Abstract This article presents an analytical study of Tomás Luis de Victoria’s masses. Following the criterion that the definition of mode by a composition’s final (the external view of mode) and the examination and understanding of mode through an entire musical composition (the internal view of tonal structure) can combine and be reconciled to give us a fuller understanding of a composition’s tonal design, I examine external and internal evidence (the former represented by tonal types, and the latter by cadential schemes and melodic structures) in all twenty authenticated masses by Victoria. I also call attention to a significant stylistic change in Victoria’s five polychoral masses. Various aspects of texture, meter, and text setting in these late works point at a shift toward Baroque compositional practices, as do elements of Victoria’s harmonic syntax. Tomás Luis de Victoria (ca. 1548–1611) needs no introduction. His inclusion in the quartet of great composers of sacred vocal polyphony in the second half of the sixteenth century (Palestrina, Victoria, Lassus, and Byrd) is well established.1 And yet studies of his music are notably scarce, particularly from the perspective of tonal structure.2 Such a monumental study of sixteenth-century modality as Bernhard Meier’s The Modes of Sacred Vocal Polyphony includes references to only seven compositions by Victoria, as opposed to one hundred and sixty by Palestrina and three hundred and fourteen by Lassus.3 In his study of Renaissance modality, Frans Wiering discusses five works or collections by Palestrina, but none by Victoria.4 Only recently have scholars focused on aspects of compositional structure in Victoria’s music. Eugene Casjen Cramer and Noel O’Regan, for instance, have analyzed Victoria’s psalm settings; Cramer has, moreover, studied compositional procedures in the Spanish composer’s Passions;5 and Adriano Giardina has investigated organization and style in Victoria’s first book of motets.6 The largest study to date of tonal design in complete genre collections by Victoria is my own recent analysis of tonal structures in his Magnificats, psalms, and motets.7 The present article analyzes tonal structures in his masses. It explores different but related aspects of tonal organization, harmonic syntax, and stylistic elements in these compositions. In the first section, my study will focus on the role of modal structures to support large-scale tonal organization in Victoria’s masses, considered not only individually, but also as a whole. After discussing tonal structures in his twenty authenticated masses, I will call attention to a significant stylistic change in Victoria’s five polychoral masses, whose origins can be traced back to his earlier polychoral compositions. Various aspects of texture, meter, and text setting in these late works (published between 1592 and 1600) point at a shift toward Baroque compositional practice, as do elements of Victoria’s harmonic syntax, notably, descending or ascending circles of fifths in chordal and cadential contexts, harmonic basses, and well-crafted modulations. The controversy regarding various approaches to the analysis of polyphonic modality in the sixteenth century is well known. Harold Powers characterized two seemingly contradictory views, which he referred to as “emic” and “etic,” two terms that originated in anthropology and which Powers borrows from linguistics.8 According to the emic approach, mode is expressed in the context of a complete composition in the form of various musical elements: cadences, imitative schemes, intervallic species, melodic function of the repercussa, use of the psalm tones thematically or as cantus firmi, and so on. These are elements that exist within a particular cultural context (especially the theoretical tradition resulting from the transmission and interpretation of Classical and Byzantine theory, on the one hand, and the ecclesiastical musical tradition, including plainchant modal theory, on the other). The emic approach is thus contextual, both musically and culturally, and has been practiced by scholars who adopt methodologies that have been called “historicist.”9 According to historicist thinking, sixteenth-century theoretical treatises provide a conceptual and technical framework to understand the music of the period.10 Looking at tonal organization in Renaissance vocal polyphony from a different perspective, Siegfried Hermelink remarked that sixteenth-century publishers and printers tended to group compositions in their collections according to three criteria: the signature, the clefs, and the root of the final triad in the composition.11 The signature denotes either a cantus durus system by means of a B♮ (that is, with no accidental in the signature) or a cantus mollis system by means of a B♭ in the signature. The combination of clefs in different voices indicates a lower or higher ambitus or range. Thus, the standard clefs in the CATB combination (chiavi naturali), c1–c3–c4–f4, or low clefs, denote a lower ambitus. The chiavette, g2–c2–c3–f3, or also g2–c2–c3–c4, signify a higher ambitus.12 These three elements combined constitute what Hermelink referred to as a composition’s tonal type.13 Harold Powers adopts Hermelink’s tonal types inasmuch as they can be objectively determined aside from the musical or cultural context of a particular composition.14 Hermelink and Powers represent the etic approach to the study of sixteenth-century polyphony, where tonal structure is defined only by a few characteristics observable aside from the contextual or internal details of a composition. Citing evidence found in numerous Renaissance treatises, moreover, Frans Wiering proposes two views of the modes, which he calls “internal” and “external.” The internal view is based on an examination and understanding of mode through an entire musical composition, particularly through a study of melodic modal species and cadential structures. The external view, on the other hand, defines mode by a composition’s final.15 The relationship between modes and tonal types is complex. I will limit my commentary to the eight traditional modes, given that Victoria uses the eight-mode system. With two signature systems (durus and mollis), two clef combinations, and six possible finals (C, D, E, F, G, and A), there are twenty-four possible tonal types for the eight modes. Mode and tonal type are not the same. A tonal type can represent more than one mode, and a mode may be represented by more than one tonal type. Example 1 presents the most common tonal types used to express each of the eight modes. The tonal type in boldface, the first on the list in each mode, is the most characteristic one to represent that particular mode. But the other types are also possible. Note, for instance, that the most characteristic tonal type to represent mode 1, ♭–g2–G, does not represent mode 2. And vice versa, the tonal type ♭–c1–G normally represents mode 2 but not mode 1. In the case of modes 3 and 4, however, both modes can be equally represented by tonal type ♮–c1–E. For modes 5 and 6 we should note that tonal type ♭–g2–F is characteristic of mode 5, and tonal type ♭–c1–F is characteristic of mode 6, although on occasion the latter may also represent mode 5. EXAMPLE 1. View largeDownload slide Correlation between modes and tonal types EXAMPLE 1. View largeDownload slide Correlation between modes and tonal types Cristle Collins Judd closes a perceptive commentary on the controversy created by the various interpretations of modal theory with the following statement: “That such diversity of understanding should hold sway is hardly surprising in light of the extraordinary wealth of opinion shaping the concept of mode for a cross-section of sixteenth-century society that included priests, schoolboys, singers, composers, theorists, music publishers, humanists, musical amateurs, and patrons.”16 Given not only the impact of mode on so many layers of sixteenth-century society, but also the different definitions of mode and modal elements that we find in Renaissance theorists (Judd’s “wealth of opinion”), how can one approach the analytical study of tonal structures in the music of a composer of sacred vocal polyphony as Victoria? What purpose is served, moreover, with such a study? I will first answer the latter question. The purpose of this study is to shed light onto tonal structure in Victoria’s masses, one of the most beautiful and compelling sacred repertoires in the Renaissance. To achieve this purpose and in answer to the former question, I propose an analytical methodology that brings together, and indeed reconciles, the emic and etic approaches as well as the interior and exterior views of mode. This method will help us understand the complex topic of tonal structure in Victoria’s work by acknowledging both the historical role of mode and the slippery, hence controversial, nature of modal theory, including some of the principles traditionally used in interior analyses of modal polyphony. In some cases we will discover clearly defined tonal structures, while in other cases we will find elements of ambiguity, which create tonal conflicts that we may or may not be able to resolve or clarify. In all cases, we will delve into the wealth and diversity of Victoria’s tonal plans, and we will gain further insight into the workings (or lack thereof) of polyphonic modality. As demonstrated in Roig-Francolí (2013), the internal and external visions, far from being mutually exclusive or contradictory, can combine to give us a fuller understanding of a composition’s tonal structure. In the present study I will indeed examine internal and external evidence in all masses by Victoria. Minimally, the internal vision will include a study of the piece’s cadential structure. The melodic structure of the voices, particularly the cantus, will also provide useful information in some cases.17 For cadential structures in polyphonic compositions, I will follow criteria advocated by four of Victoria’s major contemporaneous theorists: Gallus Dressler (1563), Tomás de Santa María (1565), Pietro Pontio (1588), and Francisco de Montanos (1592), all of whom adopted the traditional eight-mode system, as did Victoria.18 Modal cadential structures in polyphonic compositions as prescribed by these four theorists are shown chronologically in Example 2, where the final of each mode is indicated in boldface, the confinal is underlined, and the repercussa is shown in italics.19 Although these cadential schemes do not appear to be coincident, a close examination reveals important common traits. Santa María provides the most straightforward prescription of all four: final cadences, which conclude a piece, must be on the final of the mode; internal cadences are on the repercussa.20 Pontio’s schemes are somewhat more elaborate, but we should note that the final and the repercussa are present in each mode as principal cadences. Cadential degrees in Montanos include the final and either the confinal or the repercussa, depending on the mode, as well as some other degrees. Dressler adopts a solution of synthesis by stating a preference for cadences on the final, the confinal, and the repercussa. I will then apply the principle that the cadential degrees that define the mode are mainly the final, the repercussa, and also, although to a lesser extent, the confinal.21 EXAMPLE 2. View largeDownload slide Modal cadences in four sixteenth-century treatises EXAMPLE 2. View largeDownload slide Modal cadences in four sixteenth-century treatises As a general methodological principle, I will thus compare the internal and external evidence in my analyses of Victoria’s masses, as I did with my analysis of his motets. My internal evidence will include cadential schemes and defining melodic elements, particularly exordia. Besides final cadences that conclude compositions, I will also take into account inner cadences that close phrases and sections. In many cases the mode indicated by the cadential scheme and the melodic gestures corroborates the possible mode suggested by the tonal type. If external evidence (tonal type) and internal data (cadential structure and defining melodic elements) do not coincide, I will adopt the following criteria: if the tonal type of a composition is unequivocal for one of the two modes of a modal pair, I will give priority to the tonal type upon assigning a mode to that composition, even if the cadential scheme is ambiguous (unless the piece is based on a plainchant cantus firmus, in which case the composition will be assigned the same mode as the plainchant model). If, on the other hand, the tonal type is ambiguous, as in the case of ♭–c1–F (a tonal type that normally represents mode 6, but which we can also find occasionally representing mode 5), I will not classify the motet in one of the two possible modes specifically, but rather will indicate the ambiguity by assigning the composition to an undifferentiated pair of modes, for instance modes 5/6.22 This method takes into account cadential and melodic factors, but ultimately gives priority to the tonal type as a decisive factor. The reason for this is the objective nature of tonal types, which can be determined unequivocally regardless of the compositional details of a particular piece. Cadential and melodic structures, on the other hand, have a more contingent nature, and although they may point clearly at a particular mode, they may also not have such clear modal definition, and hence they are ultimately less reliable than the tonal type in a case of ambiguous structure. VICTORIA’S MASSES Victoria’s twenty authenticated masses were originally included in his musical editions of 1576 (five masses), 1583a (four masses), 1592 (six masses), 1600a (four masses), and 1605 (an edition of a single mass, the Missa pro defunctis a 6).23 Felipe Pedrell’s edition of 1902–1913 is the only complete and reliable modern transcription of the masses (if a work over one century old can be called modern).24Example 3 presents a list of all twenty masses, with references to the models on which they were composed, the tonal characteristics of the models (tonal type and mode), the tonal type of each mass, cadential structures by movement (with internal cadential pitches listed in the order they appear), modal assignment for each mass, and comments clarifying tonal structure, melodic characteristics, or other matters of relevance to tonal structure. Masses in this list are organized by edition, and follow the order in which they appear in each of the original editions. As shown in Example 3, ten of the masses use material borrowed from Victoria’s own motets, and one borrows from his own psalm setting. Four masses borrow from compositions by other composers (Guerrero, Morales, Palestrina, and Jannequin), and four are based on plainchant sources.25 In general, tonal type and mode between each mass and the composition from which it borrows are coincident. I will consider the remaining mass, the Missa quarti toni, to be the only freely composed mass, although a possible model has been a matter of extended controversy.26 Given the peculiarities of this mass both regarding its possible model and its tonal structure, I will discuss it at length later in this article. A particularly interesting group of masses, the five polychoral masses of Victoria’s later years (masses 15–19 on my list), will also receive close attention, mostly because they display a clear stylistic shift, texturally and tonally, toward some practices that we associate with Baroque styles. EXAMPLE 3. View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Victoria’s Masses EXAMPLE 3. View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Victoria’s Masses THE TONALLY UNAMBIGUOUS MASSES Twelve masses (numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 19, and 20) display unequivocal tonal structures. Three of these, numbers 3, 9, and 20, are multimodal masses based on plainchant, in which each movement follows the mode of the borrowed chant fragment. Let us first examine some of the nine masses that feature modal unity. The tonal type for the Missa Ave maris stella, based on the mode-1 Ave maris stella plainchant hymn (Liber usualis, 1259), is ♭–g2–G, a characteristic mode-1 tonal type. The mass features cadences on multiple degrees, but cadences on G and D predominate, while only two movements, the Gloria and Agnus Dei, include cadences on B♭ (the degree which could create ambiguity with mode 2). Tonal type, cadential structure, and borrowed chant all point at an unambiguous mode-1 structure. Two masses (numbers 4 and 10) display unambiguous mode-2 structures. Mass number 4, the Missa Gaudeamus, and its model, Morales’s Jubilate Deo, share a characteristic mode-2 tonal type, ♭–c1–G, and mode 2 is clearly confirmed by a cadential structure that includes, among other degrees, cadences on G and B♭ (the transposed mode-2 final and repercussa respectively) in each of the movements. As an example of an unambiguous modal structure, Example 4 presents a reduction of the Kyrie II from the Missa Gaudeamus, showing the complete pitch content for the cantus and all cadences. In this type of reduction I use slurs to indicate phrases, stems to mark the structural notes of the mode (final and repercussa), and brackets to signify the structural interval between the final and the repercussa, or repercussio. In the case of Example 4, cadences on D, G, and B♭ denote a characteristic mode-2 cadential structure, confirmed by a G–B♭ exordium (marked by the initial bracket), and by stress on the pitch B♭ and the mode-2 characteristic interval G–B♭ throughout the movement. EXAMPLE 4. View largeDownload slide Cantus and cadences for Missa Gaudeamus, Kyrie II EXAMPLE 4. View largeDownload slide Cantus and cadences for Missa Gaudeamus, Kyrie II A single mass, number 16, Alma redemptoris mater, represents mode 5. The mass borrows from both of Victoria’s motet-settings of the Marian antiphon, from the 1572 and 1581 editions respectively. The tonal type for both of those motets, as well as for the mass, is the characteristic mode-5 type, ♭–g2–F. For the most part, Victoria’s compositions in the tritus modes, 5 and 6, do not show differentiated cadential schemes between the two modes.27 Cadences for mass 16 are no different, with presence of F and C, and several cadences on B♭, besides other degrees, particularly in the Gloria and Credo. Masses 12 and 19 represent mode 6. The first of these, Trahe me post te, based on Victoria’s motet with the same title, displays a tonal type associated with mode 6 with final on C (that is, mode 6 transposed down a fourth), ♮–g2–C, as does the corresponding motet. Besides the usual cadences on final and confinal, C and G, the Credo and a section of the Agnus Dei that uses material borrowed from the motet include cadences on E (the transposed mode-6 repercussa). The exordia of both the Gloria and Sanctus outline the third C–E, the repercussio 6, and the Credo, moreover, features melodic emphasis on the repercussa 6, pitch E. Three of the masses based on plainchant do not feature modal unity among different movements. These multimodal masses are number 3 (De beata Maria Virgine) and numbers 9 and 20, the two Requiems. Mass 3 is based on plainchant Mass IX, In festis B. Mariae Virginis I (Liber usualis, 40–43) and on Credo I (Liber usualis, 64–66).28 Each movement follows the mode of the corresponding paraphrased chant, which in all cases carries a modal assignation. Victoria’s two Requiems, the Missa pro defunctis a 4 of 1583a, and the Missa pro defunctis a 6 of 1605, display remarkable structural similarities, as they are both based on the plainchant Missa pro defunctis (Liber usualis, 1807–15 and the Responsorium on 1767), which is used both as cantus firmus and in paraphrase.29 All movements in both masses closely follow the modal structure of the chant models, except for the Benedictus. The plainchant Sanctus and Benedictus, sung as a single movement, do not carry a modal label, but are clear examples of mode-4 monophony, with a very limited range (G–C, with a single extension down to E), internal cadences on B and G, and a final cadence on A (the mode-4 repercussa, a common mode-4 cadential pitch, although not usually found as a final cadence). To avoid the prominent cadences on B at “Sabaoth” and “excelsis,” Victoria transposes the chant down a tone, and thus his Sanctus, with the tonal type ♮–c1–A in both masses, turns into a mode-1 movement with final cadence on A (the mode-1 confinal and repercussa). The Benedictus, a separate movement in both masses, also features a cantus firmus transposed down a tone, now ending on G instead of the original A. However, by setting it in both masses with a tonal type ♮–c1–G, the movements become mode-8 structures. AUTHENTIC/PLAGAL AMBIGUITY IN protus AND tritus MODES A number of Victoria’s motets presents modal ambiguity between the members of an authentic/plagal pair of modes, in particular the Dorian pair (modes 1 and 2) and the Lydian pair (modes 5 and 6). The usual cases for such ambiguity involve lack of coincidence between internal evidence (cadential structure and melodic patterns) and external evidence (tonal type). Similar ambiguities can be found in the masses. Four masses, numbers 5, 8, 13, and 15, present some type of ambiguity between the protus modes, 1 and 2. Mass 5, Dum complerentur, is based on Victoria’s homonymous motet. Like the motet, this mass features tonal type ♭–g2–G, characteristic of mode 1, but its cadential structure points at mode 2 in three movements that include cadences on B♭ (the Gloria, Credo, and Agnus Dei). Following my practice of giving priority to the tonal type, I have assigned mode 1 to this mass, as I did with the corresponding motet. Exactly the same situation can be found in mass numbers 13 and 15, Ascendens Christus and Salve Regina, respectively, both based on Victoria’s own motets. In both cases, the tonal type is also ♭–g2–G, indicating mode 1, but both masses display cadences on B♭ in a variety of movements, pointing at mode 2. Motivic evidence in these masses does not resolve the ambiguity. In mass 13, the Kyrie, Credo, and Sanctus present simultaneous exordia outlining repercussio 1 (G–D) and 2 (G–B♭) respectively, while the Benedictus begins with a motive outlining repercussio 1. In mass 15, exordia in all movements outline repercussio 1. I have resolved the ambiguity again by following the criterion of giving priority to the tonal type, hence assigning both masses to mode 1. The Missa Surge propera is an exception to this privileging of tonal type, in this case due to particularly unequivocal internal evidence. This mass, number 8 on my list, is based on Palestrina’s Visitation motet with the same title. The tonal type for both motet and mass is a characteristic mode-2 type, ♮–g2–D. The cadences, however, point at mode 1 in each of the movements, with a total absence of cadences on F, the mode-2 repercussa. Furthermore, the exordium of both the motet and each of the mass movements outlines one of most typical mode-1 chant exordia, A–D–F, answered imitatively as D–A–C. The combination of mode-1 cadential structure and mode-1 exordium is sufficient evidence to assign mode 1 to this mass, despite the mode-2 tonal type. Three other masses, numbers 6, 17, and 18, present examples of ambiguity between the tritus modes. The tonal type for all three is the ambiguous ♭–c1–F, and in none of the three masses does cadential structure show sufficient evidence to warrant a mode-6 assignment. All three masses include multiple cadences on B♭, as is normally the case in Victoria’s compositions in tritus modes. Masses 17 and 18, Ave Regina and Pro victoria respectively, the former based on both of Victoria’s 1572 and 1581 Ave Regina motets, and the latter on Jannequin’s chanson “La bataille,” present undifferentiated 5/6 cadential schemes with no indication of mode-6 elements, other than the tonal type common to both modes. Both masses share numerous cadences on B♭, as well as the presence of E♭ as a cadential degree, and of numerous other cadential degrees in the Gloria and Credo movements. Both masses, as well as the three compositions on which they are based (which also feature the ambiguous ♭–c1–F tonal type), are good examples of a lack of distinction between the two modes of the tritus pair. IS THE missa quarti toni IN MODE 4? The Missa quarti toni is the only composition in a deuterus mode among Victoria’s masses. Moreover, it’s the only piece among all of Victoria’s masses and motets that carries an explicit modal label, in its title or otherwise. One would think, then, that its mode-4 assignment is beyond question. Scholars, however, have questioned the differentiation between the pair of Phrygian modes. As mentioned previously, Carl Dahlhaus does not believe in any differentiation between members of any of the authentic-plagal modal pairs; neither does Leeman Perkins.30 Even Bernhard Meier, who argues for differentiation between members of modal pairs based on cadential structure and melodic elements, leaves the Phrygian modes out of this principle, finding no distinction between them.31 I do not believe, however, that the issue of deuterus differentiation can be so easily dismissed. A number of elements can define one of the two modes in a clear way. In particular, mode 3 can be identified by its characteristic stress on the repercussa, C, and on interval E–C, the minor-sixth repercussio. Cadences on E, A, and C define a mode-3 structure (A is the main cadential differentia in the mode-3 psalm tone), and mode-3 melodies often move within the E–C tonal space, with C acting as a frequent upper boundary or focal point. Mode-4 structures, on the other hand, often stress pitch A, the repercussa 4, and interval E–A, the mode-4 structural pitches, both in cadences and in melodic shapes and motives. From an external perspective, however, both modes are most often represented by the same tonal type, ♮–c1–E. Only four of Victoria’s fifty-seven motets are in deuterus modes. One of them, O quam metuendus, with tonal type ♮–c1–A, final cadence on A, and internal cadences on A, D, and E, would be in Aeolian mode if our reference was the twelve-mode system; otherwise it is clearly in mode 4 in the eight-mode system. My analysis of the other three motets, Senex puerum portabat, Santa Maria, and Domine non sum dignus, places each in mode 3. All three feature tonal types of ♮–c1–E, all three end on E cadences, and all three feature internal cadences on E, A, and C. Furthermore, all three display melodic structures that stress pitch C and outline the sixth E–C. A reduction of the cantus of Senex puerum portabat (a motet particularly relevant to my discussion of the Missa quarti toni, as will soon become evident) displays a characteristic mode-3 structure, as shown in Example 5, where I have marked the structural notes E and C, final and repercussa for mode 3, by means of stems, and the minor-sixth melodic movements between E and C with brackets. We can see in Example 5 that the cantus in the first phrase of Senex puerum portabat moves clearly in the tonal space of the minor sixth E4–C5. The complete motet establishes C5 as a melodic focal point. Indeed, C5 is the highest note or upper boundary for most of the phrases of the motet, with the exception of four D5s and the two climactic high E5s in m. 48 (and their repetition in m. 56). The tonal space of the cantus develops mostly within the C4–C5 octave (with the brief upper extensions to D5 and E5 that I have just mentioned), and in several occasions the tonal space outlines the structural sixth E4–C5. All of this indicates a clear mode-3 melodic structure. The cadential scheme annotated under the cantus in Example 5 reveals cadences on A, E, and C. Although there is only one cadence on C, it is formally important and is followed by two measures in C. The cadences on A, E, and C denote a mode-3 cadential design, thus corroborating the mode-3 structure. EXAMPLE 5. View largeDownload slide Cantus and cadences for Senex puerum portabat EXAMPLE 5. View largeDownload slide Cantus and cadences for Senex puerum portabat Let us now return to the Missa quarti toni. In an apparent contradiction, scholars have for decades considered it a free mass while also pointing out a vague connection between this mass and the motet Senex puerum portabat. The same scholars who have noticed this connection have also usually dismissed it as insufficient to warrant inclusion of this mass in the category of parody masses.32 In particular, two scalar passages that close both the Gloria and the Credo (the “Amen” section of both movements) are clearly derived from a similar scalar passage leading to the final cadence of the motet (to the text “ipsum quem genuit adoravit”). This passage was noticed by both Thomas Rive (who considers it an example of contrafactum or verbal substitution, but not of parody) and Michael Noone. Both classify the mass as free.33 Cramer, however, argues strongly that this is a parody/imitation mass modeled after Senex puerum portabat.34 His case is based on some phrase segments from the mass for which he finds possible models in the motet, in particular segments that include a lower-neighbor figure and an ascending or descending perfect fourth. I consider these motivic relationships too tenuous to justify the use of the term “parody” to refer to this mass. In the first place, neighbor-note and perfect-fourth figures are commonplace in sixteenth-century sacred polyphony. Moreover, several of Cramer’s model passages do not come from the beginning of the motet, nor from the beginnings of major sections, but rather from internal melodic fragments, as shown in Example 6. EXAMPLE 6. View largeDownload slide Some thematic connections between the Missa quarti toni and Senex puerum portabat, according to Cramer EXAMPLE 6. View largeDownload slide Some thematic connections between the Missa quarti toni and Senex puerum portabat, according to Cramer According to Cramer, the beginning of the Christe in the mass is derived from the alto in mm. 43–44 of the motet (to the syllable “man” of “per-man-sit”). These two passages are shown in Example 6(a). The beginning of Kyrie II, Cramer also tells us, is modeled after the cantus motive in mm. 18–20 of the motet (“semen regebat”), as shown in Example 6(b). And the beginning of the Gloria, according to Cramer, is based on the bass motive in mm. 45–47 of the motet (“ipsum quem genuit”), itself a variation on the cantus motive in mm. 11–14, as illustrated in Example 6(c). This cantus motive is in fact a slight transformation of the opening subject of the motet, shown in Example 6(d). Perhaps one of the most plausible motivic relationships noted by Cramer is the “Jesu Christe” subject from the Gloria (mm. 26–28), shown in Example 6(e), which extends the similarity with the motet’s opening subject beyond the initial neighbor-note figure. I do not deny the motivic relationships pointed out by Cramer in the passages shown in Example 6, particularly if we think of them as Cramer’s own interpretive analysis. I do not even deny the possibility that Victoria may have had in mind some thematic material from the deuterus motet as he was composing this deuterus mass. However, I do not find the connections compelling enough, notwithstanding the Gloria’s “Jesu Christe” subject, to justify the claim that this is indeed a parody mass modeled after Senex puerum portabat without getting too close to falling into the trap of intentional fallacy. Examples 6(a) and (b), based on a double neighbor figure and a filled-in ascending perfect fourth respectively, are both generic motivic types that can be found throughout sixteenth-century music literature. Moreover, the supposed motet models for these fragments are located in spots with no particular thematic or imitative significance. The relationship between the fragments shown in Example 6(c), as well as between the Gloria theme in Example 6(c) and the motet’s opening subject in Example 6(d), is particularly weak, as are some other connections illustrated by Cramer in his discussion. I will thus consider this mass to be a free mass.35 The question then remains: is the Missa quarti toni really in mode 4? The tonal type is the usual ♮–c1–E for deuterus modes, common to both modes 3 and 4. The internal evidence does not reveal an unambiguous mode-4 structure. The Gloria includes a structurally prominent C cadence (m. 63), the Credo presents four cadences on C (mm. 12, 63, 70, and 114), at least one of which, at m. 12, is structurally significant, and the Sanctus includes one in m. 34. The mass’s exordia are characteristic and significant, albeit also ambiguous. The opening subject of the Kyrie outlines the mode-3 repercussio (R3) unequivocally, as shown in Example 7(a). The opening of both the Christe and the Kyrie II present the mode-4 repercussio (R4) also unequivocally, as seen in Examples 7(b) and 7(c). The Gloria equally outlines R4 at the very outset (Ex. 7[d]), and the Credo opens with a subject that contains both R4 and R3 (Ex. 7[e]). Both the Sanctus and Benedictus feature R4 exordia (Ex. 7[f]), while the Agnus Dei returns to an exordium with a clear R3 outline (Ex. 7[g]), leading to a cadence on C resolved deceptively. EXAMPLE 7. View largeDownload slide Missa quarti toni, exordia for all movements EXAMPLE 7. View largeDownload slide Missa quarti toni, exordia for all movements What should we make, then, of this structure along with Victoria’s title for this mass? I do not believe this is a straightforward example of a mode-4 composition, given the prominent mode-3 elements present throughout the mass: cadences on C and the clear thematic use of R3, particularly in the Kyrie’s exordium that opens the whole mass. At best, I consider this to be an ambiguous mode 3/4 structure. As I pointed out earlier, none of the four deuterus motets by Victoria feature modal ambiguity (and none of them carry an explicit modal label). But given the cases of authentic/plagal ambiguity in many of Victoria’s works in protus and tritus modes, it should not come as a surprise that at least one deuterus piece should also display such ambiguity, particularly given the opinion of scholars like Meier on the ambiguous nature of deuterus modes with respect to authentic/plagal distinction. So why does Victoria call it Quarti toni? One could speculate—daring to tiptoe briefly into the minefield of intentional fallacy—that perhaps Victoria thought of deuterus modes as a structural whole, and that signaling this mass as “fourth tone” rather than “third tone” was arbitrary, and what was really meant was “deuterus tone.” I have previously demonstrated my view that Senex puerum portabat is in mode 3, not mode 4. Without providing any reason or justification for it, Cramer states that the motet is in mode 4, which would be an apparent condition to model a mass titled Quarti toni on this motet.36 While the fact that the motet displays a mode-3 structure could be seen as further evidence against a direct relationship between the Missa quarti toni and Senex puerum portabat, I do not think this is even an issue: it is perfectly plausible that Victoria would not have hesitated to borrow material from a deuterus motet for a deuterus mass had he wanted to do so, regardless of the specific mode we may assign to each of them. VICTORIA’S POLYCHORAL MASSES: TOWARD BAROQUE CHORAL AESTHETICS The Roman tradition of polychoral composition was developed by Palestrina and Victoria over the latter decades of the sixteenth century.37 Daniele Filippi has recently noted Victoria’s contribution not only to the Roman tradition, but also to the flourishing of Spanish polychorality in the seventeenth century.38 Indeed, while Victoria composed his earliest polychoral work, the Ave Maria a 8 of 1572, in Rome (where he resided from 1565 until he moved to Madrid around 1587), his major collection of polychoral compositions appeared thirteen years later in the Madrid 1600 edition, Missae, Magnificat, motecta, psalmi et alia quam plurima, quae partim octonis, alia nonis, alia duodenis vocibus concinuntur. Polychoral compositions by Victoria besides the Ave Maria a 8 include the eight-voice motets Salve Regina (1576), Regina cœli (1576), Alma redemptoris mater (1581a), Ave regina cœlorum (1581a), and O Ildephonsi (1600a), seven of the eight published psalm settings (1576, 1581a, 1583b, and 1600a), two Magnificats (1600a), and three sequences (1585b and 1600). The Missa Salve Regina of 1592 was the first of five polychoral masses by Victoria, followed in the 1600a edition by the masses Alma redemptoris, Ave Regina, Pro victoria, and Laetatus sum. The first four of the polychoral masses are for two choruses and organ, while the Missa Laetatus sum is for three choruses and organ. The five polychoral masses deserve attention in their own right, because they confirm in several ways a stylistic shift toward practices which had already begun in Victoria’s earlier polychoral compositions listed above, which we normally associate with Baroque compositional styles. One mass in particular, the Missa pro victoria, illustrates and summarizes the progressive compositional trends we find in Victoria’s music from the later years of the sixteenth century.39 As can be expected from polychoral works, all five masses feature antiphonal dialogue of the choruses in concertato style. Sections clearly in concertato style in the Missa pro victoria, for instance, include the Qui tollis of the Gloria, followed by a Qui sedes ad dexteram patris section in quick alternation of choruses. This mass, moreover, includes multiple examples of an unusual type of text setting (for Victoria and Palestrina) that we have come to associate with Monteverdi’s stile concitato: the quick uttering of words in a syllabic style where syllables are assigned to short note values. For instance, the word “de-pre-ca-ti-o-nem” in the “suscipe deprecationem nostram” section of the Gloria is set to quick, repeated, staccato fusas (eighth notes in a 1:1 scale of reduction), each carrying a syllable, as shown in Example 8(a). Among the many other instances of eighth notes carrying syllables in this mass are the words “et invisibilium,” “et in unum Dominum,” “consubstantialem,” “et iterum venturus est cum gloria” (Example 8[b]), and “resurrectionem” in the Credo, as well as “dona nobis pacem” in the Agnus Dei (Example 8[c]). While staccato repeated notes in this “victory mass” echo the similar trumpet-call figures in its model, Jannequin’s battle song “La bataille,” they also prefigure Monteverdi’s stile concitato, which can also represent the agitation of war. Perhaps this battle-like agitation in concitato style can best be appreciated in Victoria’s setting of Kyrie II in this mass, where both choruses alternate a trumpet-like Kyrie figure of eighth notes in quick succession seventeen times through the eight measures that comprise the section. EXAMPLE 8. View largeDownload slide Missa pro victoria, three examples of text setting with strings of syllables assigned to fusas EXAMPLE 8. View largeDownload slide Missa pro victoria, three examples of text setting with strings of syllables assigned to fusas Victoria’s use of frequent changes in texture, meter, and tempo in his polychoral masses is equally indicative of a stylistic change prefiguring Baroque compositional practice. For example, we find as many as thirteen textural or metric changes in the Credo of the Missa pro victoria, summarized in Example 9. On this list I use the term “concitato” to refer to sections featuring quick repeated fusas (eighth notes) in syllabic style. Tempo changes are effected by changing from a slower ₵ meter to a faster 23 meter, or by switching note values within the same meter (from long values to short values in concitato style, or vice versa). EXAMPLE 9. View largeDownload slide Missa pro victoria, Credo, metric/textural sections EXAMPLE 9. View largeDownload slide Missa pro victoria, Credo, metric/textural sections HARMONIC BASSES IN VICTORIA’S POLYCHORAL MASSES Perhaps the most significant aspect of Victoria’s stylistic change in his polychoral masses, and also the most indicative of a changing tonal and harmonic conception pointing at seventeenth-century compositional practice, is his frequent use of descending and ascending circles of fifths, whether as bass lines in a contrapuntal context, as surface chordal progressions, or as large-scale cadential schemes. Although one can find occasional circle-of-fifths chordal progressions or successions of cadences in the motets, psalm settings, and earlier masses, these tonal constructs become a standard feature of Victoria’s harmonic language in his late masses.40 They point at the presence of a harmonic bass that supports fifth-related root-position triads, one of the defining principles of chordal progression in harmonic tonality. Example 10 presents a list of circle-of-fifths segments that I have found in Victoria’s masses. Only one of them, in Dum complerentur’s Credo (1576), predates the 1592 edition. Within the latter edition, I have identified only one circle-of-fifths passage in a mass for a single chorus, in the Sanctus of the Missa quarti toni. The list shows clearly the larger number of circle-of-fifth segments (a total of twenty-two) that can be found in the five polychoral masses. Finally, the Missa pro defunctis of 1605, written for a single chorus in a more traditional contrapuntal style than the polychoral masses, contains eight passages based on circle-of-fifths segments. EXAMPLE 10. View largeDownload slide Circle-of-fifths passages in Victoria’s masses EXAMPLE 10. View largeDownload slide Circle-of-fifths passages in Victoria’s masses Victoria’s circles appear in both descending and ascending forms and feature bass sequences of the type usually associated with circles of fifths. For the most part, however, these circles do not feature melodic sequences in one or more of the upper voices. In some cases, the circle of fifths involves successive chords, creating a surface progression. In other cases, the circle of fifths involves successive cadences (separated by other chords), creating a chain-of-fifths relationship at a deeper level. Both of the passages in Dum complerentur and Quarti toni respectively consist of bass-note circles of fifths in a contrapuntal context, ascending in the former (E♭–B♭–F–C–G–D) and descending in the latter (E–A–D–G–C–F, with a repeat of the E–A–D–G segment after an inserted D). These two passages are reproduced in Example 11. In both of them we can observe the circle-of-fifths sequential pattern in the bass, as well as the lack of any sequential pattern in the rest of the voices. EXAMPLE 11. View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Two circle-of-fifths passages in the Dum complerentur and Quarti toni masses, respectively EXAMPLE 11. View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Two circle-of-fifths passages in the Dum complerentur and Quarti toni masses, respectively The circle-of-fifths passages in the first polychoral mass, Salve Regina, deserve careful attention, given the variety of musical structures to which they are applied. In the first place, the complete Kyrie II is based on a descending circle of fifths consisting of cadential pitches. Example 12(a) reproduces the bass lines for both chorus I and chorus II, with cadences indicated under the lower staff. After the initial G and D harmonies, we hear a circle-of-fifths cadential pattern, (D)–G–C–F–B♭–E♭, before the closing G tonal area is established. In modern harmonic terms, this is a succession of key areas in which each of the respective dominants is itself preceded by a secondary V6 chord. Example 12(a) also shows that the cadences create an extended hemiola pattern: the numbers between staves indicate that cadences through the circle-of-fifths segment are three tactus apart. A second passage based on a circle of fifths takes place in the “Tu solus Dominus” section of the Gloria, an antiphonal passage of brief phrases in which alternating choruses spell out the cadential pattern D–G–C–F–B♭. The Credo at “Et unam sanctam,” shown in Example 12(b), also features a cadential pattern by descending steps, G–F–E♭ which, along with the intervening dominant chord before each cadential degree, results in the circle of fifths D G (C–B♮–C) F (B♭–A–B♭) E♭. Notice here also that each cadential dominant is preceded by its own secondary V6 chord. The Credo’s “confiteor” section, shown in reduced form in Example 12(c), is again based on a descending circle of cadences (indicated in boldface in the following listing), immediately followed by an ascending circle of chords leading to the cadence on G (indicated in italics): D–G–C–F–B♭–F–C–G–D–G. Finally, the Sanctus features a passage of chords in ascending fifths, B♭–F–C–G–D, at “Dominus Deus Sabaoth.” EXAMPLE 12. View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Three circles of fifths in the Missa Salve Regina EXAMPLE 12. View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Three circles of fifths in the Missa Salve Regina The Kyrie II in the Missa Ave Regina, shown in reduction in Example 13(a), is based on an ascending circle of cadences (F–C–G–D) that generates a sequential bass dialogue between the two choruses, followed by a descending circle of chords leading to a final cadence on F (D–G–C–F–B♭–F–C–F). This same succession of cadences by ascending fifths followed by chords by descending fifths is found again at the “miserere nobis” of this mass’s Agnus Dei. Example 13(b) shows one of two circle-of-fifths passages in the Missa pro victoria, a seven-chord succession of chords in descending fifths, A–D–G–C–F–B♭–E♭ at the Credo’s “confiteor” section, represented here by the organ part for this passage. This passage in descending fifths is immediately followed by a quick succession of chords in a pattern of ascending fifths, E♭–B♭–F–C–G, leading to the cadence on C that closes the section. Among the many passages based on circle-of-fifths segments in the Missa Laetatus sum, two are worth mentioning. The “Et vitam venturi” of the Credo is based on the ascending chordal circle (F)–B♭–F–C–G–D immediately reversed into the descending chordal circle D–G–C–F–B♭–(F–C–F). Similarly, an ascending succession of fifth-related chords (shown in italics in the following list) is reversed into a descending succession (shown in boldface) at “Dominus Deus Sabaoth” in the Sanctus, and this passage is immediately followed by another ascending circle (again in italics) at “et terra gloria tua”: F–C–G–D–G–C–F–B♭–F–C–G–D–A–D, for a total of fourteen fifth-related chords in succession. The organ part for this latter passage is reproduced in Example 13(c). EXAMPLE 13 View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Three circle-of-fifths passages in the Ave Regina, Pro victoria, and Laetatus sum masses, respectively EXAMPLE 13 View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Three circle-of-fifths passages in the Ave Regina, Pro victoria, and Laetatus sum masses, respectively The examples above indicate a trend in some movements of Victoria’s polychoral masses toward harmonic compositional processes. Further evidence of this trend can be found in the organ accompaniments written by the composer for each movement in question. The bass in the sacred polyphonic music of the Renaissance was traditionally a melodic line with the same intervallic characteristics as the other voices: motion mostly by steps and thirds, with possible but not frequent larger leaps, including perfect fourths, perfect fifths, and occasional octaves and ascending minor sixths. The presence of a harmonic bass in a composition—that is, a bass with frequent leaps of a perfect fourth or fifth supporting triadic sonorities—denotes a switch from dyadic, contrapuntal thinking to triadic, harmonic thinking. While the bass in dyadic composition was subservient to the discant-tenor structural duet, Benito Rivera has demonstrated that, beginning in the late fifteenth century, there is a trend in some repertoires and treatises toward the emancipation of the bass, which begins to act as the foundation for root-position triads. This tendency would eventually lead to the harmonically conceived textures of the Baroque, which indeed presupposed a free and independent bass supporting vertical sonorities, and to the treble-bass structural duet of continuo textures.41 The emergence of a harmonic bass and of a vertical, chordal practice during the Renaissance is particularly evident in treatises dealing with instrumental composition and improvisation, such as Diego Ortiz’s Tratado de glosas (1553), which focuses on improvisational techniques for viol, and Santa Maríás Arte de tañer fantasía (1565), which teaches improvisation for keyboard instruments.42 Both Ortiz and Santa María feature textures with clearly independent, harmonically motivated basses, although none of their harmonizations include circle-of-fifths progressions. Ortiz presents numerous examples of improvisation on ground basses, and Santa María devotes a large section of his treatise to the technique of “playing in consonances,” a technique of chordal improvisation in which a treble is harmonized with a bass, and then this outer-voice structural duet is filled in with vertical sonorities called “consonances” (used here as a synonym for the modern term “chord”), which are defined by the intervals counted from the bass upwards.43 As an organist, Victoria would have received the kind of training in improvisation and instrumental composition represented in these well-known treatises, and he presumably would have been familiar with the chordal techniques explained in detail by Santa María. TONAL SHIFTS AS HARMONIC EVENTS IN THE POLYCHORAL MASSES Modal commixture, understood as either the simultaneous presentation of elements characteristic of two different modes or as the shift from one mode to another, is a common occurrence in sixteenth-century polyphonic music.44 Some of the tonal changes in Victoria’s polychoral masses, however, include a clear motion between two established tonal centers, and their sound is that of standard harmonic modulations rather than of modal commixtures. Tonal centers in Victoria’s polychoral masses are modal centers, not centers in a major/minor tonal context (although in some cases there is no difference between certain modes and certain major/minor keys). Nonetheless, they are still centers and the shift between them is effected harmonically and triadically, in such a way that is aurally transparent. Moreover, in these masses Victoria often indulges in quick successions of such tonal shifts with each tonal area defined by a cadence on the new tonal center. It should be noted that these types of tonal shifts are local harmonic events that do not affect the aforementioned large-scale modal structures. Consider, for instance, three such modulatory processes in the Missa pro victoria, shown in a reduced format in Example 14. Example 14(a) reproduces the organ part for a section at the beginning of the Gloria, at “Benedicimus te.” The passage begins in F (mode 5/6); an F center has been established in a clear cadence two measures previously. We hear a succession of tonal centers established by cadences on D (minor) at “Gratias,” B♭ (major) at “tibi,” and C (Mixolydian) at “tuam.” The complete process is chordal and triadic. Without intending to imply that Victoria would have thought in terms of major/minor tonal functions, which of course he would not, we can still use Roman numerals as a tool to identify and label triads within a tonal area. This allows us to see that the harmonic process from F to D at “Glorificamus” uses what in modern times we call a pivot chord: the B♭ triad is IV in F and VI in D; it leads to a cadence in D Dorian/D minor. The B♭ triad is again used as a pivot chord at “agimus”: VI in D and I in B♭ major; B♭ major is immediately established by a cadence at “tibi.” Finally, the same B♭ triad at “gloriam” leads to a cadence on C Mixolydian (“tuam”); thus it can be read as I in B♭ and ♭VII (a modal degree to be sure) in C. In Example 14(b), from the Credo at “Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum,” we move from an F tonal center (modes 5/6 or F major, established with two successive V–I progressions) to a G center (G minor, in this case established with a clear clausula vera figure also featuring a 5^– 1^ motion in the bass) through the introduction of the E♭ in the cantus, ♭ 6^ in G (at the syllable “sum” of “Jesum”), which creates a 56 cadential sonority very characteristic of Victoria’s music. This tonal shift is immediately followed by another modulation to B♭ major (at “unigenitum”), and in this case we can interpret the C-minor triad on E♭ at the syllable “ge” as iv6 in G minor and ii6 in B♭ major. Finally, the passage reproduced in Example 14(c) (which shows only the organ part), from the Sanctus of the Missa pro victoria, beginning at “Pleni sunt cœli,” features a quick succession of tonal centers, beginning with F to G Dorian, which becomes G major at the resolution (“gloria tua”), followed by a clear shift from G to C Mixolydian. Each of these tonal shifts can be interpreted as a pivot-chord modulation. After the cadence on F at “terra,” the B♭ triad at “gloria” can be heard as IV in F and III in G; following the cadence on G major at “tua,” the C-major triad at “gloria” can be heard as IV in G major and I in C, leading to the cadence on C Mixolydian that closes the passage. Of course Victoria would not have thought of these harmonic processes in such terms. My claim is that these examples show a conceptual shift in Victoria’s late masses from a linearly conceived modal counterpoint to a vertical, chordal, and triadic understanding of harmonic structure, although both styles coexist in these late works. They also indicate an awareness of tonal centers that are established through cadences and of the harmonic processes that effect shifts between tonal centers. These practices move away from the traditional compositional techniques of Renaissance sacred polyphony and foreshadow the tonal harmonic syntax of the Baroque. EXAMPLE 14. View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Harmonic modulations in the Missa pro victoria EXAMPLE 14. View largeDownload slide View largeDownload slide Harmonic modulations in the Missa pro victoria CONCLUSIONS Victoria’s twenty masses are a microcosm of compositional practices in Renaissance sacred music. They include numerous examples of parody, paraphrase, and cantus firmus borrowed from chant. From a tonal point of view, the present study of the masses is based on the observation and comparison of both external and internal data, the former represented by tonal types, and the latter by cadential schemes and melodic structures, particularly as found in motivic exordia and on borrowed cantus firmi. This approach brings together and reconciles the etic and emic approaches to the analysis of Renaissance music. Nine of the masses (numbers 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 19) present unequivocal single-mode tonal structures in modes 1, 2, 5, 6, and 8. Three masses (numbers 3, 9, and 20), including the two Requiems, are multimodal, with each movement following the mode of the respective plainchant model used as cantus firmus. Four masses present ambiguous protus structures that preclude a clear assignment to either mode 1 or 2, and three more masses present a similar ambiguity between modes 5 and 6. Finally, one mass, the Missa quarti toni, features structural ambiguity between modes 3 and 4, despite its apparently unambiguous title. The second part of the article has focused on the strong stylistic shift unfolding in Victoria’s polychoral compositions and culminating in the five polychoral masses published in the 1592 and 1600a editions. Besides discussing textural, tempo, metric, and text-setting elements that point at Baroque compositional practices, the study of harmonic syntax in these masses (focused on the use of circle-of-fifths structures both for chordal progressions and for successions of cadences, the use of harmonic basses, and the presence of modulating processes between tonal centers) indicates a change toward a vertical, chordal conception of harmony, and further toward a harmonic syntax based on chordal progression, the establishment of tonal centers, and smooth shifts between tonal centers by means of harmonic processes we associate with tonal modulation. Victoria’s masses thus embody the change of stylistic landscapes between the Renaissance and the Baroque, and represent a bridge between these two stylistic periods. Footnotes 1 See, for instance, Brown (1976, Chapter 11), Perkins (1999, Chapter 24), and Atlas (1998, Chapter 37). 2 The seminal and pioneering work of Robert Stevenson (1961) gives us an overview of Victoria’s oeuvre, a general introduction to his style, and a valuable comparative study of stylistic features between Palestrina’s and Victoria’s music. 3 Meier (1988). 4 Wiering (2001). 5 Cramer (2001) and O’Regan (2013). There are also various analytical passages in Filippi (2008a). 6 Giardina (2009) and (2010). 7 Roig-Francolí (2013). Other articles dealing with aspects of design and structure in Victoria’s music in the same 2013 collection of essays include Filippi (2013) and Griffiths (2013). 8 Powers (1981, 435–36). 9 See Christensen (1993). 10 Bernhard Meier’s study of polyphonic modality, as well as Leeman Perkins’s analysis of Josquin’s masses, Jeffrey Dean’s discussion of modality in Ockeghem, and my own analyses of Cabezón’s tientos are some examples of scholarship based to some extent on historicist premises. See Meier (1988); Perkins (1973); Dean (1996); and Roig-Francolí (1994) and (2000). 11 Hermelink (1960). 12 A third combination of clefs, less frequent than the other two, indicates an even lower ambitus: c2–c4–f3–f5 (also possible as c2–c3–c4–f4). 13 We indicate a tonal type by means of a symbol that includes the minimal necessary information on the three elements that constitute it: the system (durus or mollis), the combination of clefs, and the final note. Thus, the tonal type ♭–g2–G signifies cantus mollis (♭), chiavette (g2–c2–c3–f3/c4, a combination that we summarize with the cantus clef g2), and final on G. The tonal type ♮–c1–E indicates cantus durus, standard clefs (c1–c3–c4–f4, summarized as c1), and final on E. 14 Powers (1992). See also Powers (1982). A critical view of tonal types can be found in Mangani and Sabaino (2008). 15 Wiering (1998, 88–94; and 2001, 69). 16 Judd (2002, 402). 17 Zarlino is clear on the role of the cadential scheme in determining the mode of a composition: “When we have to judge a composition, then we shall have to examine it carefully from beginning to end and see in what form it is composed, whether in the form of the first, second, or any other mode. This we can do by keeping an eye on the cadences, which throw a great light on this matter. In this way we shall be able to judge in what mode the composition is written.” Zarlino (1983, 90). According to Tomás de Santa María, we need to examine two elements in order to determine the mode of a composition: the “sequence of the solfa” (sequencia de la solfa) and the cadences (cláusulas). The “sequence of the solfa” refers to the melodic species of fifth and fourth characteristic of each mode, that is, to the succession of tones and semitones within the fifth and the fourth that define the modal octave, which Santa María presents in the form of hexachordal solmization. See Santa María (1972, fol. I:62r). Santa María designates the cantus as the most important voice from a modal point of view: “Be advised that the species of the fifth and fourth as well as the cadences of all the eight modes are realized mainly by the treble, and thus we can best know all modes through the treble than through any of the other voices.” (“Téngase aviso que las sequencias del diapente y diatessaron, y cláusulas de todos los ocho tonos, se hazen principalmente con el tiple, y assí todos los tonos se conoscen más por el tiple que por ninguna de las otras vozes,” Santa María, fol I:70r, my translation). As noted by Stevenson, Victoria also shows preference for placing cantus firmi, when he uses them, in the upper voice, the cantus, thus giving structural priority to this voice instead of the tenor. See Stevenson (1961, 431). 18 Dressler (1914–15); Santa María (1972, fol. I:66v); Pontio (1959, 94–120); Montanos (1592). 19 The modal confinal is always the pitch a perfect fifth above the final. The repercussa is the pitch used as the reciting tone in psalms and Magnificats. I will also use the term repercussio to refer to the interval formed by the final and the repercussa. For a detailed explanation of the terms repercussa and repercussio, see Meier (1988, 39–41). 20 Santa María (1972, fol. I:66v). Santa María uses the term “mediant” (mediación) to refer to the psalm-tone recitation pitch or repercussa. 21 The similarities in the modal cadential schemes as presented by these four theorists are even more striking when we consider the geographical and functional disparities between their treatises. Although all four are practical treatises on counterpoint and composition, Santa Maríás Arte de tañer fantasía focuses only on instrumental composition and improvisation, as opposed to the other three treatises, which are devoted to vocal sacred polyphony. Santa María and Montanos wrote and published their works in Spain, while Dressler lived and worked in his native Germany, and Pontio did so in Northern Italy. 22 The problem of differentiation between an authentic mode and its corresponding plagal pair in polyphonic music has been the center of a long controversy. According to Meier, there is a difference between an authentic and a plagal mode (determined mainly by the range of the tenor, normally duplicated by the cantus an octave higher, and confirmed by cadential schemes and melodic structure), with the only exception of modes 3 and 4, which Meier considers identical. Carl Dahlhaus has strongly contested Meier’s opinion and has proposed that modal pairs formed by an authentic mode and its corresponding plagal constitute an undifferentiated whole, or Gesamtmodus. Dahlhaus notes that the ambitus of the tenor does not always correspond with the mode of a composition, and that, moreover, the structural role of the tenor in the sixteenth century is weakened by imitative textures in which all voices have an equal status. Similarly, Leeman Perkins does not distinguish between authentic and plagal modes, but instead classifies Josquin’s masses in the form of undifferentiated pairs of modes. Powers proposes that there is a difference between an authentic mode and its corresponding plagal, but the elements that determine this difference are not those noted by Meier (ambitus of the tenor, cadences, and melodic structure), but rather the general register or range of all voices, indicated by the tonal type. Thus, for instance, tonal type ♭–g2–G, which normally represents mode 1, denotes a general ambitus higher than tonal type ♭–c1–G, which normally represents mode 2. See Meier (1988, Chapter 3), Dahlhaus (1990, 246), Perkins (1973, 199), and Powers (1981, 442–52). 23 In my references to the original editions of Victoria’s music I use the classification found in Cramer (1998). The original editions containing Victoria’s masses are Victoria (1576), (1583), (1592), (1600), and (1605). 24 Victoria (1902–1913). All examples in this article are borrowed from Pedrell’s edition. A recent practical edition of the masses edited by Moreno Menegazzo includes only masses in four and five voices and is not a reliable critical edition for scholarly purposes. See Victoria (2004 and 2005). The same applies to a recent online practical edition of Victoria’s complete works by Nancho Álvarez, available at https://www.uma.es/victoria/partituras.html. The project of a new critical edition of Victoria’s complete works in twelve volumes by Higinio Anglés was truncated after the publication of only four volumes, which include eight of the masses (Victoria 1965–68). A new, truly modern critical edition of Victoria’s complete works is a long-overdue project, particularly for Spanish musicology. 25 Parody and borrowing techniques in Victoria’s masses have been studied at length. See Stevenson (1961, 373–418), Rive (1969), Brill (1995), and Cramer (2001). 26 See Cramer (2001, 265–71). 27 Following standard historical practice going back to medieval modal theory, I use the terms protus, deuterus, tritus, and tetrardus to refer to the pairs of authentic/plagal modes that share the same final: modes 1‒2, 3‒4, 5‒6, and 7‒8 respectively. We should note here that, among the four pairs of modes, the members of the tetrardus pair, modes 7 and 8, normally display the clearest interior differentiation when it comes to cadential degrees. A characteristic mode-7 structure will feature cadences on G and D, while pieces in mode 8 have major cadences on G and C, or possibly G, C and D. See modes 7 and 8 in Ex. 2 above. 28 While I use Arabic numerals to refer to Victoria’s masses, I retain the Roman numerals used in the Liber Usualis to refer to plainchant masses. 29 Other than their use of the same plainchant sources, the only other direct relationship between the two Requiems in the form of shared material is the verse “Tremens factus sum ego” from the closing “Libera me” Responsorium, literally borrowed in the 1605 Requiem from the 1583a version. See Filippi (2008a, 174). 30 See note 22 above. 31 Meier (1988, 165–70). 32 “The Missa quarti toni incorporates some material from Victoria’s motet Senex puerum portabat but, if it is to be regarded as a parody Mass at all, may be termed only a very free one.” Reese (1959, 608). See also Stevenson (1961, 398–99) and Rubio (1983, 204). 33 Rive (1969, 135) and Noone (1978, 30–31). 34 Cramer (2001, 265−71). 35 Among recent Victoria scholars, Giardina and Weisenfeld adopt Cramer’s view without questioning it, while Filippi takes a neutral (if ambiguous and noncommital) position by labeling this mass “libera/parodia.” See Giardina (2010, 31), Weisenfeld (2013, 100), and Filippi (2008a, 120). 36 Giardina also labels the motet as mode 4 without any analysis or demonstration. In a display of uncritical circular reasoning, he justifies the label by referring to the title of the Missa quarti toni, which to him is sufficient to warrant a mode-4 label for the motet on which the mass is supposedly based. (2010, 31). 37 Seminal studies of polychorality in the Roman school include Dixon (1979) and O’Regan (1988). For recent discussions of Victoria’s polychoral style, see Filippi (2008b) and (2012). 38 Filippi (2012, 242). It should be noted, though, that Victoria’s contribution to polychorality in Spain would have built on an already existing Spanish polychoral tradition, which José López-Calo attributes to the influence of Philippe Rogier (ca. 1560–1596) on late-sixteenth-century Spanish composers. Rogier, a prolific Flemish composer whose work includes much polychoral music, developed his career in Madrid, first as singer and later as chapelmaster of Philip II’s Flemish Chapel. Spanish composers who continued the polychoral tradition after Victoria include Juan Bautista Comes (ca. 1582–1643), Sebastián López de Velasco (1584–1659), Carlos Patiño (1600–1675), Sebastián Durón (1660–1716), and Francisco Valls (ca. 1665–1747), among many others. See López-Calo (1983, 25–36). 39 Victoria’s stylistic shift has not gone unnoticed among Renaissance scholars. Thus, Reese writes, referring to the Missa pro victoria: “The Mass is in the baroque style that was taking form in Venice” (1959, 608). Similarly, Brown states: “The Missa pro victoria (… ) is exceptional (… ) in its exploration of a concertante style with many repeated notes and short time-values, more characteristic of the virtuoso northern Italian musicians (even then in the process of forging a new Baroque style) than of the sober Roman circle of composers around Palestrina” (1976, 321). Stevenson makes the following comparison in reference to Victoria’s masses: “All these many stylistic changes to be seen in Victoria’s masses set him apart from the conservative Palestrina, and ally him, rather, with the progressives of the late sixteenth century” (1961, 379). Finally, Rubio writes: “In the last years of his life (Victoria) was one of the most significant and representative practitioners of the already more than tentative Baroque style” (1983, 197, my translation). 40 In particular, we find examples of circle-of-fifth segments in some of the motets and psalm settings that Victoria used as models for his masses. Thus, a motet as early as Dum complerentur (1572) includes two circle-of-fifths segments (both descending, D–G–C–F–B♭) at “erant omnes pariter dicentes” and “vehementis et replevit totam domum.” The 1576 Salve Regina a 8 includes two circles, a descending A–D–G–C–F–B♭ at “o clemens,” and an ascending E♭–B♭–F–C–G–D at “dulcis Virgo Maria.” Further, the twelve-voice psalm Laetatus sum (1583a) includes a prominent circle of cadences, B♭–F–C–G–D, at “ad confitendum nomini Domini.” 41 See Rivera (1979). Referring to late-fifteenth- and early-sixteenth-century treatises and musical practice, Rivera writes: “At the same time, the bass is gradually emancipated—in practice and in theory—from the crutch of the discant-tenor structure. The treatises give reason to believe that the eventual primacy of the bass in the early sixteenth century brought with it the ability to imply triadic harmonies even within the context of two-voice compositions” (1979, 81). 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Music Theory Spectrum – Oxford University Press
Published: May 3, 2018
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