a pediatric hospital was attributed to contaminated hospital linens [17]. The gold standard for confirmation of diagnosis of mucormycosis is histopathological examination of the tissues, which typically shows broad, hyaline, ribbon like, pauciseptate, irregular fungal hyphae with right angle branching, accompanied by tissue necrosis and angioinvasion, which is mandatory to establish the diagnosis. Detection of typical hyphae on KOH-smeared scrapings on direct microscopy helps in preliminary diagnosis. All Mucorales grow rapidly on Sabouraud dextrose agar [18]. However, cultures may be negative or, when positive, could represent wound contamination and not true infection. Fungal elements can be stained with Gomori methenamine-silver, Periodic acid-Schiff or calcofluor-white stains. Management of cutaneous mucormycosis includes surgical debridement, prompt antifungal therapy and supportive therapy, including control of any underlying illness. At the first suspicion of cutaneous mucormycosis, broad-spectrum antifungal therapy with liposomal amphotericin should be initiated without waiting for tissue culture/biopsy results [2]. Debridement should be performed early, and repeated if progression continues unabated till all necrotic tissue is removed. Amputation may be required in cases of extensive cutaneous infection over extremities [19]. Split skin grafting is required once the lesion is fully healed, usually by the tumescent technique in neonates [20]. Posaconazole and caspofungin are suitable antifungal alternatives in selected cases [21, 22]. Negative pressure wound therapy is helpful [23]. The newer add-on therapies such as hyperbaric oxygen, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and oral iron chelating agents hold promise for management of refractory mucormycosis [24]. The mortality of cutaneous mucormycosis varies and is 4–10% in localized infection, 26–29% in deep extension and 83–94% in disseminated disease [5, 12]. This case underscores the need for increased awareness of cutaneous mucormycosis among pediatric health-care professionals and early, aggressive intervention to achieve better outcomes. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I thank the staff of the NICU, Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Surgery, Nizwa Hospital who were involved in the clinical management of the neonate. REFERENCES 1 Prabhu RM , Patel R. Mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis: a review of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment . Clin Microbiol Infect 2004 ; 10(Suppl. 1) : 31 – 47 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 2 Roilides E , Zaoutis TE , Walsh TJ. Invasive zygomycosis in neonates and children . Clin Microbiol Infect 2009 ; 15(Suppl. 5) : 50 – 4 . 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02981.x. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 3 Chakrabarti A. Cutaneous zygomycosis: major concerns . Indian J Med Res 2010 ; 131 : 739 – 41 . Google Scholar PubMed 4 Linder N , Keller N , Huri C , et al. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in a premature infant: case report and review of literature . Am J Perinatol 1998 ; 15 : 35 – 8 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-993895 Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 5 Skiada A , Petrikkos G. Cutaneous zygomycosis . Clin Microbiol Infect 2009 ; 15(Suppl. 5) : 41 – 5 . 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02979.x. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 6 Oh D , Notricia D. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in infants and neonates: case report and review of literature . J Pediatr Surg 2002 ; 37 : 1607 – 11 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/jpsu.2002.36193 Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 7 Inoue S , Odaka A , Hashimoto D , et al. Rare case of disseminated neonatal zygomycosis mimicking necrotizing enterocolitis with necrotizing fasciitis . J Pediatr Surg 2011 ; 46 : E29 – 32 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 8 Mirakhur H , Sekhon V , Luthra M. Neonatal cutaneous mucormycosis . J Clin Neonatol 2016 ; 5 : 262 – 4 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS 9 Lowe CD , Sainato RJ , Stagliano DR , et al. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in an extremely preterm infant successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B . Pediatr Dermatol 2017 ; 34 : e116 – 19 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 10 du Plessis PJ , Wentzel LF , Delport SD , van Damme E. Zygomycotic necrotizing cellulitis in a premature infant . Dermatology 1997 ; 195 : 179 – 81 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 11 Bouza E , Muñoz P , Guinea J. Mucormycosis: an emerging disease? Clin Microbiol Infect 2006 ; 12 : 7 – 23 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS 12 Roden MM , Zaoutis TE , Buchanan WL , et al. Epidemiology and outcome of zygomycosis: a review of 929 reported cases . Clin Infect Dis 2005 ; 41 : 634 – 53 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 13 Lelievre L , Garcia-Hermoso D , Abdoul H , et al. Posttraumatic mucormycosis: a nationwide study in France and review of the literature . Medicine 2014 ; 93 : 395 – 404 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 14 Neblett Fanfair R , Benedict K , Bos J , et al. Necrotizing cutaneous mucormycosis after a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, in 2011 . N Engl J Med 2012 ; 367 : 2214 – 25 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 15 Rammaert B , Lanternier F , Zahar JR , et al. Healthcare-associated mucormycosis . Clin Infect Dis 2012 ; 54(Suppl. 1) : S44 – 54 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 16 Mitchell SJ , Gray J , Morgan ME , et al. Nosocomial infection with Rhizopus microsporus in preterm infants: association with wooden tongue depressors . Lancet 1996 ; 348 : 441 – 3 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(96)05059-3 Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 17 Duffy J , Harris J , Gade L , et al. Mucormycosis outbreak associated with hospital linens . Pediatr Infect Dis J 2014 ; 33 : 472 – 6 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 18 Lass-Flöri C. Zygomycosis: conventional laboratory diagnosis . Clin Microbiol Infect 2009 ; 15(Suppl. 5) : 60 – 5 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 19 Scheffler E , Miller GG , Classen DA. Zygomycotic infection of the neonatal upper extremity . J Pediatr Surg 2003 ; 38 : E16 – 17 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 20 Kumar V , Aggarwal A , Taneja R , et al. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis in a premature neonate and its management by tumescent skin grafting . Br J Plast Surg 2005 ; 58 : 852 – 4 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2005.01.005 Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 21 Bulent Ertugrul M , Arikan-Akdagli S. Chapter 23: Mucormycosis. In: Ergonul O , Can F , Akova M , et al. (eds). Emerging Infectious Diseases. Clinical Case Studies . 2014 , 304 – 21 . 22 Van Burik JA , Hare RS , Solomon HF , et al. Posaconazole is effective as salvage therapy in zygomycosis: a retrospective summary of 91 cases . Clin Infect Dis 2006 ; 42 : e61 – 5 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 23 Zahoor B , Kent S , Wall D. Cutaneous mucormycosis secondary to penetrative trauma . Injury 2016 ; 47 : 1383 – 7 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 24 Spellberg B , Edwards J Jr , Ibrahim A. Novel perspectives on mucormycosis: pathophysiology, presentation, and management . Clin Microbiol Rev 2005 ; 18 : 556 – 69 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.18.3.556-569.2005 Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

Journal

Journal of Tropical PediatricsOxford University Press

Published: Dec 15, 2017

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off