Finding stable habitable zones

Finding stable habitable zones NAM 2018 NEWS FROM NAM was not accompanied by a CME. “With sporadic outbursts of hard Simulations explain magnetic hotspots X-rays,” said Guenther, “our work NEUTRON STARS Magnetic hot- suggests planets around the com- spots on neutron stars that persist monest low-mass stars are not for millions of years can arise great places for life.” from “knots” in magnetic e fi ld https://bit.ly/2rfECKL lines that develop early in the lifetime of the stars. Simulations Lack of phosphorous indicate that the spots – which may be a problem could be just a few km across – can have e fi ld strengths of more EXOBIOLOGY A potential problem than 10 billion Tesla. Konstantinos for the emergence of life on Gourgouliatos (Durham Univer- other planets may lie in the sity) and Rainer Hollerbach (Uni- supply of phosphorus – one of versity of Leeds) used numerical the CHNOPS elements essential simulations on the ARC super- (Left) A tightly wound-up magnetic field used as initial state in the for life on Earth. Jane Greaves computer at Leeds to model the simulation. (Right) The magnetic field structure after it has become unstable and Phil Cigan (University of evolution of the e fi ld. They found leading to the formation of knots and magnetic spots. Cardiff) have been looking for that the 3D nature of the neutron phosphorus, P, using the William star’s overall magnetic e fi ld mat - star would wind up and entangle light on some unusual pulsar Herschel Telescope on La Palma tered. If most of the energy was in the magnetic e fi ld, making it behaviour, notably in magnetars in the Canary Islands, comparing the dipole component of the e fi ld unstable. The knots that resulted that have dipole magnetic e fi lds abundances of phosphorus and initially, the star ended up with emerge from the star’s surface, that are too weak to produce their iron in infrared spectra in order a relatively simple symmetrical forming spots of intensely strong observed radio outbursts. The to compare their abundances in e fi ld. But if the toroidal e fi ld car- magnetic e fi ld, sometimes 200 research is published in The Astro- supernova remnants. So far the ried more than half the energy, times stronger than the poloi- physical Journal. Cardiff team has data from two variable spin speeds within the dal e fi ld. The simulations shed http://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.01338.pdf supernova remnants: Cassio- peia A and the Crab Nebula. The autonomous spacecraft will need Crab data so far show much less Gravitational waves to decide which planets to focus P than Cas A, although difc fi ult from galactic centres on and researchers from the observing conditions limited the BLACK HOLES Gravitational wave Centre for Robotics and Neural data that they have been able to detections carry information Systems at Plymouth University collect on the nebula; they plan that can reveal how some binary have made a start on the systems to go back and check. The nature black holes systems form. Joseph that will be needed. Christopher of the supernova and its precur- Fernandez (Liverpool John Bishop described an artic fi ial sor star may affect the elements Moores University) presented neural network that they have produced and ejected in the simulations of close encounters trained to classify planets, based explosion; Cas A resulted from between binaries and black on v fi e rocky solar system bodies the explosion of a rare super- holes like that at the centre of with atmospheres: Earth today, massive star. our galaxy. Most of the time the early Earth, Mars, Venus and http://bit.ly/2rd4mbA tidal effects simply disrupted Titan. The team has trained the the binary systems. But some system using more than 100 spec- 4000 early galaxies in encounters gave them radically tra and indicators of habitability. 3D universe survey different orbits, that would lead https://bit.ly/2HIFWAM them to merge much sooner than EARLY UNIVERSE A team led by Across the universe otherwise. The simulations pro- David Sobral (University of Finding stable with The Beatles duce negative effective spins, in Lancaster) has mapped galaxies habitable zones OUTREACH Everybody knows the which the black holes are orbiting in the early universe, between links between The Beatles and Liv- in the opposite direction to their EXOPLANETS Many of the 11 and 13 billion years ago. The erpool – but what about their links initial cong fi uration. “Negative exoplanets discovered in the team used data from the Subaru with astronomy? Viviana Ambrosi effective spins are smoking-gun habitable zone of their star orbit Telescope in Hawaii and the Isaac knows all about them and spoke at signs that the binary in question red dwarfs, small cool stars with Newton Telescope in the Canary the meeting about using the con- originated from a dynamical for- habitable zones at much smaller Islands and found almost 4000 nections for outreach. Her book, La mation channel, like the one we radii than our Sun. This could be early galaxies, mostly small, typi- Scienza dei Beatles, documents both have described,” said Fernandez. a problem for their habitability, cally one-thirtieth of the size of astronomical discoveries inspired “If you can characterize what according to a study led by Eike the Milky Way. “These early gal- by the band and research that their distribution of effective spins a Guenther (Thüringian Obser- axies seem to have gone through success funded. There are asteroids mechanism would generate, and vatory, Germany), because red many more ‘bursts’ when they named after the group, a diamond the rate at which your mecha- dwarfs can produce X-ray emis- formed stars, instead of forming star called Lucy – what else – and nism can produce mergers, you sions and coronal mass ejections them at a relatively steady rate NASA’s Lucy mission. The lads from can obtain an expected effective (CMEs). Guenther and collabora- like our own galaxy,” said Sobral. Liverpool also contributed to a spin distribution and compare it tors are monitoring low-mass “Additionally, they seem to have Nobel Prize: their record company, with observations.” stars such as AD Leo, which has a a population of young stars that EMI, used the prot fi s from their http://bit.ly/2rbQmPe giant planet in an orbit of radius is hotter, bluer and more metal- White Album to fund research, of 0.02 au. In February 2018, they poor than those we see today.” including Godfrey Hounse fi ld’s observed a giant a fl re from the The team published its data in Classifying exoplanets work on X-rays, which led to the star; initial results suggest the two papers in Monthly Notices of with neural networks invention of the CT scanner. giant planet was unaffected, the Royal Astronomical Society. http://bit.ly/2FvRHVA AI One day, humans will send and that unlike similar events https://bit.ly/2HH2Sk7 spacecraft to exoplanets. Those on the Sun, the radiation a fl re https://bit.ly/2HJDZUP 3.10 A&G • June 2018 • Vol. 59 • aandg.org Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/astrogeo/article-abstract/59/3/3.10/4995427 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 20 June 2018 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Astronomy & Geophysics Oxford University Press

Finding stable habitable zones

Astronomy & Geophysics , Volume Advance Article (3) – Jun 1, 2018
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Publisher
The Royal Astronomical Society
Copyright
© 2018 Royal Astronomical Society
ISSN
1366-8781
eISSN
1468-4004
D.O.I.
10.1093/astrogeo/aty137
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Abstract

NAM 2018 NEWS FROM NAM was not accompanied by a CME. “With sporadic outbursts of hard Simulations explain magnetic hotspots X-rays,” said Guenther, “our work NEUTRON STARS Magnetic hot- suggests planets around the com- spots on neutron stars that persist monest low-mass stars are not for millions of years can arise great places for life.” from “knots” in magnetic e fi ld https://bit.ly/2rfECKL lines that develop early in the lifetime of the stars. Simulations Lack of phosphorous indicate that the spots – which may be a problem could be just a few km across – can have e fi ld strengths of more EXOBIOLOGY A potential problem than 10 billion Tesla. Konstantinos for the emergence of life on Gourgouliatos (Durham Univer- other planets may lie in the sity) and Rainer Hollerbach (Uni- supply of phosphorus – one of versity of Leeds) used numerical the CHNOPS elements essential simulations on the ARC super- (Left) A tightly wound-up magnetic field used as initial state in the for life on Earth. Jane Greaves computer at Leeds to model the simulation. (Right) The magnetic field structure after it has become unstable and Phil Cigan (University of evolution of the e fi ld. They found leading to the formation of knots and magnetic spots. Cardiff) have been looking for that the 3D nature of the neutron phosphorus, P, using the William star’s overall magnetic e fi ld mat - star would wind up and entangle light on some unusual pulsar Herschel Telescope on La Palma tered. If most of the energy was in the magnetic e fi ld, making it behaviour, notably in magnetars in the Canary Islands, comparing the dipole component of the e fi ld unstable. The knots that resulted that have dipole magnetic e fi lds abundances of phosphorus and initially, the star ended up with emerge from the star’s surface, that are too weak to produce their iron in infrared spectra in order a relatively simple symmetrical forming spots of intensely strong observed radio outbursts. The to compare their abundances in e fi ld. But if the toroidal e fi ld car- magnetic e fi ld, sometimes 200 research is published in The Astro- supernova remnants. So far the ried more than half the energy, times stronger than the poloi- physical Journal. Cardiff team has data from two variable spin speeds within the dal e fi ld. The simulations shed http://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.01338.pdf supernova remnants: Cassio- peia A and the Crab Nebula. The autonomous spacecraft will need Crab data so far show much less Gravitational waves to decide which planets to focus P than Cas A, although difc fi ult from galactic centres on and researchers from the observing conditions limited the BLACK HOLES Gravitational wave Centre for Robotics and Neural data that they have been able to detections carry information Systems at Plymouth University collect on the nebula; they plan that can reveal how some binary have made a start on the systems to go back and check. The nature black holes systems form. Joseph that will be needed. Christopher of the supernova and its precur- Fernandez (Liverpool John Bishop described an artic fi ial sor star may affect the elements Moores University) presented neural network that they have produced and ejected in the simulations of close encounters trained to classify planets, based explosion; Cas A resulted from between binaries and black on v fi e rocky solar system bodies the explosion of a rare super- holes like that at the centre of with atmospheres: Earth today, massive star. our galaxy. Most of the time the early Earth, Mars, Venus and http://bit.ly/2rd4mbA tidal effects simply disrupted Titan. The team has trained the the binary systems. But some system using more than 100 spec- 4000 early galaxies in encounters gave them radically tra and indicators of habitability. 3D universe survey different orbits, that would lead https://bit.ly/2HIFWAM them to merge much sooner than EARLY UNIVERSE A team led by Across the universe otherwise. The simulations pro- David Sobral (University of Finding stable with The Beatles duce negative effective spins, in Lancaster) has mapped galaxies habitable zones OUTREACH Everybody knows the which the black holes are orbiting in the early universe, between links between The Beatles and Liv- in the opposite direction to their EXOPLANETS Many of the 11 and 13 billion years ago. The erpool – but what about their links initial cong fi uration. “Negative exoplanets discovered in the team used data from the Subaru with astronomy? Viviana Ambrosi effective spins are smoking-gun habitable zone of their star orbit Telescope in Hawaii and the Isaac knows all about them and spoke at signs that the binary in question red dwarfs, small cool stars with Newton Telescope in the Canary the meeting about using the con- originated from a dynamical for- habitable zones at much smaller Islands and found almost 4000 nections for outreach. Her book, La mation channel, like the one we radii than our Sun. This could be early galaxies, mostly small, typi- Scienza dei Beatles, documents both have described,” said Fernandez. a problem for their habitability, cally one-thirtieth of the size of astronomical discoveries inspired “If you can characterize what according to a study led by Eike the Milky Way. “These early gal- by the band and research that their distribution of effective spins a Guenther (Thüringian Obser- axies seem to have gone through success funded. There are asteroids mechanism would generate, and vatory, Germany), because red many more ‘bursts’ when they named after the group, a diamond the rate at which your mecha- dwarfs can produce X-ray emis- formed stars, instead of forming star called Lucy – what else – and nism can produce mergers, you sions and coronal mass ejections them at a relatively steady rate NASA’s Lucy mission. The lads from can obtain an expected effective (CMEs). Guenther and collabora- like our own galaxy,” said Sobral. Liverpool also contributed to a spin distribution and compare it tors are monitoring low-mass “Additionally, they seem to have Nobel Prize: their record company, with observations.” stars such as AD Leo, which has a a population of young stars that EMI, used the prot fi s from their http://bit.ly/2rbQmPe giant planet in an orbit of radius is hotter, bluer and more metal- White Album to fund research, of 0.02 au. In February 2018, they poor than those we see today.” including Godfrey Hounse fi ld’s observed a giant a fl re from the The team published its data in Classifying exoplanets work on X-rays, which led to the star; initial results suggest the two papers in Monthly Notices of with neural networks invention of the CT scanner. giant planet was unaffected, the Royal Astronomical Society. http://bit.ly/2FvRHVA AI One day, humans will send and that unlike similar events https://bit.ly/2HH2Sk7 spacecraft to exoplanets. Those on the Sun, the radiation a fl re https://bit.ly/2HJDZUP 3.10 A&G • June 2018 • Vol. 59 • aandg.org Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/astrogeo/article-abstract/59/3/3.10/4995427 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 20 June 2018

Journal

Astronomy & GeophysicsOxford University Press

Published: Jun 1, 2018

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