Abstract Extensive research has improved our understanding and forecast of the occurrence, evolution, and global impacts of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, ENSO changes as the global climate warms up and it exhibits different characteristics and climate impacts in the 21st century from the 20th century. Climate models project that ENSO will also change in the warming future and have not reached an agreement about the flavor, as for the intensity and the frequency, of future ENSO conditions. This article presents the conventional view of ENSO properties, dynamics, and teleconnections and reviews the emerging understanding of the diversity and associated climate impacts of ENSO. It also reviews the results from investigations into the possible changes in ENSO under the future global warming scenarios. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), diversity, teleconnections, climate impacts, ENSO projection © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of China Science Publishing & Media Ltd. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
National Science Review – Oxford University Press
Published: Apr 17, 2018
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