Efficacy, Immunogenicity, and Safety of a 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Subgroup Analysis of Participants From Asian Countries

Efficacy, Immunogenicity, and Safety of a 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Subgroup... Abstract Background A 9-valent human papillomavirus-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 (9vHPV) vaccine extends coverage to 5 next most common oncogenic types (31/33/45/52/58) in cervical cancer versus quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine. We describe efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety in Asian participants (India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand) from 2 international studies: a randomized, double-blinded, qHPV vaccine-controlled efficacy study (young women aged 16–26 years; NCT00543543; Study 001); and an immunogenicity study (girls and boys aged 9–15 years; NCT00943722; Study 002). Methods Participants (N = 2519) were vaccinated at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Gynecological samples (Study 001 only) and serum were collected for HPV DNA and antibody assessments, respectively. Injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) were monitored. Data were analyzed by country and vaccination group. Results 9vHPV vaccine prevented HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection with 90.4%–100% efficacy across included countries. At month 7, ≥97.9% of participants seroconverted for each HPV type. Injection-site AEs occurred in 77.7%–83.1% and 81.9%–87.5% of qHPV and 9vHPV vaccine recipients in Study 001, respectively, and 62.4%–85.7% of girls/boys in Study 002; most were mild to moderate. Conclusions The 9vHPV vaccine is efficacious, immunogenic, and well tolerated in Asian participants. Data support 9vHPV vaccination programs in Asia. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00543543; NCT00943722. 9vHPV, Asia, cervical cancer, human papillomavirus, vaccine Approximately 280000 new cervical cancers and over 140000 related deaths occur annually in Asia (based on 2012 data [1, 2]). An additional approximately 40000 new annual cases of other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers (vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers) are estimated to affect Asian men and women [2]. Access to cervical cancer screening is highly variable in the region, and interventions for high-grade dysplasia are generally limited [1, 3–5]. Prophylactic HPV vaccination represents a unique opportunity to reduce the burden of HPV-associated disease. Bivalent HPV-16/18 and quadrivalent HPV-6/11/16/18 (qHPV) vaccines introduced over the past decade have potential to prevent the approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases attributable to HPV-16/18, both worldwide and within Asia [6]. The qHPV vaccine also protects against the approximately 90% of genital warts cases associated with HPV-6/11 [7]. Partial and inconsistent cross-protection against phylogenetically related oncogenic HPV types (31/33/45) has been observed for both vaccines in clinical studies [8]; however, its extent, duration, and public health significance remain uncertain [8–11]. The 9-valent HPV (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine (9vHPV vaccine; Gardasil 9, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA) extends coverage to HPV-31/33/45/52/58, which are next most commonly associated with cervical cancer globally [6, 12, 13]. Global epidemiological data indicate that the 9vHPV vaccine has potential to prevent approximately 90% of cervical cancers and HPV-related vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers, 70%–85% of cervical precancerous lesions, and 90% of anogenital warts [7, 14–17]. Based on HPV subtype distribution across Asia, the 9vHPV vaccine may offer even greater cervical cancer protection (approximately 92% of cases) in Asia [6, 17], possibly because of the higher relative contributions of HPV-52 and HPV-58 (see Supplementary Material for more information). In an international phase 2b/3 trial (Study 001 [18, 19]), the 9vHPV vaccine demonstrated 97% efficacy against HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related infection and disease and elicited noninferior antibody responses to HPV-6/11/16/18 compared with the qHPV vaccine in young women 16–26 years of age. In a separate phase 3 trial (Study 002), antibody responses to HPV-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 in girls and boys aged 9–15 years were noninferior to those among young women aged 16–26 years following 9vHPV vaccination, thereby supporting the bridging of efficacy findings with 9vHPV vaccine from young women to girls and boys [20]. These 2 studies included participants from multiple Asian countries (Hong Kong, India, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand), highlighting the regional importance of HPV-related disease in these countries. Given the specific epidemiology of HPV in East Asia (higher prevalence of HPV-52/58; see Supplementary Material for more information), it is of interest to assess the impact of the 9vHPV vaccine on the incidence of persistent infection and cervical cytological abnormalities, disease, and medical procedures related to these 2 HPV types in the subgroup of Asian participants: differences between the Asian subgroup and the overall study population may not be apparent in the overall analyses, as Asian participants represent 12% of the population enrolled in Study 001. Also, few studies have reported the incidence of cervical cytological abnormalities related to HPV-52 and HPV-58 in populations from East Asia. Subpopulation analyses of efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety in Asian participants enrolled in Study 001 and 002 were conducted to better understand the potential impact of the 9vHPV vaccine on reducing the burden of HPV-related infection and disease in the region, and help support public health decisions regarding HPV vaccination programs in Asia. METHODS Study Design and Population Study 001 (Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA Protocol V503-001 [NCT00543543]) [18, 19, 21–23] was a randomized, double-blind, qHPV vaccine-controlled study that evaluated 9vHPV vaccine efficacy in 14215 young women (aged 16–26 years) across 105 sites and 18 countries worldwide, including 25 sites in 5 Asian countries (Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand; N = 1717; Supplementary Table 1). All Asian participants randomized in the efficacy study were included in the subgroup analysis; those who received low or high doses of 9vHPV vaccine during the dose selection phase (69 participants from Taiwan) were not included. Data from participants from Hong Kong and Taiwan were pooled, as these individuals were considered to be part of the same ethnic group (Chinese). Study 002 (Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA Protocol V503-002 [NCT00943722]) [20, 24] assessed immunogenicity and safety of the 9vHPV vaccine in girls and boys (aged 9–15 years) compared with young women (aged 16–26 years) across 72 sites in 17 countries (N = 3074), including 16 sites in 4 Asian countries (India, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand; N = 733; Supplementary Table 1). All randomized girls and boys from these countries were included in the subgroup analysis. Data from girls and boys were pooled within each country. Because only small numbers of women from South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand (20, 20, and 60, respectively) were enrolled in Study 002 (only 1 site enrolled young women in each of these countries) and substantial numbers of young women from these countries had participated in Study 001 (307, 531, and 465, respectively) (Supplementary Table 1), women from Study 001 were used as the comparator. Immunogenicity and safety data for Indian young women who participated in Study 002 are described, because Study 001 did not include this country. Study 002 did not include Japanese participants; a separate immunogenicity and safety study of the 9vHPV vaccine was conducted in a group of 100 Japanese girls (Study V503-008 [NCT01254643]), as reported separately [25]. Studies 001 and 002 were performed in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice and were approved by the appropriate institutional review boards and regulatory agencies. All participants provided written, informed consent before study participation in accordance with local laws and regulations. Vaccination and Follow-up The 9vHPV vaccine (both studies) and qHPV vaccine (control arm of Study 001) were administered as a series of 3 intramuscular doses on day 1 and at months 2 and 6. In Study 001, cervical cytology samples and cervical and external genital swabs for detection of HPV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were collected on day 1 and at months 7, 12, and every 6 months thereafter up to month 54. Participants with cervical cytological abnormalities were referred for colposcopy, based on a protocol-specified algorithm [18, 19, 22]. Tissue samples were adjudicated by a pathology panel and tested for HPV by PCR, as previously described [22, 26, 27]. Serum levels of vaccine HPV-type antibodies were assessed at day 1 and month 7 using a 9-valent competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA) [28]. Antibody titers for each individual HPV type were determined through competition with type-specific monoclonal antibodies, so it is not possible to directly compare assay results across HPV types. Following each vaccination, participants recorded their oral temperature for 5 days and injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) for 15 days on vaccination report cards [29]. AE causality was determined by the study site investigator as previously described [29]. Serious AEs (SAEs) were prespecified as those considered life threatening by the investigator or resulted in death, significant disability or incapacity, or new or prolonged existing hospitalization, or were a congenital anomaly, cancer, or “other important medical event”. Statistical Analyses Efficacy was evaluated in the per-protocol efficacy (PPE) population of Study 001, defined as participants who: (1) were seronegative on day 1 and PCR negative from day 1 through month 7 for the HPV type being analyzed; (2) received all 3 doses of assigned vaccine within 1 year; and (3) had no protocol violations that could interfere with the evaluation of vaccine efficacy, as judged by the study director. Supportive analyses were conducted in the HPV type-specific naïve (HNTS) population, consisting of participants who were seronegative and PCR negative on day 1 for the HPV type being analyzed, received at least 1 dose of the 9vHPV or qHPV vaccine, and had efficacy follow-up after day 1; and in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population, consisting of participants who received at least 1 dose of the 9vHPV or qHPV vaccine and had efficacy follow-up after day 1. Combined incidence of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease (any grade), combined incidence of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical cytological abnormalities, and combined incidence of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection, as well as incidence by HPV type, are presented using incidence rates (cases per 10000 person-years), vaccine efficacy, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Vaccine efficacy was calculated as 100 × (1 − 9vHPV vaccine incidence rate / qHPV vaccine incidence rate). The 95% CI of vaccine efficacy was calculated with the use of a binomial distribution-based exact method [30]. Immunogenicity was assessed in the per-protocol immunogenicity populations from each study, which included participants who: (1) were seronegative on day 1 and (for young women aged 16–26 years) PCR-negative from day 1 through month 7 for the HPV type being analyzed; (2) received all 3 vaccinations within prespecified visit intervals and had available month 7 serology results obtained within a prespecified interval; and (3) had no protocol violations that could interfere with the evaluation of the immune response to vaccine, as judged by the study director. For each HPV type, the geometric mean titer (GMT) and 95% CIs were estimated using an analysis of variance model, with log anti-HPV as the response and vaccination group as the fixed effect. Seroconversion rates and exact 95% CIs for a binomial proportion were also calculated. All of these evaluations were post hoc analyses; therefore, no statistical hypothesis tests were performed. Nonoverlapping 95% CIs were used as indicators of differences of immune response. Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least 1 study vaccination and had follow-up data. AEs, SAEs, and AEs leading to discontinuation were summarized by vaccination group in subgroups of participants defined by country of residence. RESULTS Participants Of the 14215 young women randomized in the efficacy study (Study 001), 1717 (12.0%) were enrolled at sites in Asia. Participant baseline characteristics are shown in Table 1. Japanese participants tended to have more lifetime sexual partners than other Asian participants. Across countries, 31.0%–47.8% of participants were HPV positive at baseline (by serology or PCR), with highest rates in Japan and Thailand (Table 1). Proportions of participants testing positive for HPV by PCR or serology are shown in Supplementary Tables 2 and 3, respectively. Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of Asian Participants (Young Women Aged 16–26 Years) in Study 001 by Country Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 154) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 858) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 153) Thailand (N = 233) Total (N = 859) Age, y  Mean ± SD 23.7 ± 1.9 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.8 22.4 ± 2.7 23.2 ± 2.2 23.8 ± 2.0 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.9 22.0 ± 2.6 23.1 ± 2.3  Median 24.0 23.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 22.0 23.0  Range 19–26 18–26 19–26 16–26 16–26 17–26 18–26 18–26 16–26 16–26 Age at first sexual intercourse, y  Mean ± SD 18.9 ± 2.5 17.7 ± 1.9 20.9 ± 2.2 18.0 ± 2.7 18.8 ± 2.7 19.1 ± 2.3 17.6 ± 1.9 21.2 ± 2.2 17.7 ± 2.2 18.8 ± 2.5 Smoking status, No. (%)  Current smoker 28 (8.1) 31 (24.4) 15 (9.7) 17 (7.3) 91 (10.6) 32 (9.2) 37 (29.1) 14 (9.2) 14 (6.0) 97 (11.3)  Former smoker 15 (4.3) 12 (9.4) 7 (4.5) 16 (6.9) 50 (5.8) 14 (4.0) 12 (9.4) 8 (5.2) 7 (3.0) 41 (4.8)  Never smoked 302 (87.5) 84 (66.1) 130 (84.4) 199 (85.8) 715 (83.3) 299 (86.4) 78 (61.4) 130 (85.0) 212 (91.0) 719 (83.7)  Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) Lifetime sexual partners, No. (%)a  1 143 (41.4) 23 (18.1) 54 (35.1) 121 (52.2) 341 (39.7) 135 (39.0) 21 (16.5) 60 (39.5) 131 (56.2) 347 (40.4)  2 86 (24.9) 15 (11.8) 45 (29.2) 73 (31.5) 219 (25.5) 95 (27.5) 21 (16.5) 29 (19.1) 63 (27.0) 208 (24.2)  3 79 (22.9) 37 (29.1) 24 (15.6) 28 (12.1) 168 (19.6) 72 (20.8) 33 (26.0) 31 (20.4) 26 (11.2) 162 (18.9)  4 30 (8.7) 49 (38.6) 21 (13.6) 10 (4.3) 110 (12.8) 34 (9.8) 42 (33.1) 18 (11.8) 13 (5.6) 107 (12.5)  >4 6 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 7 (0.8) 10 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 13 (1.5) Non-HPV–related cervicovaginal infections or sexually transmitted diseases, No. (%)  Any 15 (4.3) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 29 (12.5) 61 (7.1) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 23 (9.9) 61 (7.1)  Chlamydia 12 (3.5) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 28 (12.1) 57 (6.6) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 22 (9.4) 60 (7.0)  Gonorrhea 4 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4) 5 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Contraceptive use, No. (%)b  Barrier 261 (75.7) 59 (46.5) 64 (41.6) 60 (25.9) 444 (51.7) 259 (74.9) 60 (47.6) 58 (38.4) 70 (30.0) 447 (52.2)  Behavior 100 (29.0) 80 (63.0) 82 (53.2) 15 (6.5) 277 (32.3) 96 (27.7) 73 (57.9) 84 (55.6) 12 (5.2) 265 (31.0)  Hormonal 41 (11.9) 11 (8.7) 5 (3.2) 140 (60.3) 197 (23.0) 40 (11.6) 8 (6.3) 6 (4.0) 143 (61.4) 197 (23.0) Day 1 composite HPV positivity, No./total No. (%)c  Serologic test 88/344 (25.6) 47/127 (37.0) 48/151 (31.8) 99/232 (42.7) 282/854 (33.0) 73/344 (21.2) 31/127 (24.4) 46/149 (30.9) 94/233 (40.3) 244/853 (28.6)  PCR assay 38/331 (11.5) 32/126 (25.4) 23/147 (15.6) 44/229 (19.2) 137/833 (16.4) 35/335 (10.4) 25/123 (20.3) 30/143 (21.0) 42/228 (18.4) 132/829 (15.9)  Serologic test or PCR assay 104/336 (31.0) 58/127 (45.7) 58/148 (39.2) 110/230 (47.8) 330/841 (39.2) 88/335 (26.3) 46/125 (36.8) 56/145 (38.6) 106/231 (45.9) 296/836 (35.4) Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 154) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 858) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 153) Thailand (N = 233) Total (N = 859) Age, y  Mean ± SD 23.7 ± 1.9 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.8 22.4 ± 2.7 23.2 ± 2.2 23.8 ± 2.0 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.9 22.0 ± 2.6 23.1 ± 2.3  Median 24.0 23.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 22.0 23.0  Range 19–26 18–26 19–26 16–26 16–26 17–26 18–26 18–26 16–26 16–26 Age at first sexual intercourse, y  Mean ± SD 18.9 ± 2.5 17.7 ± 1.9 20.9 ± 2.2 18.0 ± 2.7 18.8 ± 2.7 19.1 ± 2.3 17.6 ± 1.9 21.2 ± 2.2 17.7 ± 2.2 18.8 ± 2.5 Smoking status, No. (%)  Current smoker 28 (8.1) 31 (24.4) 15 (9.7) 17 (7.3) 91 (10.6) 32 (9.2) 37 (29.1) 14 (9.2) 14 (6.0) 97 (11.3)  Former smoker 15 (4.3) 12 (9.4) 7 (4.5) 16 (6.9) 50 (5.8) 14 (4.0) 12 (9.4) 8 (5.2) 7 (3.0) 41 (4.8)  Never smoked 302 (87.5) 84 (66.1) 130 (84.4) 199 (85.8) 715 (83.3) 299 (86.4) 78 (61.4) 130 (85.0) 212 (91.0) 719 (83.7)  Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) Lifetime sexual partners, No. (%)a  1 143 (41.4) 23 (18.1) 54 (35.1) 121 (52.2) 341 (39.7) 135 (39.0) 21 (16.5) 60 (39.5) 131 (56.2) 347 (40.4)  2 86 (24.9) 15 (11.8) 45 (29.2) 73 (31.5) 219 (25.5) 95 (27.5) 21 (16.5) 29 (19.1) 63 (27.0) 208 (24.2)  3 79 (22.9) 37 (29.1) 24 (15.6) 28 (12.1) 168 (19.6) 72 (20.8) 33 (26.0) 31 (20.4) 26 (11.2) 162 (18.9)  4 30 (8.7) 49 (38.6) 21 (13.6) 10 (4.3) 110 (12.8) 34 (9.8) 42 (33.1) 18 (11.8) 13 (5.6) 107 (12.5)  >4 6 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 7 (0.8) 10 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 13 (1.5) Non-HPV–related cervicovaginal infections or sexually transmitted diseases, No. (%)  Any 15 (4.3) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 29 (12.5) 61 (7.1) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 23 (9.9) 61 (7.1)  Chlamydia 12 (3.5) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 28 (12.1) 57 (6.6) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 22 (9.4) 60 (7.0)  Gonorrhea 4 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4) 5 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Contraceptive use, No. (%)b  Barrier 261 (75.7) 59 (46.5) 64 (41.6) 60 (25.9) 444 (51.7) 259 (74.9) 60 (47.6) 58 (38.4) 70 (30.0) 447 (52.2)  Behavior 100 (29.0) 80 (63.0) 82 (53.2) 15 (6.5) 277 (32.3) 96 (27.7) 73 (57.9) 84 (55.6) 12 (5.2) 265 (31.0)  Hormonal 41 (11.9) 11 (8.7) 5 (3.2) 140 (60.3) 197 (23.0) 40 (11.6) 8 (6.3) 6 (4.0) 143 (61.4) 197 (23.0) Day 1 composite HPV positivity, No./total No. (%)c  Serologic test 88/344 (25.6) 47/127 (37.0) 48/151 (31.8) 99/232 (42.7) 282/854 (33.0) 73/344 (21.2) 31/127 (24.4) 46/149 (30.9) 94/233 (40.3) 244/853 (28.6)  PCR assay 38/331 (11.5) 32/126 (25.4) 23/147 (15.6) 44/229 (19.2) 137/833 (16.4) 35/335 (10.4) 25/123 (20.3) 30/143 (21.0) 42/228 (18.4) 132/829 (15.9)  Serologic test or PCR assay 104/336 (31.0) 58/127 (45.7) 58/148 (39.2) 110/230 (47.8) 330/841 (39.2) 88/335 (26.3) 46/125 (36.8) 56/145 (38.6) 106/231 (45.9) 296/836 (35.4) Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; SD, standard deviation; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. aThe percentages for the number of lifetime sexual partners were calculated on the basis of the number of participants for whom there were data on sexual history at enrollment. bParticipants may have used more than 1 contraceptive method. A participant is counted once within a category and may be counted in more than 1 category. The percentages for the numbers of participants who used contraceptives were based on the number for whom this information was available. cPositivity was defined as an anti-HPV titer on immunoassay of at least 30, 16, 20, 24, 10, 8, 8, 8, and 8 for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively. The numerator in this category represents the number of HPV-positive participants, and the denominator the total number of participants with assay results that could be evaluated. View Large Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of Asian Participants (Young Women Aged 16–26 Years) in Study 001 by Country Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 154) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 858) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 153) Thailand (N = 233) Total (N = 859) Age, y  Mean ± SD 23.7 ± 1.9 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.8 22.4 ± 2.7 23.2 ± 2.2 23.8 ± 2.0 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.9 22.0 ± 2.6 23.1 ± 2.3  Median 24.0 23.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 22.0 23.0  Range 19–26 18–26 19–26 16–26 16–26 17–26 18–26 18–26 16–26 16–26 Age at first sexual intercourse, y  Mean ± SD 18.9 ± 2.5 17.7 ± 1.9 20.9 ± 2.2 18.0 ± 2.7 18.8 ± 2.7 19.1 ± 2.3 17.6 ± 1.9 21.2 ± 2.2 17.7 ± 2.2 18.8 ± 2.5 Smoking status, No. (%)  Current smoker 28 (8.1) 31 (24.4) 15 (9.7) 17 (7.3) 91 (10.6) 32 (9.2) 37 (29.1) 14 (9.2) 14 (6.0) 97 (11.3)  Former smoker 15 (4.3) 12 (9.4) 7 (4.5) 16 (6.9) 50 (5.8) 14 (4.0) 12 (9.4) 8 (5.2) 7 (3.0) 41 (4.8)  Never smoked 302 (87.5) 84 (66.1) 130 (84.4) 199 (85.8) 715 (83.3) 299 (86.4) 78 (61.4) 130 (85.0) 212 (91.0) 719 (83.7)  Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) Lifetime sexual partners, No. (%)a  1 143 (41.4) 23 (18.1) 54 (35.1) 121 (52.2) 341 (39.7) 135 (39.0) 21 (16.5) 60 (39.5) 131 (56.2) 347 (40.4)  2 86 (24.9) 15 (11.8) 45 (29.2) 73 (31.5) 219 (25.5) 95 (27.5) 21 (16.5) 29 (19.1) 63 (27.0) 208 (24.2)  3 79 (22.9) 37 (29.1) 24 (15.6) 28 (12.1) 168 (19.6) 72 (20.8) 33 (26.0) 31 (20.4) 26 (11.2) 162 (18.9)  4 30 (8.7) 49 (38.6) 21 (13.6) 10 (4.3) 110 (12.8) 34 (9.8) 42 (33.1) 18 (11.8) 13 (5.6) 107 (12.5)  >4 6 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 7 (0.8) 10 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 13 (1.5) Non-HPV–related cervicovaginal infections or sexually transmitted diseases, No. (%)  Any 15 (4.3) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 29 (12.5) 61 (7.1) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 23 (9.9) 61 (7.1)  Chlamydia 12 (3.5) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 28 (12.1) 57 (6.6) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 22 (9.4) 60 (7.0)  Gonorrhea 4 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4) 5 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Contraceptive use, No. (%)b  Barrier 261 (75.7) 59 (46.5) 64 (41.6) 60 (25.9) 444 (51.7) 259 (74.9) 60 (47.6) 58 (38.4) 70 (30.0) 447 (52.2)  Behavior 100 (29.0) 80 (63.0) 82 (53.2) 15 (6.5) 277 (32.3) 96 (27.7) 73 (57.9) 84 (55.6) 12 (5.2) 265 (31.0)  Hormonal 41 (11.9) 11 (8.7) 5 (3.2) 140 (60.3) 197 (23.0) 40 (11.6) 8 (6.3) 6 (4.0) 143 (61.4) 197 (23.0) Day 1 composite HPV positivity, No./total No. (%)c  Serologic test 88/344 (25.6) 47/127 (37.0) 48/151 (31.8) 99/232 (42.7) 282/854 (33.0) 73/344 (21.2) 31/127 (24.4) 46/149 (30.9) 94/233 (40.3) 244/853 (28.6)  PCR assay 38/331 (11.5) 32/126 (25.4) 23/147 (15.6) 44/229 (19.2) 137/833 (16.4) 35/335 (10.4) 25/123 (20.3) 30/143 (21.0) 42/228 (18.4) 132/829 (15.9)  Serologic test or PCR assay 104/336 (31.0) 58/127 (45.7) 58/148 (39.2) 110/230 (47.8) 330/841 (39.2) 88/335 (26.3) 46/125 (36.8) 56/145 (38.6) 106/231 (45.9) 296/836 (35.4) Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 154) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 858) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 153) Thailand (N = 233) Total (N = 859) Age, y  Mean ± SD 23.7 ± 1.9 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.8 22.4 ± 2.7 23.2 ± 2.2 23.8 ± 2.0 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.9 22.0 ± 2.6 23.1 ± 2.3  Median 24.0 23.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 22.0 23.0  Range 19–26 18–26 19–26 16–26 16–26 17–26 18–26 18–26 16–26 16–26 Age at first sexual intercourse, y  Mean ± SD 18.9 ± 2.5 17.7 ± 1.9 20.9 ± 2.2 18.0 ± 2.7 18.8 ± 2.7 19.1 ± 2.3 17.6 ± 1.9 21.2 ± 2.2 17.7 ± 2.2 18.8 ± 2.5 Smoking status, No. (%)  Current smoker 28 (8.1) 31 (24.4) 15 (9.7) 17 (7.3) 91 (10.6) 32 (9.2) 37 (29.1) 14 (9.2) 14 (6.0) 97 (11.3)  Former smoker 15 (4.3) 12 (9.4) 7 (4.5) 16 (6.9) 50 (5.8) 14 (4.0) 12 (9.4) 8 (5.2) 7 (3.0) 41 (4.8)  Never smoked 302 (87.5) 84 (66.1) 130 (84.4) 199 (85.8) 715 (83.3) 299 (86.4) 78 (61.4) 130 (85.0) 212 (91.0) 719 (83.7)  Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) Lifetime sexual partners, No. (%)a  1 143 (41.4) 23 (18.1) 54 (35.1) 121 (52.2) 341 (39.7) 135 (39.0) 21 (16.5) 60 (39.5) 131 (56.2) 347 (40.4)  2 86 (24.9) 15 (11.8) 45 (29.2) 73 (31.5) 219 (25.5) 95 (27.5) 21 (16.5) 29 (19.1) 63 (27.0) 208 (24.2)  3 79 (22.9) 37 (29.1) 24 (15.6) 28 (12.1) 168 (19.6) 72 (20.8) 33 (26.0) 31 (20.4) 26 (11.2) 162 (18.9)  4 30 (8.7) 49 (38.6) 21 (13.6) 10 (4.3) 110 (12.8) 34 (9.8) 42 (33.1) 18 (11.8) 13 (5.6) 107 (12.5)  >4 6 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 7 (0.8) 10 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 13 (1.5) Non-HPV–related cervicovaginal infections or sexually transmitted diseases, No. (%)  Any 15 (4.3) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 29 (12.5) 61 (7.1) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 23 (9.9) 61 (7.1)  Chlamydia 12 (3.5) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 28 (12.1) 57 (6.6) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 22 (9.4) 60 (7.0)  Gonorrhea 4 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4) 5 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Contraceptive use, No. (%)b  Barrier 261 (75.7) 59 (46.5) 64 (41.6) 60 (25.9) 444 (51.7) 259 (74.9) 60 (47.6) 58 (38.4) 70 (30.0) 447 (52.2)  Behavior 100 (29.0) 80 (63.0) 82 (53.2) 15 (6.5) 277 (32.3) 96 (27.7) 73 (57.9) 84 (55.6) 12 (5.2) 265 (31.0)  Hormonal 41 (11.9) 11 (8.7) 5 (3.2) 140 (60.3) 197 (23.0) 40 (11.6) 8 (6.3) 6 (4.0) 143 (61.4) 197 (23.0) Day 1 composite HPV positivity, No./total No. (%)c  Serologic test 88/344 (25.6) 47/127 (37.0) 48/151 (31.8) 99/232 (42.7) 282/854 (33.0) 73/344 (21.2) 31/127 (24.4) 46/149 (30.9) 94/233 (40.3) 244/853 (28.6)  PCR assay 38/331 (11.5) 32/126 (25.4) 23/147 (15.6) 44/229 (19.2) 137/833 (16.4) 35/335 (10.4) 25/123 (20.3) 30/143 (21.0) 42/228 (18.4) 132/829 (15.9)  Serologic test or PCR assay 104/336 (31.0) 58/127 (45.7) 58/148 (39.2) 110/230 (47.8) 330/841 (39.2) 88/335 (26.3) 46/125 (36.8) 56/145 (38.6) 106/231 (45.9) 296/836 (35.4) Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; SD, standard deviation; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. aThe percentages for the number of lifetime sexual partners were calculated on the basis of the number of participants for whom there were data on sexual history at enrollment. bParticipants may have used more than 1 contraceptive method. A participant is counted once within a category and may be counted in more than 1 category. The percentages for the numbers of participants who used contraceptives were based on the number for whom this information was available. cPositivity was defined as an anti-HPV titer on immunoassay of at least 30, 16, 20, 24, 10, 8, 8, 8, and 8 for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively. The numerator in this category represents the number of HPV-positive participants, and the denominator the total number of participants with assay results that could be evaluated. View Large Of the 2604 girls and boys enrolled in Study 002, 608 (23.3%) were enrolled at sites in Asia (423 girls; 185 boys). Participant baseline characteristics are shown in Table 2. Table 2. Baseline Characteristics of Asian Participants (Girls and Boys Aged 9–15 Years) in Study 002 by Country Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Gender, No. (%)  Male 75 (37.5) 40 (31.0) 30 (21.6) 40 (28.6) 185 (30.4)  Female 125 (62.5) 89 (69.0) 109 (78.4) 100 (71.4) 423 (69.6) Age  9–12 y, No. (%) 137 (68.5) 90 (69.8) 87 (62.6) 81 (57.9) 395 (65.0)  13–15 y, No. (%) 63 (31.5) 39 (30.2) 52 (37.4) 59 (42.1) 213 (35.0)  Mean, y ± SD 11.5 ± 1.8 11.6 ± 1.8 11.7 ± 1.9 12.0 ± 1.7 11.7 ± 1.8  Median, y 11.0 12.0 11.0 12.0 12.0  Range, y 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 Weight, kg  Mean ± SD 36.8 ± 9.8 47.2 ± 15.0 44.8 ± 12.6 42.6 ± 12.1 42.1 ± 12.8  Median 36.0 43.9 42.0 42.0 40.0  Range 19.0–72.0 21.5–101.1 24.5–84.0 19.0–93.5 19.0–101.1 BMI, kg/m2  Mean ± SD 17.7 ± 3.0 20.0 ± 4.1 19.2 ± 3.5 18.7 ± 3.8 18.8 ± 3.6  Median 17.4 19.1 18.6 18.1 18.1  Range 10.1–29.8 11.6–35.0 14.0–30.1 12.6–32.0 10.1–35.0 Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Gender, No. (%)  Male 75 (37.5) 40 (31.0) 30 (21.6) 40 (28.6) 185 (30.4)  Female 125 (62.5) 89 (69.0) 109 (78.4) 100 (71.4) 423 (69.6) Age  9–12 y, No. (%) 137 (68.5) 90 (69.8) 87 (62.6) 81 (57.9) 395 (65.0)  13–15 y, No. (%) 63 (31.5) 39 (30.2) 52 (37.4) 59 (42.1) 213 (35.0)  Mean, y ± SD 11.5 ± 1.8 11.6 ± 1.8 11.7 ± 1.9 12.0 ± 1.7 11.7 ± 1.8  Median, y 11.0 12.0 11.0 12.0 12.0  Range, y 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 Weight, kg  Mean ± SD 36.8 ± 9.8 47.2 ± 15.0 44.8 ± 12.6 42.6 ± 12.1 42.1 ± 12.8  Median 36.0 43.9 42.0 42.0 40.0  Range 19.0–72.0 21.5–101.1 24.5–84.0 19.0–93.5 19.0–101.1 BMI, kg/m2  Mean ± SD 17.7 ± 3.0 20.0 ± 4.1 19.2 ± 3.5 18.7 ± 3.8 18.8 ± 3.6  Median 17.4 19.1 18.6 18.1 18.1  Range 10.1–29.8 11.6–35.0 14.0–30.1 12.6–32.0 10.1–35.0 Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; BMI, body mass index; SD, standard deviation. View Large Table 2. Baseline Characteristics of Asian Participants (Girls and Boys Aged 9–15 Years) in Study 002 by Country Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Gender, No. (%)  Male 75 (37.5) 40 (31.0) 30 (21.6) 40 (28.6) 185 (30.4)  Female 125 (62.5) 89 (69.0) 109 (78.4) 100 (71.4) 423 (69.6) Age  9–12 y, No. (%) 137 (68.5) 90 (69.8) 87 (62.6) 81 (57.9) 395 (65.0)  13–15 y, No. (%) 63 (31.5) 39 (30.2) 52 (37.4) 59 (42.1) 213 (35.0)  Mean, y ± SD 11.5 ± 1.8 11.6 ± 1.8 11.7 ± 1.9 12.0 ± 1.7 11.7 ± 1.8  Median, y 11.0 12.0 11.0 12.0 12.0  Range, y 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 Weight, kg  Mean ± SD 36.8 ± 9.8 47.2 ± 15.0 44.8 ± 12.6 42.6 ± 12.1 42.1 ± 12.8  Median 36.0 43.9 42.0 42.0 40.0  Range 19.0–72.0 21.5–101.1 24.5–84.0 19.0–93.5 19.0–101.1 BMI, kg/m2  Mean ± SD 17.7 ± 3.0 20.0 ± 4.1 19.2 ± 3.5 18.7 ± 3.8 18.8 ± 3.6  Median 17.4 19.1 18.6 18.1 18.1  Range 10.1–29.8 11.6–35.0 14.0–30.1 12.6–32.0 10.1–35.0 Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Gender, No. (%)  Male 75 (37.5) 40 (31.0) 30 (21.6) 40 (28.6) 185 (30.4)  Female 125 (62.5) 89 (69.0) 109 (78.4) 100 (71.4) 423 (69.6) Age  9–12 y, No. (%) 137 (68.5) 90 (69.8) 87 (62.6) 81 (57.9) 395 (65.0)  13–15 y, No. (%) 63 (31.5) 39 (30.2) 52 (37.4) 59 (42.1) 213 (35.0)  Mean, y ± SD 11.5 ± 1.8 11.6 ± 1.8 11.7 ± 1.9 12.0 ± 1.7 11.7 ± 1.8  Median, y 11.0 12.0 11.0 12.0 12.0  Range, y 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 Weight, kg  Mean ± SD 36.8 ± 9.8 47.2 ± 15.0 44.8 ± 12.6 42.6 ± 12.1 42.1 ± 12.8  Median 36.0 43.9 42.0 42.0 40.0  Range 19.0–72.0 21.5–101.1 24.5–84.0 19.0–93.5 19.0–101.1 BMI, kg/m2  Mean ± SD 17.7 ± 3.0 20.0 ± 4.1 19.2 ± 3.5 18.7 ± 3.8 18.8 ± 3.6  Median 17.4 19.1 18.6 18.1 18.1  Range 10.1–29.8 11.6–35.0 14.0–30.1 12.6–32.0 10.1–35.0 Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; BMI, body mass index; SD, standard deviation. View Large Efficacy In Study 001, the 9vHPV vaccine prevented HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent (≥6 months) infections in Asian participants with an efficacy of 95.8% (95% CI, 87.8–98.9). Efficacy ranged from 90.4% and 94.9% among participants from Japan and Thailand, respectively, to 100% among participants from Hong Kong/Taiwan and South Korea (Table 3). Efficacy was 91.3% to 100% across the HPV types. In participants who received the qHPV vaccine, HPV-52– and HPV-58–related persistent infections were most frequent in all countries. As seen in Supplementary Table 4, the 9vHPV vaccine demonstrated efficacy against persistent infection related to HPV-52 or HPV-58 among participants from Hong Kong/Taiwan, Japan, and Thailand. No cases of HPV-52/58–related persistent infection were observed in the 9vHPV vaccine group from South Korea. The vaccine also prevented HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent (≥12 months) infections with an efficacy of 93.9% (95% CI, 81.4–98.4) in Asian participants. Table 3. Impact of the 9vHPV Vaccine on the Incidence of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–Related Persistent Infection; Cervical, Vulvar, and Vaginal Disease; Cervical Cytological Abnormalities; and Cervical Medical Procedures in Asian Participants (Young Women Aged 16–26 Years) in the PPE Population in Study 001 by Vaccination Group Endpoint 9vHPV Vaccine (N = 856) qHPV Vaccine (N = 857) Vaccine Efficacy (95% CI)% Cases / n Rate Cases / n Rate HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥6 months durationa 3 / 736 13.1 67 / 739 309.1 95.8 (87.8–98.9)  By country   Hong Kong/Taiwanb 0 / 291 0.0 17 / 300 202.1 100 (78.2–100)   Japan 2 / 112 55.1 20 / 117 575.7 90.4 (62.4–98.4)   South Korea 0 / 124 0.0 11 / 113 354.0 100 (71.2–100)   Thailand 1 / 209 14.5 19 / 209 284.2 94.9 (70.9–99.8)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 7 / 702 32.5 100 (41.0–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 33 / 644 169.0 91.3 (74.5–97.7)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 25 / 685 120.1 100 (86.3–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥12 months durationc 3 / 736 13.1 47 / 739 214.1 93.9 (81.4–98.4)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 5 / 702 23.2 100 (2.5–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 24 / 644 122.0 87.9 (61.1–96.9)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 11 / 685 52.3 100 (66.5–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 7 / 745 29.4 100 (40.0–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 726 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 720 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.2 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 740 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 662 0.0 4 / 650 19.2 100 (−10.1 to 100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 676 0.0 1 / 689 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)  By lesion type   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical disease (any grade) 0 / 738 0.0 7 / 737 30.5 100 (39.7–100)    CIN 1 0 / 738 0.0 6 / 737 26.2 100 (33.0–100)    CIN 2/3, AIS, and cervical cancer 0 / 738 0.0 1 / 737 4.3 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related vulvar and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related ASC-US HR-HPV positive or worse 2 / 731 8.8 25 / 729 111.5 92.1 (71.5–98.7)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 708 0.0 3 / 694 13.9 100 (−68.3 to 100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 703 0.0 3 / 708 13.6 100 (−72.8 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 722 0.0 2 / 717 9.0 100 (−245.6 to 100)   HPV-52–related 1 / 649 4.9 15 / 638 75.6 93.5 (58.4–99.7)   HPV-58–related 1 / 662 4.8 9 / 678 42.8 88.7 (18.8–99.5)  By lesion type   ASC-US HR-HPV positive 1 / 731 4.4 12 / 729 53.0 91.7 (51.5–99.6)   Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion 1 / 731 4.4 19 / 729 84.5 94.8 (70.3–99.7)   High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worsed 0 / 731 0.0 2 / 729 8.8 100 (−247.0 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical biopsy 0 / 750 0.0 15 / 745 63.8 100 (73.4–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 725 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 719 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.5 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 739 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 661 0.0 11 / 650 53.3 100 (67.3–100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 675 0.0 3 / 689 13.7 100 (−74.7 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical definitive therapy 0 / 750 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related external genital procedures 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA Endpoint 9vHPV Vaccine (N = 856) qHPV Vaccine (N = 857) Vaccine Efficacy (95% CI)% Cases / n Rate Cases / n Rate HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥6 months durationa 3 / 736 13.1 67 / 739 309.1 95.8 (87.8–98.9)  By country   Hong Kong/Taiwanb 0 / 291 0.0 17 / 300 202.1 100 (78.2–100)   Japan 2 / 112 55.1 20 / 117 575.7 90.4 (62.4–98.4)   South Korea 0 / 124 0.0 11 / 113 354.0 100 (71.2–100)   Thailand 1 / 209 14.5 19 / 209 284.2 94.9 (70.9–99.8)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 7 / 702 32.5 100 (41.0–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 33 / 644 169.0 91.3 (74.5–97.7)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 25 / 685 120.1 100 (86.3–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥12 months durationc 3 / 736 13.1 47 / 739 214.1 93.9 (81.4–98.4)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 5 / 702 23.2 100 (2.5–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 24 / 644 122.0 87.9 (61.1–96.9)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 11 / 685 52.3 100 (66.5–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 7 / 745 29.4 100 (40.0–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 726 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 720 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.2 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 740 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 662 0.0 4 / 650 19.2 100 (−10.1 to 100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 676 0.0 1 / 689 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)  By lesion type   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical disease (any grade) 0 / 738 0.0 7 / 737 30.5 100 (39.7–100)    CIN 1 0 / 738 0.0 6 / 737 26.2 100 (33.0–100)    CIN 2/3, AIS, and cervical cancer 0 / 738 0.0 1 / 737 4.3 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related vulvar and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related ASC-US HR-HPV positive or worse 2 / 731 8.8 25 / 729 111.5 92.1 (71.5–98.7)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 708 0.0 3 / 694 13.9 100 (−68.3 to 100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 703 0.0 3 / 708 13.6 100 (−72.8 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 722 0.0 2 / 717 9.0 100 (−245.6 to 100)   HPV-52–related 1 / 649 4.9 15 / 638 75.6 93.5 (58.4–99.7)   HPV-58–related 1 / 662 4.8 9 / 678 42.8 88.7 (18.8–99.5)  By lesion type   ASC-US HR-HPV positive 1 / 731 4.4 12 / 729 53.0 91.7 (51.5–99.6)   Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion 1 / 731 4.4 19 / 729 84.5 94.8 (70.3–99.7)   High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worsed 0 / 731 0.0 2 / 729 8.8 100 (−247.0 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical biopsy 0 / 750 0.0 15 / 745 63.8 100 (73.4–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 725 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 719 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.5 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 739 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 661 0.0 11 / 650 53.3 100 (67.3–100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 675 0.0 3 / 689 13.7 100 (−74.7 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical definitive therapy 0 / 750 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related external genital procedures 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA The PPE population consisted of participants who received all 3 doses of vaccine within 1 year, were seronegative at day 1, and had negative results on PCR assays for all HPV types tested from day 1 through month 7 to the vaccine HPV type being analyzed, and had no protocol violations that could interfere with the evaluation of vaccine efficacy as judged by the study director. Participants are counted once in each applicable endpoint category. A participant may appear in more than 1 category. Rate is the estimate of number of cases per 10000 person-years. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; AIS, adenocarcinoma in situ; ASC-US, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; CI, confidence interval; CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; HPV, human papillomavirus; HR, high risk; NA, not available (ie, not calculable); PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PPE, per-protocol efficacy; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. N = number of participants randomized to the respective vaccination group who received at least 1 injection. n = number of participants who have at least 1 follow-up visit after month 7. aA case of persistent infection occurred if a participant, after completion of the month 7 visit, is positive for the same HPV type by the HPV-31/33/45/52/58 PCR assay to at least 1 common gene in 2 or more consecutive cervicovaginal/external genital swab, biopsy, or definitive therapy samples obtained at 2 or more consecutive visits at least 6 months (± 1 month visit windows) apart. bResults for participants from Taiwan only are 0/216 and 13/228 cases in the 9vHPV and qHPV vaccine groups, respectively, representing an efficacy of 100% (95% CI, 71.7–100). cA case of persistent infection occurred if a participant, after completion of the month 7 visit, is positive for the same HPV type by the HPV-31/33/45/52/58 PCR assay to at least 1 common gene in 2 or more consecutive cervicovaginal/external genital swab, biopsy, or definitive therapy samples obtained for over a period of at least 12 months (± 1 month visit windows) apart. dIncludes high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; atypical glandular cells, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. View Large Table 3. Impact of the 9vHPV Vaccine on the Incidence of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–Related Persistent Infection; Cervical, Vulvar, and Vaginal Disease; Cervical Cytological Abnormalities; and Cervical Medical Procedures in Asian Participants (Young Women Aged 16–26 Years) in the PPE Population in Study 001 by Vaccination Group Endpoint 9vHPV Vaccine (N = 856) qHPV Vaccine (N = 857) Vaccine Efficacy (95% CI)% Cases / n Rate Cases / n Rate HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥6 months durationa 3 / 736 13.1 67 / 739 309.1 95.8 (87.8–98.9)  By country   Hong Kong/Taiwanb 0 / 291 0.0 17 / 300 202.1 100 (78.2–100)   Japan 2 / 112 55.1 20 / 117 575.7 90.4 (62.4–98.4)   South Korea 0 / 124 0.0 11 / 113 354.0 100 (71.2–100)   Thailand 1 / 209 14.5 19 / 209 284.2 94.9 (70.9–99.8)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 7 / 702 32.5 100 (41.0–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 33 / 644 169.0 91.3 (74.5–97.7)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 25 / 685 120.1 100 (86.3–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥12 months durationc 3 / 736 13.1 47 / 739 214.1 93.9 (81.4–98.4)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 5 / 702 23.2 100 (2.5–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 24 / 644 122.0 87.9 (61.1–96.9)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 11 / 685 52.3 100 (66.5–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 7 / 745 29.4 100 (40.0–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 726 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 720 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.2 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 740 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 662 0.0 4 / 650 19.2 100 (−10.1 to 100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 676 0.0 1 / 689 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)  By lesion type   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical disease (any grade) 0 / 738 0.0 7 / 737 30.5 100 (39.7–100)    CIN 1 0 / 738 0.0 6 / 737 26.2 100 (33.0–100)    CIN 2/3, AIS, and cervical cancer 0 / 738 0.0 1 / 737 4.3 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related vulvar and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related ASC-US HR-HPV positive or worse 2 / 731 8.8 25 / 729 111.5 92.1 (71.5–98.7)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 708 0.0 3 / 694 13.9 100 (−68.3 to 100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 703 0.0 3 / 708 13.6 100 (−72.8 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 722 0.0 2 / 717 9.0 100 (−245.6 to 100)   HPV-52–related 1 / 649 4.9 15 / 638 75.6 93.5 (58.4–99.7)   HPV-58–related 1 / 662 4.8 9 / 678 42.8 88.7 (18.8–99.5)  By lesion type   ASC-US HR-HPV positive 1 / 731 4.4 12 / 729 53.0 91.7 (51.5–99.6)   Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion 1 / 731 4.4 19 / 729 84.5 94.8 (70.3–99.7)   High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worsed 0 / 731 0.0 2 / 729 8.8 100 (−247.0 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical biopsy 0 / 750 0.0 15 / 745 63.8 100 (73.4–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 725 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 719 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.5 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 739 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 661 0.0 11 / 650 53.3 100 (67.3–100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 675 0.0 3 / 689 13.7 100 (−74.7 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical definitive therapy 0 / 750 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related external genital procedures 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA Endpoint 9vHPV Vaccine (N = 856) qHPV Vaccine (N = 857) Vaccine Efficacy (95% CI)% Cases / n Rate Cases / n Rate HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥6 months durationa 3 / 736 13.1 67 / 739 309.1 95.8 (87.8–98.9)  By country   Hong Kong/Taiwanb 0 / 291 0.0 17 / 300 202.1 100 (78.2–100)   Japan 2 / 112 55.1 20 / 117 575.7 90.4 (62.4–98.4)   South Korea 0 / 124 0.0 11 / 113 354.0 100 (71.2–100)   Thailand 1 / 209 14.5 19 / 209 284.2 94.9 (70.9–99.8)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 7 / 702 32.5 100 (41.0–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 33 / 644 169.0 91.3 (74.5–97.7)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 25 / 685 120.1 100 (86.3–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥12 months durationc 3 / 736 13.1 47 / 739 214.1 93.9 (81.4–98.4)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 5 / 702 23.2 100 (2.5–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 24 / 644 122.0 87.9 (61.1–96.9)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 11 / 685 52.3 100 (66.5–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 7 / 745 29.4 100 (40.0–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 726 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 720 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.2 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 740 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 662 0.0 4 / 650 19.2 100 (−10.1 to 100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 676 0.0 1 / 689 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)  By lesion type   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical disease (any grade) 0 / 738 0.0 7 / 737 30.5 100 (39.7–100)    CIN 1 0 / 738 0.0 6 / 737 26.2 100 (33.0–100)    CIN 2/3, AIS, and cervical cancer 0 / 738 0.0 1 / 737 4.3 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related vulvar and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related ASC-US HR-HPV positive or worse 2 / 731 8.8 25 / 729 111.5 92.1 (71.5–98.7)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 708 0.0 3 / 694 13.9 100 (−68.3 to 100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 703 0.0 3 / 708 13.6 100 (−72.8 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 722 0.0 2 / 717 9.0 100 (−245.6 to 100)   HPV-52–related 1 / 649 4.9 15 / 638 75.6 93.5 (58.4–99.7)   HPV-58–related 1 / 662 4.8 9 / 678 42.8 88.7 (18.8–99.5)  By lesion type   ASC-US HR-HPV positive 1 / 731 4.4 12 / 729 53.0 91.7 (51.5–99.6)   Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion 1 / 731 4.4 19 / 729 84.5 94.8 (70.3–99.7)   High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worsed 0 / 731 0.0 2 / 729 8.8 100 (−247.0 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical biopsy 0 / 750 0.0 15 / 745 63.8 100 (73.4–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 725 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 719 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.5 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 739 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 661 0.0 11 / 650 53.3 100 (67.3–100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 675 0.0 3 / 689 13.7 100 (−74.7 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical definitive therapy 0 / 750 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related external genital procedures 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA The PPE population consisted of participants who received all 3 doses of vaccine within 1 year, were seronegative at day 1, and had negative results on PCR assays for all HPV types tested from day 1 through month 7 to the vaccine HPV type being analyzed, and had no protocol violations that could interfere with the evaluation of vaccine efficacy as judged by the study director. Participants are counted once in each applicable endpoint category. A participant may appear in more than 1 category. Rate is the estimate of number of cases per 10000 person-years. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; AIS, adenocarcinoma in situ; ASC-US, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; CI, confidence interval; CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; HPV, human papillomavirus; HR, high risk; NA, not available (ie, not calculable); PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PPE, per-protocol efficacy; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. N = number of participants randomized to the respective vaccination group who received at least 1 injection. n = number of participants who have at least 1 follow-up visit after month 7. aA case of persistent infection occurred if a participant, after completion of the month 7 visit, is positive for the same HPV type by the HPV-31/33/45/52/58 PCR assay to at least 1 common gene in 2 or more consecutive cervicovaginal/external genital swab, biopsy, or definitive therapy samples obtained at 2 or more consecutive visits at least 6 months (± 1 month visit windows) apart. bResults for participants from Taiwan only are 0/216 and 13/228 cases in the 9vHPV and qHPV vaccine groups, respectively, representing an efficacy of 100% (95% CI, 71.7–100). cA case of persistent infection occurred if a participant, after completion of the month 7 visit, is positive for the same HPV type by the HPV-31/33/45/52/58 PCR assay to at least 1 common gene in 2 or more consecutive cervicovaginal/external genital swab, biopsy, or definitive therapy samples obtained for over a period of at least 12 months (± 1 month visit windows) apart. dIncludes high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; atypical glandular cells, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. View Large No cases of cervical, vulvar, or vaginal disease (any grade) related to HPV-31/33/45/52/58 were detected in the 9vHPV vaccination group, compared with 7 cases of cervical disease (4, 2, and 1 among participants from Hong Kong/Taiwan, Japan, and Thailand, respectively) in the qHPV vaccine group (Table 3). The 9vHPV vaccine reduced the risk of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical cytological abnormalities by 92.1% (95% CI, 71.5–98.7) (Table 3); reduced risk of cervical cytological abnormalities related to HPV-52 or HPV-58 was also demonstrated. The incidence of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical biopsies was reduced by 100% (95% CI, 73.4–100). Supportive analyses in the HNTS population showed reduction of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related infection and disease endpoints (Supplementary Table 4). In the mITT analyses, efficacy was demonstrated in susceptible participants (not infected at baseline for the HPV type being analyzed); in the participants infected at baseline, incidence of infection or disease was similar between the 2 vaccine groups (Supplementary Table 4). In the qHPV vaccine group, incidence of persistent infection increased over time in the PPE, HNTS, and mITT populations. In the 9vHPV vaccine group, the incidence of persistent infection was low in the PPE and HNTS populations and started to plateau after month 24 in the mITT population (Supplementary Figure 1). Immunogenicity Among Asian young women from Study 001, GMTs for anti–HPV-6/11/16/18 at month 7 were generally similar between the qHPV vaccine and 9vHPV vaccine groups within each country (Table 4). Overall, ≥97.9% of participants underwent seroconversion within 1 month after the last 9vHPV vaccination (ie, study month 7) to each of the vaccine types (Table 4). Among young Indian women in Study 002 (Supplementary Table 5), GMTs were similar or higher across HPV types compared with young women in the overall Study 001 population, indicating that HPV antibody responses in young Indian women were sufficient to induce high-level protective efficacy; seroconversion rates at month 7 were 100% for all 9 HPV types (Supplementary Table 5). However, the number of young Indian women enrolled in Study 002 was limited (N = 25). Table 4. Summary of Anti-HPV cLIA GMTs and Seropositivity at Month 7 in Asian Participants (Young Women Aged 16–26 Years) in the PPI Population in Study 001 by Vaccination Group and Country Assay (cLIA) 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Hong Kong and Taiwan N = 313 N = 312 N = 313 N = 312 Anti–HPV-6 229 734.6 (660.0–817.7) 237 718.0 (646.2–797.7) 227 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 235 99.2 (97.0–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 230 496.5 (443.1–556.2) 237 616.5 (551.2–689.5) 229 99.6 (97.6–100) 236 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-16 237 2654.6 (2394.3–2943.1) 245 2579.9 (2330.9–2855.5) 237 100 (98.5–100) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-18 245 790.6 (698.5–894.7) 259 669.4 (593.4–755.0) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) 258 99.6 (97.9–100) Anti–HPV-31 247 607.4 (524.1–703.9) 260 8.5 (7.3–9.8) 245 99.2 (97.1–99.9) 126 48.5 (42.2–54.7) Anti–HPV-33 245 383.5 (339.2–433.6) 260 <4 (<4 to <4) 242 98.8 (96.5–99.7) 29 11.2 (7.6–15.6) Anti–HPV-45 250 234.6 (206.7–266.2) 264 <3 (<3 to <3) 246 98.4 (96.0–99.6) 24 9.1 (5.9–13.2) Anti–HPV-52 231 313.4 (279.0–352.1) 238 <3 (<3 to <3) 229 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 10 4.2 (2.0–7.6) Anti–HPV-58 236 487.2 (429.4–552.8) 257 <4 (<4 to <4) 234 99.2 (97.0, 99.9) 39 15.2 (11.0–20.2) Japan N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 Anti–HPV-6 93 839.7 (696.3–1012.7) 100 621.2 (518.5–744.1) 93 100 (96.1–100) 98 98.0 (93.0–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 93 611.1 (516.4–723.3) 100 607.3 (516.2–714.5) 93 100 (96.1–100) 100 100 (96.4–100) Anti–HPV-16 96 2672.7 (2269.6–3147.3) 103 2223.4 (1898.7–2603.5) 96 100 (96.2–100) 103 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-18 99 688.7 (563.3–842.0) 109 471.9 (389.6–571.5) 99 100 (96.3–100) 106 97.2 (92.2–99.4) Anti–HPV-31 104 672.3 (552.4–818.2) 109 5.9 (4.9–7.2) 104 100 (96.5–100) 37 33.9 (25.1–43.6) Anti–HPV-33 109 398.3 (344.8–460.2) 111 <4 (<4 to <4) 109 100 (96.7–100) 11 9.9 (5.1–17.0) Anti–HPV-45 111 258.5 (224.8–297.3) 111 <3 (<3 to <3) 111 100 (96.7–100) 6 5.4 (2.0–11.4) Anti–HPV-52 98 306.3 (267.5–350.7) 96 <3 (<3 to <3) 98 100 (96.3–100) 4 4.2 (1.1–10.3) Anti–HPV-58 95 459.6 (399.9–528.3) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 95 100 (96.2–100) 12 12.1 (6.4–20.2) South Korea N = 152 N = 151 N = 152 N = 151 Anti–HPV-6 94 820.1 (684.3–982.8) 88 801.9 (665.1–966.9) 92 97.9 (92.5–99.7) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-11 94 613.0 (518.3–724.9) 88 658.2 (553.5–782.8) 94 100 (96.2–100) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 103 2641.6 (2323.2–3003.7) 99 2691.6 (2361.0–3068.3) 103 100 (96.5–100) 99 100 (96.3–100) Anti–HPV-18 109 634.9 (531.0–759.1) 104 627.0 (522.2–752.8) 108 99.1 (95.0–100) 104 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-31 113 553.9 (455.4–673.8) 99 7.6 (6.2–9.4) 112 99.1 (95.2–100) 45 45.5 (35.4–55.8) Anti–HPV-33 112 337.2 (297.1–382.6) 102 <4 (<4 to <4) 112 100 (96.8–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-45 114 213.8 (183.0–249.6) 102 <3 (<3 to <3) 113 99.1 (95.2–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 100 310.5 (262.0–368.0) 93 <3 (<3 to <3) 100 100 (96.4–100) 3 3.2 (0.7–9.1) Anti–HPV-58 104 420.1 (361.3–488.5) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 104 100 (96.5–100) 15 15.2 (8.7–23.8) Thailand N = 232 N = 233 N = 232 N = 233 Anti–HPV-6 158 910.5 (806.4–1028.0) 168 832.5 (740.0–936.5) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-11 158 668.1 (586.2–761.4) 168 736.7 (649.0–836.3) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-16 172 3479.4 (3125.1–3873.9) 182 3371.3 (3037.1–3742.3) 172 100 (97.9–100) 182 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-18 181 1095.5 (960.7–1249.2) 183 890.7 (781.7–1014.9) 181 100 (98.0–100) 183 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-31 195 809.1 (687.0–952.9) 189 14.2 (12.0–16.8) 194 99.5 (97.2–100) 117 61.9 (54.6–68.9) Anti–HPV-33 189 473.3 (415.1–539.7) 196 <4 (<4 to <4) 188 99.5 (97.1–100) 28 14.3 (9.7–20.0) Anti–HPV-45 200 357.8 (313.7–408.0) 201 <3 (<3 to <3) 199 99.5 (97.2–100) 24 11.9 (7.8–17.2) Anti–HPV-52 172 387.7 (343.1–438.2) 174 <3 (<3 to <3) 171 99.4 (96.8–100) 8 4.6 (2.0–8.9) Anti–HPV-58 177 545.0 (481.8–616.4) 184 <4 (<4 to 4.2) 177 100 (97.9–100) 39 21.2 (15.5–27.8) Total N = 824 N = 823 N = 824 N = 823 Anti–HPV-6 574 810.9 (756.9–868.7) 593 742.7 (694.1–794.8) 570 99.3 (98.2–99.8) 589 99.3 (98.3–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 575 576.6 (537.7–618.3) 593 653.1 (609.7–699.6) 574 99.8 (99.0–100) 592 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-16 608 2866.4 (2695.9–3047.8) 629 2738.7 (2578.4–2908.9) 608 100 (99.4–100) 628 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-18 634 817.8 (757.7–882.7) 655 676.9 (628.0–729.7) 632 99.7 (98.9–100) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-31 659 661.3 (605.5–722.2) 657 9.1 (8.3–10.0) 655 99.4 (98.5–99.8) 325 49.5 (45.6–53.4) Anti–HPV-33 655 401.2 (374.8–429.5) 669 < 4 (<4 to <4) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) 73 10.9 (8.7–13.5) Anti–HPV-45 675 265.9 (247.7–285.5) 678 < 3 (<3 to <3) 669 99.1 (98.1–99.7) 59 8.7 (6.7–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 601 331.3 (309.8–354.3) 601 < 3 (<3 to <3) 598 99.5 (98.5–99.9) 25 4.2 (2.7–6.1) Anti–HPV-58 612 486.3 (453.8–521.1) 639 < 4 (<4 to <4) 610 99.7 (98.8–100) 105 16.4 (13.6–19.5) Assay (cLIA) 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Hong Kong and Taiwan N = 313 N = 312 N = 313 N = 312 Anti–HPV-6 229 734.6 (660.0–817.7) 237 718.0 (646.2–797.7) 227 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 235 99.2 (97.0–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 230 496.5 (443.1–556.2) 237 616.5 (551.2–689.5) 229 99.6 (97.6–100) 236 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-16 237 2654.6 (2394.3–2943.1) 245 2579.9 (2330.9–2855.5) 237 100 (98.5–100) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-18 245 790.6 (698.5–894.7) 259 669.4 (593.4–755.0) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) 258 99.6 (97.9–100) Anti–HPV-31 247 607.4 (524.1–703.9) 260 8.5 (7.3–9.8) 245 99.2 (97.1–99.9) 126 48.5 (42.2–54.7) Anti–HPV-33 245 383.5 (339.2–433.6) 260 <4 (<4 to <4) 242 98.8 (96.5–99.7) 29 11.2 (7.6–15.6) Anti–HPV-45 250 234.6 (206.7–266.2) 264 <3 (<3 to <3) 246 98.4 (96.0–99.6) 24 9.1 (5.9–13.2) Anti–HPV-52 231 313.4 (279.0–352.1) 238 <3 (<3 to <3) 229 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 10 4.2 (2.0–7.6) Anti–HPV-58 236 487.2 (429.4–552.8) 257 <4 (<4 to <4) 234 99.2 (97.0, 99.9) 39 15.2 (11.0–20.2) Japan N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 Anti–HPV-6 93 839.7 (696.3–1012.7) 100 621.2 (518.5–744.1) 93 100 (96.1–100) 98 98.0 (93.0–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 93 611.1 (516.4–723.3) 100 607.3 (516.2–714.5) 93 100 (96.1–100) 100 100 (96.4–100) Anti–HPV-16 96 2672.7 (2269.6–3147.3) 103 2223.4 (1898.7–2603.5) 96 100 (96.2–100) 103 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-18 99 688.7 (563.3–842.0) 109 471.9 (389.6–571.5) 99 100 (96.3–100) 106 97.2 (92.2–99.4) Anti–HPV-31 104 672.3 (552.4–818.2) 109 5.9 (4.9–7.2) 104 100 (96.5–100) 37 33.9 (25.1–43.6) Anti–HPV-33 109 398.3 (344.8–460.2) 111 <4 (<4 to <4) 109 100 (96.7–100) 11 9.9 (5.1–17.0) Anti–HPV-45 111 258.5 (224.8–297.3) 111 <3 (<3 to <3) 111 100 (96.7–100) 6 5.4 (2.0–11.4) Anti–HPV-52 98 306.3 (267.5–350.7) 96 <3 (<3 to <3) 98 100 (96.3–100) 4 4.2 (1.1–10.3) Anti–HPV-58 95 459.6 (399.9–528.3) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 95 100 (96.2–100) 12 12.1 (6.4–20.2) South Korea N = 152 N = 151 N = 152 N = 151 Anti–HPV-6 94 820.1 (684.3–982.8) 88 801.9 (665.1–966.9) 92 97.9 (92.5–99.7) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-11 94 613.0 (518.3–724.9) 88 658.2 (553.5–782.8) 94 100 (96.2–100) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 103 2641.6 (2323.2–3003.7) 99 2691.6 (2361.0–3068.3) 103 100 (96.5–100) 99 100 (96.3–100) Anti–HPV-18 109 634.9 (531.0–759.1) 104 627.0 (522.2–752.8) 108 99.1 (95.0–100) 104 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-31 113 553.9 (455.4–673.8) 99 7.6 (6.2–9.4) 112 99.1 (95.2–100) 45 45.5 (35.4–55.8) Anti–HPV-33 112 337.2 (297.1–382.6) 102 <4 (<4 to <4) 112 100 (96.8–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-45 114 213.8 (183.0–249.6) 102 <3 (<3 to <3) 113 99.1 (95.2–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 100 310.5 (262.0–368.0) 93 <3 (<3 to <3) 100 100 (96.4–100) 3 3.2 (0.7–9.1) Anti–HPV-58 104 420.1 (361.3–488.5) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 104 100 (96.5–100) 15 15.2 (8.7–23.8) Thailand N = 232 N = 233 N = 232 N = 233 Anti–HPV-6 158 910.5 (806.4–1028.0) 168 832.5 (740.0–936.5) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-11 158 668.1 (586.2–761.4) 168 736.7 (649.0–836.3) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-16 172 3479.4 (3125.1–3873.9) 182 3371.3 (3037.1–3742.3) 172 100 (97.9–100) 182 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-18 181 1095.5 (960.7–1249.2) 183 890.7 (781.7–1014.9) 181 100 (98.0–100) 183 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-31 195 809.1 (687.0–952.9) 189 14.2 (12.0–16.8) 194 99.5 (97.2–100) 117 61.9 (54.6–68.9) Anti–HPV-33 189 473.3 (415.1–539.7) 196 <4 (<4 to <4) 188 99.5 (97.1–100) 28 14.3 (9.7–20.0) Anti–HPV-45 200 357.8 (313.7–408.0) 201 <3 (<3 to <3) 199 99.5 (97.2–100) 24 11.9 (7.8–17.2) Anti–HPV-52 172 387.7 (343.1–438.2) 174 <3 (<3 to <3) 171 99.4 (96.8–100) 8 4.6 (2.0–8.9) Anti–HPV-58 177 545.0 (481.8–616.4) 184 <4 (<4 to 4.2) 177 100 (97.9–100) 39 21.2 (15.5–27.8) Total N = 824 N = 823 N = 824 N = 823 Anti–HPV-6 574 810.9 (756.9–868.7) 593 742.7 (694.1–794.8) 570 99.3 (98.2–99.8) 589 99.3 (98.3–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 575 576.6 (537.7–618.3) 593 653.1 (609.7–699.6) 574 99.8 (99.0–100) 592 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-16 608 2866.4 (2695.9–3047.8) 629 2738.7 (2578.4–2908.9) 608 100 (99.4–100) 628 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-18 634 817.8 (757.7–882.7) 655 676.9 (628.0–729.7) 632 99.7 (98.9–100) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-31 659 661.3 (605.5–722.2) 657 9.1 (8.3–10.0) 655 99.4 (98.5–99.8) 325 49.5 (45.6–53.4) Anti–HPV-33 655 401.2 (374.8–429.5) 669 < 4 (<4 to <4) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) 73 10.9 (8.7–13.5) Anti–HPV-45 675 265.9 (247.7–285.5) 678 < 3 (<3 to <3) 669 99.1 (98.1–99.7) 59 8.7 (6.7–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 601 331.3 (309.8–354.3) 601 < 3 (<3 to <3) 598 99.5 (98.5–99.9) 25 4.2 (2.7–6.1) Anti–HPV-58 612 486.3 (453.8–521.1) 639 < 4 (<4 to <4) 610 99.7 (98.8–100) 105 16.4 (13.6–19.5) The PPI population included all participants who had no protocol violation that could interfere with the evaluation of the immune response to vaccine as judged by the study director, received all 3 vaccinations within acceptable day ranges, were seronegative at day 1 and PCR negative day 1 through month 7 for the relevant HPV type(s), and had a month 7 serum sample collected within an acceptable day range. Seropositive percent represents proportion of participants with anti-HPV serum levels ≥30, 16, 20, 24, 10, 8, 8, 8, and 8 mMU/mL for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; CI, confidence interval; cLIA, competitive Luminex immunoassay; GMT, geometric mean titer; mMU, milli-Merck units; PPI, per-protocol immunogenicity; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. N = number of participants randomized to the respective vaccination group who received at least 1 injection. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. m = number of participants who had seroconversion. View Large Table 4. Summary of Anti-HPV cLIA GMTs and Seropositivity at Month 7 in Asian Participants (Young Women Aged 16–26 Years) in the PPI Population in Study 001 by Vaccination Group and Country Assay (cLIA) 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Hong Kong and Taiwan N = 313 N = 312 N = 313 N = 312 Anti–HPV-6 229 734.6 (660.0–817.7) 237 718.0 (646.2–797.7) 227 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 235 99.2 (97.0–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 230 496.5 (443.1–556.2) 237 616.5 (551.2–689.5) 229 99.6 (97.6–100) 236 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-16 237 2654.6 (2394.3–2943.1) 245 2579.9 (2330.9–2855.5) 237 100 (98.5–100) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-18 245 790.6 (698.5–894.7) 259 669.4 (593.4–755.0) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) 258 99.6 (97.9–100) Anti–HPV-31 247 607.4 (524.1–703.9) 260 8.5 (7.3–9.8) 245 99.2 (97.1–99.9) 126 48.5 (42.2–54.7) Anti–HPV-33 245 383.5 (339.2–433.6) 260 <4 (<4 to <4) 242 98.8 (96.5–99.7) 29 11.2 (7.6–15.6) Anti–HPV-45 250 234.6 (206.7–266.2) 264 <3 (<3 to <3) 246 98.4 (96.0–99.6) 24 9.1 (5.9–13.2) Anti–HPV-52 231 313.4 (279.0–352.1) 238 <3 (<3 to <3) 229 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 10 4.2 (2.0–7.6) Anti–HPV-58 236 487.2 (429.4–552.8) 257 <4 (<4 to <4) 234 99.2 (97.0, 99.9) 39 15.2 (11.0–20.2) Japan N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 Anti–HPV-6 93 839.7 (696.3–1012.7) 100 621.2 (518.5–744.1) 93 100 (96.1–100) 98 98.0 (93.0–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 93 611.1 (516.4–723.3) 100 607.3 (516.2–714.5) 93 100 (96.1–100) 100 100 (96.4–100) Anti–HPV-16 96 2672.7 (2269.6–3147.3) 103 2223.4 (1898.7–2603.5) 96 100 (96.2–100) 103 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-18 99 688.7 (563.3–842.0) 109 471.9 (389.6–571.5) 99 100 (96.3–100) 106 97.2 (92.2–99.4) Anti–HPV-31 104 672.3 (552.4–818.2) 109 5.9 (4.9–7.2) 104 100 (96.5–100) 37 33.9 (25.1–43.6) Anti–HPV-33 109 398.3 (344.8–460.2) 111 <4 (<4 to <4) 109 100 (96.7–100) 11 9.9 (5.1–17.0) Anti–HPV-45 111 258.5 (224.8–297.3) 111 <3 (<3 to <3) 111 100 (96.7–100) 6 5.4 (2.0–11.4) Anti–HPV-52 98 306.3 (267.5–350.7) 96 <3 (<3 to <3) 98 100 (96.3–100) 4 4.2 (1.1–10.3) Anti–HPV-58 95 459.6 (399.9–528.3) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 95 100 (96.2–100) 12 12.1 (6.4–20.2) South Korea N = 152 N = 151 N = 152 N = 151 Anti–HPV-6 94 820.1 (684.3–982.8) 88 801.9 (665.1–966.9) 92 97.9 (92.5–99.7) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-11 94 613.0 (518.3–724.9) 88 658.2 (553.5–782.8) 94 100 (96.2–100) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 103 2641.6 (2323.2–3003.7) 99 2691.6 (2361.0–3068.3) 103 100 (96.5–100) 99 100 (96.3–100) Anti–HPV-18 109 634.9 (531.0–759.1) 104 627.0 (522.2–752.8) 108 99.1 (95.0–100) 104 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-31 113 553.9 (455.4–673.8) 99 7.6 (6.2–9.4) 112 99.1 (95.2–100) 45 45.5 (35.4–55.8) Anti–HPV-33 112 337.2 (297.1–382.6) 102 <4 (<4 to <4) 112 100 (96.8–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-45 114 213.8 (183.0–249.6) 102 <3 (<3 to <3) 113 99.1 (95.2–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 100 310.5 (262.0–368.0) 93 <3 (<3 to <3) 100 100 (96.4–100) 3 3.2 (0.7–9.1) Anti–HPV-58 104 420.1 (361.3–488.5) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 104 100 (96.5–100) 15 15.2 (8.7–23.8) Thailand N = 232 N = 233 N = 232 N = 233 Anti–HPV-6 158 910.5 (806.4–1028.0) 168 832.5 (740.0–936.5) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-11 158 668.1 (586.2–761.4) 168 736.7 (649.0–836.3) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-16 172 3479.4 (3125.1–3873.9) 182 3371.3 (3037.1–3742.3) 172 100 (97.9–100) 182 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-18 181 1095.5 (960.7–1249.2) 183 890.7 (781.7–1014.9) 181 100 (98.0–100) 183 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-31 195 809.1 (687.0–952.9) 189 14.2 (12.0–16.8) 194 99.5 (97.2–100) 117 61.9 (54.6–68.9) Anti–HPV-33 189 473.3 (415.1–539.7) 196 <4 (<4 to <4) 188 99.5 (97.1–100) 28 14.3 (9.7–20.0) Anti–HPV-45 200 357.8 (313.7–408.0) 201 <3 (<3 to <3) 199 99.5 (97.2–100) 24 11.9 (7.8–17.2) Anti–HPV-52 172 387.7 (343.1–438.2) 174 <3 (<3 to <3) 171 99.4 (96.8–100) 8 4.6 (2.0–8.9) Anti–HPV-58 177 545.0 (481.8–616.4) 184 <4 (<4 to 4.2) 177 100 (97.9–100) 39 21.2 (15.5–27.8) Total N = 824 N = 823 N = 824 N = 823 Anti–HPV-6 574 810.9 (756.9–868.7) 593 742.7 (694.1–794.8) 570 99.3 (98.2–99.8) 589 99.3 (98.3–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 575 576.6 (537.7–618.3) 593 653.1 (609.7–699.6) 574 99.8 (99.0–100) 592 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-16 608 2866.4 (2695.9–3047.8) 629 2738.7 (2578.4–2908.9) 608 100 (99.4–100) 628 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-18 634 817.8 (757.7–882.7) 655 676.9 (628.0–729.7) 632 99.7 (98.9–100) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-31 659 661.3 (605.5–722.2) 657 9.1 (8.3–10.0) 655 99.4 (98.5–99.8) 325 49.5 (45.6–53.4) Anti–HPV-33 655 401.2 (374.8–429.5) 669 < 4 (<4 to <4) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) 73 10.9 (8.7–13.5) Anti–HPV-45 675 265.9 (247.7–285.5) 678 < 3 (<3 to <3) 669 99.1 (98.1–99.7) 59 8.7 (6.7–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 601 331.3 (309.8–354.3) 601 < 3 (<3 to <3) 598 99.5 (98.5–99.9) 25 4.2 (2.7–6.1) Anti–HPV-58 612 486.3 (453.8–521.1) 639 < 4 (<4 to <4) 610 99.7 (98.8–100) 105 16.4 (13.6–19.5) Assay (cLIA) 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Hong Kong and Taiwan N = 313 N = 312 N = 313 N = 312 Anti–HPV-6 229 734.6 (660.0–817.7) 237 718.0 (646.2–797.7) 227 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 235 99.2 (97.0–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 230 496.5 (443.1–556.2) 237 616.5 (551.2–689.5) 229 99.6 (97.6–100) 236 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-16 237 2654.6 (2394.3–2943.1) 245 2579.9 (2330.9–2855.5) 237 100 (98.5–100) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-18 245 790.6 (698.5–894.7) 259 669.4 (593.4–755.0) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) 258 99.6 (97.9–100) Anti–HPV-31 247 607.4 (524.1–703.9) 260 8.5 (7.3–9.8) 245 99.2 (97.1–99.9) 126 48.5 (42.2–54.7) Anti–HPV-33 245 383.5 (339.2–433.6) 260 <4 (<4 to <4) 242 98.8 (96.5–99.7) 29 11.2 (7.6–15.6) Anti–HPV-45 250 234.6 (206.7–266.2) 264 <3 (<3 to <3) 246 98.4 (96.0–99.6) 24 9.1 (5.9–13.2) Anti–HPV-52 231 313.4 (279.0–352.1) 238 <3 (<3 to <3) 229 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 10 4.2 (2.0–7.6) Anti–HPV-58 236 487.2 (429.4–552.8) 257 <4 (<4 to <4) 234 99.2 (97.0, 99.9) 39 15.2 (11.0–20.2) Japan N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 Anti–HPV-6 93 839.7 (696.3–1012.7) 100 621.2 (518.5–744.1) 93 100 (96.1–100) 98 98.0 (93.0–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 93 611.1 (516.4–723.3) 100 607.3 (516.2–714.5) 93 100 (96.1–100) 100 100 (96.4–100) Anti–HPV-16 96 2672.7 (2269.6–3147.3) 103 2223.4 (1898.7–2603.5) 96 100 (96.2–100) 103 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-18 99 688.7 (563.3–842.0) 109 471.9 (389.6–571.5) 99 100 (96.3–100) 106 97.2 (92.2–99.4) Anti–HPV-31 104 672.3 (552.4–818.2) 109 5.9 (4.9–7.2) 104 100 (96.5–100) 37 33.9 (25.1–43.6) Anti–HPV-33 109 398.3 (344.8–460.2) 111 <4 (<4 to <4) 109 100 (96.7–100) 11 9.9 (5.1–17.0) Anti–HPV-45 111 258.5 (224.8–297.3) 111 <3 (<3 to <3) 111 100 (96.7–100) 6 5.4 (2.0–11.4) Anti–HPV-52 98 306.3 (267.5–350.7) 96 <3 (<3 to <3) 98 100 (96.3–100) 4 4.2 (1.1–10.3) Anti–HPV-58 95 459.6 (399.9–528.3) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 95 100 (96.2–100) 12 12.1 (6.4–20.2) South Korea N = 152 N = 151 N = 152 N = 151 Anti–HPV-6 94 820.1 (684.3–982.8) 88 801.9 (665.1–966.9) 92 97.9 (92.5–99.7) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-11 94 613.0 (518.3–724.9) 88 658.2 (553.5–782.8) 94 100 (96.2–100) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 103 2641.6 (2323.2–3003.7) 99 2691.6 (2361.0–3068.3) 103 100 (96.5–100) 99 100 (96.3–100) Anti–HPV-18 109 634.9 (531.0–759.1) 104 627.0 (522.2–752.8) 108 99.1 (95.0–100) 104 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-31 113 553.9 (455.4–673.8) 99 7.6 (6.2–9.4) 112 99.1 (95.2–100) 45 45.5 (35.4–55.8) Anti–HPV-33 112 337.2 (297.1–382.6) 102 <4 (<4 to <4) 112 100 (96.8–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-45 114 213.8 (183.0–249.6) 102 <3 (<3 to <3) 113 99.1 (95.2–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 100 310.5 (262.0–368.0) 93 <3 (<3 to <3) 100 100 (96.4–100) 3 3.2 (0.7–9.1) Anti–HPV-58 104 420.1 (361.3–488.5) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 104 100 (96.5–100) 15 15.2 (8.7–23.8) Thailand N = 232 N = 233 N = 232 N = 233 Anti–HPV-6 158 910.5 (806.4–1028.0) 168 832.5 (740.0–936.5) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-11 158 668.1 (586.2–761.4) 168 736.7 (649.0–836.3) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-16 172 3479.4 (3125.1–3873.9) 182 3371.3 (3037.1–3742.3) 172 100 (97.9–100) 182 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-18 181 1095.5 (960.7–1249.2) 183 890.7 (781.7–1014.9) 181 100 (98.0–100) 183 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-31 195 809.1 (687.0–952.9) 189 14.2 (12.0–16.8) 194 99.5 (97.2–100) 117 61.9 (54.6–68.9) Anti–HPV-33 189 473.3 (415.1–539.7) 196 <4 (<4 to <4) 188 99.5 (97.1–100) 28 14.3 (9.7–20.0) Anti–HPV-45 200 357.8 (313.7–408.0) 201 <3 (<3 to <3) 199 99.5 (97.2–100) 24 11.9 (7.8–17.2) Anti–HPV-52 172 387.7 (343.1–438.2) 174 <3 (<3 to <3) 171 99.4 (96.8–100) 8 4.6 (2.0–8.9) Anti–HPV-58 177 545.0 (481.8–616.4) 184 <4 (<4 to 4.2) 177 100 (97.9–100) 39 21.2 (15.5–27.8) Total N = 824 N = 823 N = 824 N = 823 Anti–HPV-6 574 810.9 (756.9–868.7) 593 742.7 (694.1–794.8) 570 99.3 (98.2–99.8) 589 99.3 (98.3–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 575 576.6 (537.7–618.3) 593 653.1 (609.7–699.6) 574 99.8 (99.0–100) 592 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-16 608 2866.4 (2695.9–3047.8) 629 2738.7 (2578.4–2908.9) 608 100 (99.4–100) 628 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-18 634 817.8 (757.7–882.7) 655 676.9 (628.0–729.7) 632 99.7 (98.9–100) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-31 659 661.3 (605.5–722.2) 657 9.1 (8.3–10.0) 655 99.4 (98.5–99.8) 325 49.5 (45.6–53.4) Anti–HPV-33 655 401.2 (374.8–429.5) 669 < 4 (<4 to <4) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) 73 10.9 (8.7–13.5) Anti–HPV-45 675 265.9 (247.7–285.5) 678 < 3 (<3 to <3) 669 99.1 (98.1–99.7) 59 8.7 (6.7–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 601 331.3 (309.8–354.3) 601 < 3 (<3 to <3) 598 99.5 (98.5–99.9) 25 4.2 (2.7–6.1) Anti–HPV-58 612 486.3 (453.8–521.1) 639 < 4 (<4 to <4) 610 99.7 (98.8–100) 105 16.4 (13.6–19.5) The PPI population included all participants who had no protocol violation that could interfere with the evaluation of the immune response to vaccine as judged by the study director, received all 3 vaccinations within acceptable day ranges, were seronegative at day 1 and PCR negative day 1 through month 7 for the relevant HPV type(s), and had a month 7 serum sample collected within an acceptable day range. Seropositive percent represents proportion of participants with anti-HPV serum levels ≥30, 16, 20, 24, 10, 8, 8, 8, and 8 mMU/mL for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; CI, confidence interval; cLIA, competitive Luminex immunoassay; GMT, geometric mean titer; mMU, milli-Merck units; PPI, per-protocol immunogenicity; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. N = number of participants randomized to the respective vaccination group who received at least 1 injection. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. m = number of participants who had seroconversion. View Large Among Asian girls and boys from Study 002, GMTs for each of the 9 HPV types were higher than in the overall population of young women (N = 6792) from Study 001 (Table 5) and the subgroups of young women from each corresponding country in Study 001 (Table 4). Overall, ≥98.8% of Asian girls and boys underwent seroconversion at month 7 to each of the 9 HPV types (Table 5). Results were similar when considering GMTs and seroconversion rates for girls only (Supplementary Table 6). Table 5. Summary of Anti-HPV cLIA GMTs and Seropositivity at Month 7 in the PPI Population of Asian Girls and Boys (Aged 9–15 Years) in Study 002, by Country, and the Overall Population of Young Women (Aged 16–26 Years) From Study 001 Assay (cLIA) Study 002 Study 001a 9vHPV Vaccine (Girls and Boys Aged 9–15 y) 9vHPV Vaccine (Women Aged 16–26 y) India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Overall Study Population (N = 6792) n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL Anti–HPV-6 170 1641.2 (1428.0–1886.2) 120 2226.3 (1931.8–2565.6) 134 1308.8 (1129.9–1516.0) 131 1464.8 (1277.5–1679.6) 555 1615.9 (1503.3–1736.8) 3993 893.1 (871.7–915.1) Anti–HPV-11 170 1180.0 (1024.2–1359.5) 120 1524.0 (1318.2–1761.9) 134 956.6 (836.9–1093.5) 131 1024.5 (888.4–1181.5) 555 1146.6 (1067.2–1231.9) 3995 666.3 (649.6–683.4) Anti–HPV-16 175 7061.4 (6125.2–8140.8) 121 8265.5 (7182.8–9511.5) 135 5804.4 (5142.0–6552.1) 135 6598.6 (5742.3–7582.6) 566 6857.8 (6399.4–7349.0) 4032 3131.1 (3057.1–3206.9) Anti–HPV-18 178 2118.5 (1798.9–2494.9) 120 2530.4 (2147.5–2981.7) 137 1688.0 (1469.3–1939.3) 132 2433.7 (2081.7–2845.1) 567 2150.5 (1986.0–2328.8) 4539 804.6 (782.7–827.1) Anti–HPV-31 171 1666.0 (1453.4–1909.7) 119 2177.4 (1864.5–2542.9) 136 1636.2 (1424.7–1879.1) 133 1748.3 (1518.0–2013.7) 559 1776.3 (1654.0–1907.6) 4466 658.4 (636.7–680.9) Anti–HPV-33 175 855.0 (736.9–992.0) 121 1053.1 (907.2–1222.4) 137 796.4 (696.6–910.5) 134 891.4 (777.0–1022.6) 567 887.4 (825.7–953.7) 4702 415.9 (405.6–426.4) Anti–HPV-45 179 742.0 (627.4–877.5) 121 900.1 (746.6–1085.2) 137 715.2 (602.4–849.0) 134 787.2 (675.7–917.1) 571 776.9 (713.6–845.9) 4792 252.8 (246.2–259.6) Anti–HPV-52 176 827.0 (708.2–965.8) 121 1005.9 (866.0–1168.5) 136 779.0 (668.6–907.7) 134 753.8 (657.1–864.8) 567 831.6 (771.1–896.9) 4455 379.7 (371.6–388.0) Anti–HPV-58 173 1198.1 (1030.5–1393.0) 121 1572.7 (1362.8–1814.9) 136 1152.8 (1006.3–1320.7) 133 1209.3 (1045.5–1398.9) 563 1261.2 (1172.3–1357.0) 4486 482.5 (469.9–495.3) Assay (cLIA) m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Anti–HPV-6 168 98.8 (95.8–99.9) 120 100 (97.0–100) 133 99.3 (95.9–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 552 99.5 (98.4–99.9) 3985 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 169 99.4 (96.8–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 554 99.8 (99.0–100) 3994 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 565 99.8 (99.0–100) 4031 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-18 177 99.4 (96.9–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 132 100 (97.2–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4532 99.8 (99.7–99.9) Anti–HPV-31 171 100 (97.9–100) 119 100 (96.9–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 559 100 (99.3–100) 4457 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-33 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4689 99.7 (99.5–99.9) Anti–HPV-45 178 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 570 99.8 (99.0–100) 4773 99.6 (99.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-52 175 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4446 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-58 172 99.4 (96.8–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 562 99.8 (99.0–100) 4476 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Assay (cLIA) Study 002 Study 001a 9vHPV Vaccine (Girls and Boys Aged 9–15 y) 9vHPV Vaccine (Women Aged 16–26 y) India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Overall Study Population (N = 6792) n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL Anti–HPV-6 170 1641.2 (1428.0–1886.2) 120 2226.3 (1931.8–2565.6) 134 1308.8 (1129.9–1516.0) 131 1464.8 (1277.5–1679.6) 555 1615.9 (1503.3–1736.8) 3993 893.1 (871.7–915.1) Anti–HPV-11 170 1180.0 (1024.2–1359.5) 120 1524.0 (1318.2–1761.9) 134 956.6 (836.9–1093.5) 131 1024.5 (888.4–1181.5) 555 1146.6 (1067.2–1231.9) 3995 666.3 (649.6–683.4) Anti–HPV-16 175 7061.4 (6125.2–8140.8) 121 8265.5 (7182.8–9511.5) 135 5804.4 (5142.0–6552.1) 135 6598.6 (5742.3–7582.6) 566 6857.8 (6399.4–7349.0) 4032 3131.1 (3057.1–3206.9) Anti–HPV-18 178 2118.5 (1798.9–2494.9) 120 2530.4 (2147.5–2981.7) 137 1688.0 (1469.3–1939.3) 132 2433.7 (2081.7–2845.1) 567 2150.5 (1986.0–2328.8) 4539 804.6 (782.7–827.1) Anti–HPV-31 171 1666.0 (1453.4–1909.7) 119 2177.4 (1864.5–2542.9) 136 1636.2 (1424.7–1879.1) 133 1748.3 (1518.0–2013.7) 559 1776.3 (1654.0–1907.6) 4466 658.4 (636.7–680.9) Anti–HPV-33 175 855.0 (736.9–992.0) 121 1053.1 (907.2–1222.4) 137 796.4 (696.6–910.5) 134 891.4 (777.0–1022.6) 567 887.4 (825.7–953.7) 4702 415.9 (405.6–426.4) Anti–HPV-45 179 742.0 (627.4–877.5) 121 900.1 (746.6–1085.2) 137 715.2 (602.4–849.0) 134 787.2 (675.7–917.1) 571 776.9 (713.6–845.9) 4792 252.8 (246.2–259.6) Anti–HPV-52 176 827.0 (708.2–965.8) 121 1005.9 (866.0–1168.5) 136 779.0 (668.6–907.7) 134 753.8 (657.1–864.8) 567 831.6 (771.1–896.9) 4455 379.7 (371.6–388.0) Anti–HPV-58 173 1198.1 (1030.5–1393.0) 121 1572.7 (1362.8–1814.9) 136 1152.8 (1006.3–1320.7) 133 1209.3 (1045.5–1398.9) 563 1261.2 (1172.3–1357.0) 4486 482.5 (469.9–495.3) Assay (cLIA) m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Anti–HPV-6 168 98.8 (95.8–99.9) 120 100 (97.0–100) 133 99.3 (95.9–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 552 99.5 (98.4–99.9) 3985 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 169 99.4 (96.8–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 554 99.8 (99.0–100) 3994 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 565 99.8 (99.0–100) 4031 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-18 177 99.4 (96.9–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 132 100 (97.2–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4532 99.8 (99.7–99.9) Anti–HPV-31 171 100 (97.9–100) 119 100 (96.9–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 559 100 (99.3–100) 4457 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-33 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4689 99.7 (99.5–99.9) Anti–HPV-45 178 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 570 99.8 (99.0–100) 4773 99.6 (99.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-52 175 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4446 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-58 172 99.4 (96.8–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 562 99.8 (99.0–100) 4476 99.8 (99.6–99.9) The PPI population included all participants who had no protocol violation that could interfere with the evaluation of the immune response to vaccine as judged by the study director, received all 3 vaccinations within acceptable day ranges, were seronegative at day 1 and (16 to 26-year-old women only) PCR negative day 1 through month 7 for the relevant HPV type(s), and had a month 7 serum sample collected within an acceptable day range. Seropositive percent represents the proportion of participants with anti-HPV serum levels ≥30, 16, 20, 24, 10, 8, 8, 8, and 8 mMU/mL for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; CI, confidence interval; cLIA, competitive Luminex immunoassay; GMT, geometric mean titer; mMU, milli-Merck units; PPI, per-protocol immunogenicity. N = number of participants randomized to the respective vaccination group who received at least 1 injection. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. m = number of participants who had seroconversion. aBased on [19]. View Large Table 5. Summary of Anti-HPV cLIA GMTs and Seropositivity at Month 7 in the PPI Population of Asian Girls and Boys (Aged 9–15 Years) in Study 002, by Country, and the Overall Population of Young Women (Aged 16–26 Years) From Study 001 Assay (cLIA) Study 002 Study 001a 9vHPV Vaccine (Girls and Boys Aged 9–15 y) 9vHPV Vaccine (Women Aged 16–26 y) India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Overall Study Population (N = 6792) n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL Anti–HPV-6 170 1641.2 (1428.0–1886.2) 120 2226.3 (1931.8–2565.6) 134 1308.8 (1129.9–1516.0) 131 1464.8 (1277.5–1679.6) 555 1615.9 (1503.3–1736.8) 3993 893.1 (871.7–915.1) Anti–HPV-11 170 1180.0 (1024.2–1359.5) 120 1524.0 (1318.2–1761.9) 134 956.6 (836.9–1093.5) 131 1024.5 (888.4–1181.5) 555 1146.6 (1067.2–1231.9) 3995 666.3 (649.6–683.4) Anti–HPV-16 175 7061.4 (6125.2–8140.8) 121 8265.5 (7182.8–9511.5) 135 5804.4 (5142.0–6552.1) 135 6598.6 (5742.3–7582.6) 566 6857.8 (6399.4–7349.0) 4032 3131.1 (3057.1–3206.9) Anti–HPV-18 178 2118.5 (1798.9–2494.9) 120 2530.4 (2147.5–2981.7) 137 1688.0 (1469.3–1939.3) 132 2433.7 (2081.7–2845.1) 567 2150.5 (1986.0–2328.8) 4539 804.6 (782.7–827.1) Anti–HPV-31 171 1666.0 (1453.4–1909.7) 119 2177.4 (1864.5–2542.9) 136 1636.2 (1424.7–1879.1) 133 1748.3 (1518.0–2013.7) 559 1776.3 (1654.0–1907.6) 4466 658.4 (636.7–680.9) Anti–HPV-33 175 855.0 (736.9–992.0) 121 1053.1 (907.2–1222.4) 137 796.4 (696.6–910.5) 134 891.4 (777.0–1022.6) 567 887.4 (825.7–953.7) 4702 415.9 (405.6–426.4) Anti–HPV-45 179 742.0 (627.4–877.5) 121 900.1 (746.6–1085.2) 137 715.2 (602.4–849.0) 134 787.2 (675.7–917.1) 571 776.9 (713.6–845.9) 4792 252.8 (246.2–259.6) Anti–HPV-52 176 827.0 (708.2–965.8) 121 1005.9 (866.0–1168.5) 136 779.0 (668.6–907.7) 134 753.8 (657.1–864.8) 567 831.6 (771.1–896.9) 4455 379.7 (371.6–388.0) Anti–HPV-58 173 1198.1 (1030.5–1393.0) 121 1572.7 (1362.8–1814.9) 136 1152.8 (1006.3–1320.7) 133 1209.3 (1045.5–1398.9) 563 1261.2 (1172.3–1357.0) 4486 482.5 (469.9–495.3) Assay (cLIA) m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Anti–HPV-6 168 98.8 (95.8–99.9) 120 100 (97.0–100) 133 99.3 (95.9–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 552 99.5 (98.4–99.9) 3985 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 169 99.4 (96.8–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 554 99.8 (99.0–100) 3994 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 565 99.8 (99.0–100) 4031 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-18 177 99.4 (96.9–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 132 100 (97.2–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4532 99.8 (99.7–99.9) Anti–HPV-31 171 100 (97.9–100) 119 100 (96.9–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 559 100 (99.3–100) 4457 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-33 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4689 99.7 (99.5–99.9) Anti–HPV-45 178 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 570 99.8 (99.0–100) 4773 99.6 (99.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-52 175 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4446 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-58 172 99.4 (96.8–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 562 99.8 (99.0–100) 4476 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Assay (cLIA) Study 002 Study 001a 9vHPV Vaccine (Girls and Boys Aged 9–15 y) 9vHPV Vaccine (Women Aged 16–26 y) India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Overall Study Population (N = 6792) n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL Anti–HPV-6 170 1641.2 (1428.0–1886.2) 120 2226.3 (1931.8–2565.6) 134 1308.8 (1129.9–1516.0) 131 1464.8 (1277.5–1679.6) 555 1615.9 (1503.3–1736.8) 3993 893.1 (871.7–915.1) Anti–HPV-11 170 1180.0 (1024.2–1359.5) 120 1524.0 (1318.2–1761.9) 134 956.6 (836.9–1093.5) 131 1024.5 (888.4–1181.5) 555 1146.6 (1067.2–1231.9) 3995 666.3 (649.6–683.4) Anti–HPV-16 175 7061.4 (6125.2–8140.8) 121 8265.5 (7182.8–9511.5) 135 5804.4 (5142.0–6552.1) 135 6598.6 (5742.3–7582.6) 566 6857.8 (6399.4–7349.0) 4032 3131.1 (3057.1–3206.9) Anti–HPV-18 178 2118.5 (1798.9–2494.9) 120 2530.4 (2147.5–2981.7) 137 1688.0 (1469.3–1939.3) 132 2433.7 (2081.7–2845.1) 567 2150.5 (1986.0–2328.8) 4539 804.6 (782.7–827.1) Anti–HPV-31 171 1666.0 (1453.4–1909.7) 119 2177.4 (1864.5–2542.9) 136 1636.2 (1424.7–1879.1) 133 1748.3 (1518.0–2013.7) 559 1776.3 (1654.0–1907.6) 4466 658.4 (636.7–680.9) Anti–HPV-33 175 855.0 (736.9–992.0) 121 1053.1 (907.2–1222.4) 137 796.4 (696.6–910.5) 134 891.4 (777.0–1022.6) 567 887.4 (825.7–953.7) 4702 415.9 (405.6–426.4) Anti–HPV-45 179 742.0 (627.4–877.5) 121 900.1 (746.6–1085.2) 137 715.2 (602.4–849.0) 134 787.2 (675.7–917.1) 571 776.9 (713.6–845.9) 4792 252.8 (246.2–259.6) Anti–HPV-52 176 827.0 (708.2–965.8) 121 1005.9 (866.0–1168.5) 136 779.0 (668.6–907.7) 134 753.8 (657.1–864.8) 567 831.6 (771.1–896.9) 4455 379.7 (371.6–388.0) Anti–HPV-58 173 1198.1 (1030.5–1393.0) 121 1572.7 (1362.8–1814.9) 136 1152.8 (1006.3–1320.7) 133 1209.3 (1045.5–1398.9) 563 1261.2 (1172.3–1357.0) 4486 482.5 (469.9–495.3) Assay (cLIA) m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Anti–HPV-6 168 98.8 (95.8–99.9) 120 100 (97.0–100) 133 99.3 (95.9–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 552 99.5 (98.4–99.9) 3985 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 169 99.4 (96.8–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 554 99.8 (99.0–100) 3994 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 565 99.8 (99.0–100) 4031 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-18 177 99.4 (96.9–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 132 100 (97.2–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4532 99.8 (99.7–99.9) Anti–HPV-31 171 100 (97.9–100) 119 100 (96.9–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 559 100 (99.3–100) 4457 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-33 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4689 99.7 (99.5–99.9) Anti–HPV-45 178 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 570 99.8 (99.0–100) 4773 99.6 (99.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-52 175 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4446 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-58 172 99.4 (96.8–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 562 99.8 (99.0–100) 4476 99.8 (99.6–99.9) The PPI population included all participants who had no protocol violation that could interfere with the evaluation of the immune response to vaccine as judged by the study director, received all 3 vaccinations within acceptable day ranges, were seronegative at day 1 and (16 to 26-year-old women only) PCR negative day 1 through month 7 for the relevant HPV type(s), and had a month 7 serum sample collected within an acceptable day range. Seropositive percent represents the proportion of participants with anti-HPV serum levels ≥30, 16, 20, 24, 10, 8, 8, 8, and 8 mMU/mL for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; CI, confidence interval; cLIA, competitive Luminex immunoassay; GMT, geometric mean titer; mMU, milli-Merck units; PPI, per-protocol immunogenicity. N = number of participants randomized to the respective vaccination group who received at least 1 injection. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. m = number of participants who had seroconversion. aBased on [19]. View Large Safety In Study 001 (Table 6), injection-site AEs were more common within each country in young women in the 9vHPV vaccine group (85.2%, 81.9%, 87.5%, and 86.6% of participants from Hong Kong/Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, and Thailand, respectively) than in the qHPV vaccine group (77.7%, 79.5%, 82.0%, and 83.1%, respectively). The most common injection-site AEs were pain, swelling, and erythema; most were mild to moderate in intensity. The proportions of participants from Hong Kong/Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea who experienced a vaccine- related systemic AE (9vHPV, 11.8%–18.8%; qHPV, 6.3%–13.9%) were lower than in the overall study population (9vHPV, 29.5%; qHPV, 27.3 %) [18, 29]. The proportions of participants from Thailand with vaccine-related systemic AEs (9vHPV, 42.2%; qHPV, 40.3%) were significantly higher than in the overall population (Supplementary Table 7). The frequencies of severe vaccine-related systemic AEs were similar between participants from Thailand and the overall study population (Supplementary Table 7). The difference in frequency of vaccine-related systemic AEs was mainly due to a higher frequency of AEs of pyrexia among participants from Thailand (9vHPV, 16.4%; qHPV, 15.2%) versus the overall population (9vHPV, 5.0%; qHPV, 4.3%) (Supplementary Table 7); AEs of pyrexia experienced by participants from Thailand were mostly mild to moderate (Supplementary Table 7), of short duration (median, 1 day) (Supplementary Table 8), and fevers were mostly low grade (Table 6). AEs of pyrexia and elevated temperatures occurred across all the study sites in Thailand (Supplementary Table 9). Table 6. AEs in Asian Young Women (Aged 16–26 Years) from Study 001 by Vaccination Group and Country Event 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 152) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 856) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 150) Thailand (N = 231) Total (N = 854) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 304 (88.1) 108 (85.0) 137 (90.1) 211 (90.9) 760 (88.8) 297 (85.8) 103 (81.1) 130 (86.7) 206 (89.2) 736 (86.2) Injection-site eventb 294 (85.2) 104 (81.9) 133 (87.5) 201 (86.6) 732 (85.5) 269 (77.7) 101 (79.5) 123 (82.0) 192 (83.1) 685 (80.2)  Painc 286 (82.9) 104 (81.9) 131 (86.2) 199 (85.8) 720 (84.1) 260 (75.1) 100 (78.7) 119 (79.3) 189 (81.8) 668 (78.2)   Mild 216 (62.6) 63 (49.6) 76 (50.0) 103 (44.4) 458 (53.5) 217 (62.7) 76 (59.8) 86 (57.3) 93 (40.3) 472 (55.3)   Moderate 68 (19.7) 41 (32.3) 42 (27.6) 86 (37.1) 237 (27.7) 37 (10.7) 23 (18.1) 27 (18.0) 91 (39.4) 178 (20.8)   Severe 2 (0.6) 0 13 (8.6) 10 (4.3) 25 (2.9) 6 (1.7) 1 (0.8) 6 (4.0) 5 (2.2) 18 (2.1)  Swelling 160 (46.4) 57 (44.9) 79 (52.0) 71 (30.6) 367 (42.9) 99 (28.6) 53 (41.7) 53 (35.3) 63 (27.3) 268 (31.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 121 (35.1) 36 (28.3) 57 (37.5) 51 (22.0) 265 (31.0) 84 (24.3) 46 (36.2) 43 (28.7) 50 (21.6) 223 (26.1)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 27 (7.8) 14 (11.0) 11 (7.2) 15 (6.5) 67 (7.8) 12 (3.5) 5 (3.9) 6 (4.0) 11 (4.8) 34 (4.0)   Severe: >5.0 cm 11 (3.2) 7 (5.5) 11 (7.2) 5 (2.2) 34 (4.0) 3 (0.9) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.7) 2 (0.9) 11 (1.3)   Unknown 1 (0.3) 0 0 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0  Erythema 126 (36.5) 51 (40.2) 59 (38.8) 26 (11.2) 262 (30.6) 88 (25.4) 48 (37.8) 36 (24.0) 15 (6.5) 187 (21.9)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 108 (31.3) 35 (27.6) 42 (27.6) 20 (8.6) 205 (23.9) 78 (22.5) 44 (34.6) 29 (19.3) 13 (5.6) 164 (19.2)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 10 (6.6) 5 (2.2) 39 (4.6) 9 (2.6) 3 (2.4) 5 (3.3) 2 (0.9) 19 (2.2)   Severe: >5.0 cm 5 (1.4) 5 (3.9) 7 (4.6) 1 (0.4) 18 (2.1) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 0 4 (0.5)  Pruritusc 16 (4.6) 12 (9.4) 15 (9.9) 10 (4.3) 53 (6.2) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 7 (4.7) 7 (3.0) 32 (3.7)   Mild 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 12 (7.9) 7 (3.0) 43 (5.0) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 5 (3.3) 5 (2.2) 28 (3.3)   Moderate 3 (0.9) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 3 (1.3) 9 (1.1) 0 0 2 (1.3) 2 (0.9) 4 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0 Systemic eventd 136 (39.4) 41 (32.3) 70 (46.1) 128 (55.2) 375 (43.8) 141 (40.8) 38 (29.9) 72 (48.0) 139 (60.2) 390 (45.7)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 65 (18.8) 15 (11.8) 19 (12.5) 98 (42.2) 197 (23.0) 48 (13.9) 8 (6.3) 19 (12.7) 93 (40.3) 168 (19.7)   Headache 10 (2.9) 5 (3.9) 4 (2.6) 40 (17.2) 59 (6.9) 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 3 (2.0) 41 (17.7) 57 (6.7)   Pyrexia 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.3) 38 (16.4) 53 (6.2) 6 (1.7) 0 1 (0.7) 35 (15.2) 42 (4.9) Serious event 2 (0.6) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 6 (0.7) 2 (0.6) 2 (1.6) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 7 (0.8)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEe 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Serious event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Serious vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 344 127 148 231 850 346 126 148 231 851  Maximum temperatures (oral)f   ≥37.8°C 13 (3.8) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 38 (16.5) 57 (6.7) 12 (3.5) 1 (0.8) 3 (2.0) 38 (16.5) 54 (6.3)   ≥38.9°C 1 (0.3) 0 0 8 (3.5) 9 (1.1) 0 0 0 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Event 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 152) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 856) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 150) Thailand (N = 231) Total (N = 854) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 304 (88.1) 108 (85.0) 137 (90.1) 211 (90.9) 760 (88.8) 297 (85.8) 103 (81.1) 130 (86.7) 206 (89.2) 736 (86.2) Injection-site eventb 294 (85.2) 104 (81.9) 133 (87.5) 201 (86.6) 732 (85.5) 269 (77.7) 101 (79.5) 123 (82.0) 192 (83.1) 685 (80.2)  Painc 286 (82.9) 104 (81.9) 131 (86.2) 199 (85.8) 720 (84.1) 260 (75.1) 100 (78.7) 119 (79.3) 189 (81.8) 668 (78.2)   Mild 216 (62.6) 63 (49.6) 76 (50.0) 103 (44.4) 458 (53.5) 217 (62.7) 76 (59.8) 86 (57.3) 93 (40.3) 472 (55.3)   Moderate 68 (19.7) 41 (32.3) 42 (27.6) 86 (37.1) 237 (27.7) 37 (10.7) 23 (18.1) 27 (18.0) 91 (39.4) 178 (20.8)   Severe 2 (0.6) 0 13 (8.6) 10 (4.3) 25 (2.9) 6 (1.7) 1 (0.8) 6 (4.0) 5 (2.2) 18 (2.1)  Swelling 160 (46.4) 57 (44.9) 79 (52.0) 71 (30.6) 367 (42.9) 99 (28.6) 53 (41.7) 53 (35.3) 63 (27.3) 268 (31.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 121 (35.1) 36 (28.3) 57 (37.5) 51 (22.0) 265 (31.0) 84 (24.3) 46 (36.2) 43 (28.7) 50 (21.6) 223 (26.1)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 27 (7.8) 14 (11.0) 11 (7.2) 15 (6.5) 67 (7.8) 12 (3.5) 5 (3.9) 6 (4.0) 11 (4.8) 34 (4.0)   Severe: >5.0 cm 11 (3.2) 7 (5.5) 11 (7.2) 5 (2.2) 34 (4.0) 3 (0.9) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.7) 2 (0.9) 11 (1.3)   Unknown 1 (0.3) 0 0 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0  Erythema 126 (36.5) 51 (40.2) 59 (38.8) 26 (11.2) 262 (30.6) 88 (25.4) 48 (37.8) 36 (24.0) 15 (6.5) 187 (21.9)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 108 (31.3) 35 (27.6) 42 (27.6) 20 (8.6) 205 (23.9) 78 (22.5) 44 (34.6) 29 (19.3) 13 (5.6) 164 (19.2)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 10 (6.6) 5 (2.2) 39 (4.6) 9 (2.6) 3 (2.4) 5 (3.3) 2 (0.9) 19 (2.2)   Severe: >5.0 cm 5 (1.4) 5 (3.9) 7 (4.6) 1 (0.4) 18 (2.1) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 0 4 (0.5)  Pruritusc 16 (4.6) 12 (9.4) 15 (9.9) 10 (4.3) 53 (6.2) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 7 (4.7) 7 (3.0) 32 (3.7)   Mild 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 12 (7.9) 7 (3.0) 43 (5.0) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 5 (3.3) 5 (2.2) 28 (3.3)   Moderate 3 (0.9) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 3 (1.3) 9 (1.1) 0 0 2 (1.3) 2 (0.9) 4 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0 Systemic eventd 136 (39.4) 41 (32.3) 70 (46.1) 128 (55.2) 375 (43.8) 141 (40.8) 38 (29.9) 72 (48.0) 139 (60.2) 390 (45.7)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 65 (18.8) 15 (11.8) 19 (12.5) 98 (42.2) 197 (23.0) 48 (13.9) 8 (6.3) 19 (12.7) 93 (40.3) 168 (19.7)   Headache 10 (2.9) 5 (3.9) 4 (2.6) 40 (17.2) 59 (6.9) 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 3 (2.0) 41 (17.7) 57 (6.7)   Pyrexia 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.3) 38 (16.4) 53 (6.2) 6 (1.7) 0 1 (0.7) 35 (15.2) 42 (4.9) Serious event 2 (0.6) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 6 (0.7) 2 (0.6) 2 (1.6) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 7 (0.8)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEe 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Serious event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Serious vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 344 127 148 231 850 346 126 148 231 851  Maximum temperatures (oral)f   ≥37.8°C 13 (3.8) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 38 (16.5) 57 (6.7) 12 (3.5) 1 (0.8) 3 (2.0) 38 (16.5) 54 (6.3)   ≥38.9°C 1 (0.3) 0 0 8 (3.5) 9 (1.1) 0 0 0 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Every participant is counted a single time for each applicable specific AE. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; AE, adverse event; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. N = number of participants who underwent randomization, received at least 1 dose of vaccine, and had at least 1 follow-up visit related to the AE. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. aAEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. bInjection-site events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. cIntensities of pain and itching were defined as: mild if there was an awareness of the sign or symptom but it did not interfere with usual activities; as moderate if there was enough discomfort to cause interference with usual activity; and as severe if the pain or discomfort was incapacitating, rendering the participant unable to work or carry out usual activities. dSystemic events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. eDiscontinuation due to AE was reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. fTemperatures were recorded within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. View Large Table 6. AEs in Asian Young Women (Aged 16–26 Years) from Study 001 by Vaccination Group and Country Event 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 152) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 856) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 150) Thailand (N = 231) Total (N = 854) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 304 (88.1) 108 (85.0) 137 (90.1) 211 (90.9) 760 (88.8) 297 (85.8) 103 (81.1) 130 (86.7) 206 (89.2) 736 (86.2) Injection-site eventb 294 (85.2) 104 (81.9) 133 (87.5) 201 (86.6) 732 (85.5) 269 (77.7) 101 (79.5) 123 (82.0) 192 (83.1) 685 (80.2)  Painc 286 (82.9) 104 (81.9) 131 (86.2) 199 (85.8) 720 (84.1) 260 (75.1) 100 (78.7) 119 (79.3) 189 (81.8) 668 (78.2)   Mild 216 (62.6) 63 (49.6) 76 (50.0) 103 (44.4) 458 (53.5) 217 (62.7) 76 (59.8) 86 (57.3) 93 (40.3) 472 (55.3)   Moderate 68 (19.7) 41 (32.3) 42 (27.6) 86 (37.1) 237 (27.7) 37 (10.7) 23 (18.1) 27 (18.0) 91 (39.4) 178 (20.8)   Severe 2 (0.6) 0 13 (8.6) 10 (4.3) 25 (2.9) 6 (1.7) 1 (0.8) 6 (4.0) 5 (2.2) 18 (2.1)  Swelling 160 (46.4) 57 (44.9) 79 (52.0) 71 (30.6) 367 (42.9) 99 (28.6) 53 (41.7) 53 (35.3) 63 (27.3) 268 (31.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 121 (35.1) 36 (28.3) 57 (37.5) 51 (22.0) 265 (31.0) 84 (24.3) 46 (36.2) 43 (28.7) 50 (21.6) 223 (26.1)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 27 (7.8) 14 (11.0) 11 (7.2) 15 (6.5) 67 (7.8) 12 (3.5) 5 (3.9) 6 (4.0) 11 (4.8) 34 (4.0)   Severe: >5.0 cm 11 (3.2) 7 (5.5) 11 (7.2) 5 (2.2) 34 (4.0) 3 (0.9) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.7) 2 (0.9) 11 (1.3)   Unknown 1 (0.3) 0 0 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0  Erythema 126 (36.5) 51 (40.2) 59 (38.8) 26 (11.2) 262 (30.6) 88 (25.4) 48 (37.8) 36 (24.0) 15 (6.5) 187 (21.9)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 108 (31.3) 35 (27.6) 42 (27.6) 20 (8.6) 205 (23.9) 78 (22.5) 44 (34.6) 29 (19.3) 13 (5.6) 164 (19.2)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 10 (6.6) 5 (2.2) 39 (4.6) 9 (2.6) 3 (2.4) 5 (3.3) 2 (0.9) 19 (2.2)   Severe: >5.0 cm 5 (1.4) 5 (3.9) 7 (4.6) 1 (0.4) 18 (2.1) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 0 4 (0.5)  Pruritusc 16 (4.6) 12 (9.4) 15 (9.9) 10 (4.3) 53 (6.2) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 7 (4.7) 7 (3.0) 32 (3.7)   Mild 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 12 (7.9) 7 (3.0) 43 (5.0) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 5 (3.3) 5 (2.2) 28 (3.3)   Moderate 3 (0.9) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 3 (1.3) 9 (1.1) 0 0 2 (1.3) 2 (0.9) 4 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0 Systemic eventd 136 (39.4) 41 (32.3) 70 (46.1) 128 (55.2) 375 (43.8) 141 (40.8) 38 (29.9) 72 (48.0) 139 (60.2) 390 (45.7)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 65 (18.8) 15 (11.8) 19 (12.5) 98 (42.2) 197 (23.0) 48 (13.9) 8 (6.3) 19 (12.7) 93 (40.3) 168 (19.7)   Headache 10 (2.9) 5 (3.9) 4 (2.6) 40 (17.2) 59 (6.9) 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 3 (2.0) 41 (17.7) 57 (6.7)   Pyrexia 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.3) 38 (16.4) 53 (6.2) 6 (1.7) 0 1 (0.7) 35 (15.2) 42 (4.9) Serious event 2 (0.6) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 6 (0.7) 2 (0.6) 2 (1.6) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 7 (0.8)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEe 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Serious event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Serious vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 344 127 148 231 850 346 126 148 231 851  Maximum temperatures (oral)f   ≥37.8°C 13 (3.8) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 38 (16.5) 57 (6.7) 12 (3.5) 1 (0.8) 3 (2.0) 38 (16.5) 54 (6.3)   ≥38.9°C 1 (0.3) 0 0 8 (3.5) 9 (1.1) 0 0 0 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Event 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 152) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 856) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 150) Thailand (N = 231) Total (N = 854) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 304 (88.1) 108 (85.0) 137 (90.1) 211 (90.9) 760 (88.8) 297 (85.8) 103 (81.1) 130 (86.7) 206 (89.2) 736 (86.2) Injection-site eventb 294 (85.2) 104 (81.9) 133 (87.5) 201 (86.6) 732 (85.5) 269 (77.7) 101 (79.5) 123 (82.0) 192 (83.1) 685 (80.2)  Painc 286 (82.9) 104 (81.9) 131 (86.2) 199 (85.8) 720 (84.1) 260 (75.1) 100 (78.7) 119 (79.3) 189 (81.8) 668 (78.2)   Mild 216 (62.6) 63 (49.6) 76 (50.0) 103 (44.4) 458 (53.5) 217 (62.7) 76 (59.8) 86 (57.3) 93 (40.3) 472 (55.3)   Moderate 68 (19.7) 41 (32.3) 42 (27.6) 86 (37.1) 237 (27.7) 37 (10.7) 23 (18.1) 27 (18.0) 91 (39.4) 178 (20.8)   Severe 2 (0.6) 0 13 (8.6) 10 (4.3) 25 (2.9) 6 (1.7) 1 (0.8) 6 (4.0) 5 (2.2) 18 (2.1)  Swelling 160 (46.4) 57 (44.9) 79 (52.0) 71 (30.6) 367 (42.9) 99 (28.6) 53 (41.7) 53 (35.3) 63 (27.3) 268 (31.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 121 (35.1) 36 (28.3) 57 (37.5) 51 (22.0) 265 (31.0) 84 (24.3) 46 (36.2) 43 (28.7) 50 (21.6) 223 (26.1)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 27 (7.8) 14 (11.0) 11 (7.2) 15 (6.5) 67 (7.8) 12 (3.5) 5 (3.9) 6 (4.0) 11 (4.8) 34 (4.0)   Severe: >5.0 cm 11 (3.2) 7 (5.5) 11 (7.2) 5 (2.2) 34 (4.0) 3 (0.9) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.7) 2 (0.9) 11 (1.3)   Unknown 1 (0.3) 0 0 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0  Erythema 126 (36.5) 51 (40.2) 59 (38.8) 26 (11.2) 262 (30.6) 88 (25.4) 48 (37.8) 36 (24.0) 15 (6.5) 187 (21.9)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 108 (31.3) 35 (27.6) 42 (27.6) 20 (8.6) 205 (23.9) 78 (22.5) 44 (34.6) 29 (19.3) 13 (5.6) 164 (19.2)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 10 (6.6) 5 (2.2) 39 (4.6) 9 (2.6) 3 (2.4) 5 (3.3) 2 (0.9) 19 (2.2)   Severe: >5.0 cm 5 (1.4) 5 (3.9) 7 (4.6) 1 (0.4) 18 (2.1) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 0 4 (0.5)  Pruritusc 16 (4.6) 12 (9.4) 15 (9.9) 10 (4.3) 53 (6.2) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 7 (4.7) 7 (3.0) 32 (3.7)   Mild 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 12 (7.9) 7 (3.0) 43 (5.0) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 5 (3.3) 5 (2.2) 28 (3.3)   Moderate 3 (0.9) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 3 (1.3) 9 (1.1) 0 0 2 (1.3) 2 (0.9) 4 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0 Systemic eventd 136 (39.4) 41 (32.3) 70 (46.1) 128 (55.2) 375 (43.8) 141 (40.8) 38 (29.9) 72 (48.0) 139 (60.2) 390 (45.7)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 65 (18.8) 15 (11.8) 19 (12.5) 98 (42.2) 197 (23.0) 48 (13.9) 8 (6.3) 19 (12.7) 93 (40.3) 168 (19.7)   Headache 10 (2.9) 5 (3.9) 4 (2.6) 40 (17.2) 59 (6.9) 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 3 (2.0) 41 (17.7) 57 (6.7)   Pyrexia 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.3) 38 (16.4) 53 (6.2) 6 (1.7) 0 1 (0.7) 35 (15.2) 42 (4.9) Serious event 2 (0.6) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 6 (0.7) 2 (0.6) 2 (1.6) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 7 (0.8)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEe 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Serious event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Serious vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 344 127 148 231 850 346 126 148 231 851  Maximum temperatures (oral)f   ≥37.8°C 13 (3.8) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 38 (16.5) 57 (6.7) 12 (3.5) 1 (0.8) 3 (2.0) 38 (16.5) 54 (6.3)   ≥38.9°C 1 (0.3) 0 0 8 (3.5) 9 (1.1) 0 0 0 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Every participant is counted a single time for each applicable specific AE. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; AE, adverse event; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. N = number of participants who underwent randomization, received at least 1 dose of vaccine, and had at least 1 follow-up visit related to the AE. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. aAEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. bInjection-site events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. cIntensities of pain and itching were defined as: mild if there was an awareness of the sign or symptom but it did not interfere with usual activities; as moderate if there was enough discomfort to cause interference with usual activity; and as severe if the pain or discomfort was incapacitating, rendering the participant unable to work or carry out usual activities. dSystemic events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. eDiscontinuation due to AE was reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. fTemperatures were recorded within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. View Large In Study 002 (Table 7), 62.4%, 74.4%, 71.2%, and 85.7% of girls and boys from India, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand, respectively, experienced an injection-site AE. The most common injection-site AEs were pain, swelling, and erythema; most were mild to moderate in intensity. Similar results were observed when considering only girls (Supplementary Table 10). The 9vHPV vaccine was generally well tolerated in young Indian women (Supplementary Table 11). Vaccine-related systemic AEs were more common among girls and boys from Thailand (26.4%) than those from India, South Korea, and Taiwan (4.3%–10.8%) (Table 7) but comparable with girls and boys from the overall study population (21.1%) (Supplementary Table 12). The most common vaccine-related AEs were headache and pyrexia. The frequency of vaccine-related pyrexia was higher in girls and boys from Thailand (13.6%) compared with the overall study population (7.2%) (Supplementary Table 12); vaccine-related systemic AEs were mild to moderate (Supplementary Table 12) and generally of short duration (median, 1 day) in girls and boys from Thailand (Supplementary Table 13). AEs of pyrexia occurred at both study sites in Thailand (Supplementary Table 14). Table 7. AEs in Asian Girls and Boys (Aged 9–15 Years) in Study 002 by Country Event 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 194) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 602) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 127 (65.5) 99 (76.7) 104 (74.8) 126 (90.0) 456 (75.7) Injection-site eventb 121 (62.4) 96 (74.4) 99 (71.2) 120 (85.7) 436 (72.4)  Painc 117 (60.3) 91 (70.5) 96 (69.1) 118 (84.3) 422 (70.1)   Mild 62 (32.0) 72 (55.8) 77 (55.4) 74 (52.9) 285 (47.3)   Moderate 46 (23.7) 17 (13.2) 17 (12.2) 39 (27.9) 119 (19.8)   Severe 9 (4.6) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 5 (3.6) 18 (3.0)  Swelling 46 (23.7) 26 (20.2) 40 (28.8) 35 (25.0) 147 (24.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 35 (18.0) 12 (9.3) 29 (20.9) 23 (16.4) 99 (16.4)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 8 (4.1) 8 (6.2) 8 (5.8) 8 (5.7) 32 (5.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 3 (1.5) 6 (4.7) 3 (2.2) 4 (2.9) 16 (2.7)  Erythema 36 (18.6) 34 (26.4) 39 (28.1) 13 (9.3) 122 (20.3)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 31 (16.0) 27 (20.9) 33 (23.7) 9 (6.4) 100 (16.6)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 4 (2.1) 3 (2.3) 4 (2.9) 3 (2.1) 14 (2.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 1 (0.5) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 1 (0.7) 8 (1.3)  Pruritusc 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 6 (4.3) 1 (0.7) 19 (3.2)   Mild 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 3 (2.2) 1 (0.7) 16 (2.7)   Moderate 0 0 3 (2.2) 0 3 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 0 0 0  Edemad 0 19 (14.7) 0 0 19 (3.2)   Mild 0 12 (9.3) 0 0 12 (2.0)   Moderate 0 4 (3.1) 0 0 4 (0.7)   Severe 0 3 (2.3) 0 0 3 (0.5) Systemic evente 34 (17.5) 35 (27.1) 25 (18.0) 69 (49.3) 163 (27.1)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 21 (10.8) 6 (4.7) 6 (4.3) 37 (26.4) 70 (11.6)   Headache 1 (0.5) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 15 (10.7) 20 (3.3)   Pyrexia 19 (9.8) 0 3 (2.2) 19 (13.6) 41 (6.8) Serious event 0 2 (1.6) 0 0 2 (0.3)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEf 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 194 129 139 140 602 Maximum temperatures (oral)g  ≥37.8°C 20 (10.3) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.9) 24 (17.1) 50 (8.3)  ≥38.9°C 0 0 1 (0.7) 5 (3.6) 6 (1.0) Event 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 194) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 602) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 127 (65.5) 99 (76.7) 104 (74.8) 126 (90.0) 456 (75.7) Injection-site eventb 121 (62.4) 96 (74.4) 99 (71.2) 120 (85.7) 436 (72.4)  Painc 117 (60.3) 91 (70.5) 96 (69.1) 118 (84.3) 422 (70.1)   Mild 62 (32.0) 72 (55.8) 77 (55.4) 74 (52.9) 285 (47.3)   Moderate 46 (23.7) 17 (13.2) 17 (12.2) 39 (27.9) 119 (19.8)   Severe 9 (4.6) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 5 (3.6) 18 (3.0)  Swelling 46 (23.7) 26 (20.2) 40 (28.8) 35 (25.0) 147 (24.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 35 (18.0) 12 (9.3) 29 (20.9) 23 (16.4) 99 (16.4)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 8 (4.1) 8 (6.2) 8 (5.8) 8 (5.7) 32 (5.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 3 (1.5) 6 (4.7) 3 (2.2) 4 (2.9) 16 (2.7)  Erythema 36 (18.6) 34 (26.4) 39 (28.1) 13 (9.3) 122 (20.3)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 31 (16.0) 27 (20.9) 33 (23.7) 9 (6.4) 100 (16.6)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 4 (2.1) 3 (2.3) 4 (2.9) 3 (2.1) 14 (2.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 1 (0.5) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 1 (0.7) 8 (1.3)  Pruritusc 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 6 (4.3) 1 (0.7) 19 (3.2)   Mild 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 3 (2.2) 1 (0.7) 16 (2.7)   Moderate 0 0 3 (2.2) 0 3 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 0 0 0  Edemad 0 19 (14.7) 0 0 19 (3.2)   Mild 0 12 (9.3) 0 0 12 (2.0)   Moderate 0 4 (3.1) 0 0 4 (0.7)   Severe 0 3 (2.3) 0 0 3 (0.5) Systemic evente 34 (17.5) 35 (27.1) 25 (18.0) 69 (49.3) 163 (27.1)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 21 (10.8) 6 (4.7) 6 (4.3) 37 (26.4) 70 (11.6)   Headache 1 (0.5) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 15 (10.7) 20 (3.3)   Pyrexia 19 (9.8) 0 3 (2.2) 19 (13.6) 41 (6.8) Serious event 0 2 (1.6) 0 0 2 (0.3)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEf 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 194 129 139 140 602 Maximum temperatures (oral)g  ≥37.8°C 20 (10.3) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.9) 24 (17.1) 50 (8.3)  ≥38.9°C 0 0 1 (0.7) 5 (3.6) 6 (1.0) Every participant is counted a single time for each applicable specific AE. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; AE, adverse event. N = number of participants who underwent randomization, received at least 1 dose of vaccine, and had at least 1 follow-up visit related to the AE. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. aAEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. bInjection-site events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. cIntensities of pain and itching were defined as: mild if there was an awareness of the sign or symptom but it did not interfere with usual activities; as moderate if there was enough discomfort to cause interference with usual activity; and as severe if the pain or discomfort was incapacitating, rendering the participant unable to work or carry out usual activities. dInjection-site edema was reported in 19 girls and boys from a single study site in South Korea in Study 002. Edema was not reported as an AE at other study sites in South Korea or other countries; moreover, this particular study site did not report any event of injection-site swelling, even though this would have been anticipated because injection-site swelling is one of the most common AEs following vaccination. Reports of injection-site AE of edema at this study site may be due to language-related misinterpretation (ie, even though there are 2 distinct Korean words for swelling and edema, respectively, there is also another word for both swelling and edema). eSystemic events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. fDiscontinuation due to AE was reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. gTemperatures were recorded within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. View Large Table 7. AEs in Asian Girls and Boys (Aged 9–15 Years) in Study 002 by Country Event 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 194) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 602) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 127 (65.5) 99 (76.7) 104 (74.8) 126 (90.0) 456 (75.7) Injection-site eventb 121 (62.4) 96 (74.4) 99 (71.2) 120 (85.7) 436 (72.4)  Painc 117 (60.3) 91 (70.5) 96 (69.1) 118 (84.3) 422 (70.1)   Mild 62 (32.0) 72 (55.8) 77 (55.4) 74 (52.9) 285 (47.3)   Moderate 46 (23.7) 17 (13.2) 17 (12.2) 39 (27.9) 119 (19.8)   Severe 9 (4.6) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 5 (3.6) 18 (3.0)  Swelling 46 (23.7) 26 (20.2) 40 (28.8) 35 (25.0) 147 (24.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 35 (18.0) 12 (9.3) 29 (20.9) 23 (16.4) 99 (16.4)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 8 (4.1) 8 (6.2) 8 (5.8) 8 (5.7) 32 (5.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 3 (1.5) 6 (4.7) 3 (2.2) 4 (2.9) 16 (2.7)  Erythema 36 (18.6) 34 (26.4) 39 (28.1) 13 (9.3) 122 (20.3)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 31 (16.0) 27 (20.9) 33 (23.7) 9 (6.4) 100 (16.6)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 4 (2.1) 3 (2.3) 4 (2.9) 3 (2.1) 14 (2.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 1 (0.5) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 1 (0.7) 8 (1.3)  Pruritusc 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 6 (4.3) 1 (0.7) 19 (3.2)   Mild 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 3 (2.2) 1 (0.7) 16 (2.7)   Moderate 0 0 3 (2.2) 0 3 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 0 0 0  Edemad 0 19 (14.7) 0 0 19 (3.2)   Mild 0 12 (9.3) 0 0 12 (2.0)   Moderate 0 4 (3.1) 0 0 4 (0.7)   Severe 0 3 (2.3) 0 0 3 (0.5) Systemic evente 34 (17.5) 35 (27.1) 25 (18.0) 69 (49.3) 163 (27.1)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 21 (10.8) 6 (4.7) 6 (4.3) 37 (26.4) 70 (11.6)   Headache 1 (0.5) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 15 (10.7) 20 (3.3)   Pyrexia 19 (9.8) 0 3 (2.2) 19 (13.6) 41 (6.8) Serious event 0 2 (1.6) 0 0 2 (0.3)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEf 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 194 129 139 140 602 Maximum temperatures (oral)g  ≥37.8°C 20 (10.3) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.9) 24 (17.1) 50 (8.3)  ≥38.9°C 0 0 1 (0.7) 5 (3.6) 6 (1.0) Event 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 194) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 602) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 127 (65.5) 99 (76.7) 104 (74.8) 126 (90.0) 456 (75.7) Injection-site eventb 121 (62.4) 96 (74.4) 99 (71.2) 120 (85.7) 436 (72.4)  Painc 117 (60.3) 91 (70.5) 96 (69.1) 118 (84.3) 422 (70.1)   Mild 62 (32.0) 72 (55.8) 77 (55.4) 74 (52.9) 285 (47.3)   Moderate 46 (23.7) 17 (13.2) 17 (12.2) 39 (27.9) 119 (19.8)   Severe 9 (4.6) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 5 (3.6) 18 (3.0)  Swelling 46 (23.7) 26 (20.2) 40 (28.8) 35 (25.0) 147 (24.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 35 (18.0) 12 (9.3) 29 (20.9) 23 (16.4) 99 (16.4)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 8 (4.1) 8 (6.2) 8 (5.8) 8 (5.7) 32 (5.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 3 (1.5) 6 (4.7) 3 (2.2) 4 (2.9) 16 (2.7)  Erythema 36 (18.6) 34 (26.4) 39 (28.1) 13 (9.3) 122 (20.3)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 31 (16.0) 27 (20.9) 33 (23.7) 9 (6.4) 100 (16.6)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 4 (2.1) 3 (2.3) 4 (2.9) 3 (2.1) 14 (2.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 1 (0.5) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 1 (0.7) 8 (1.3)  Pruritusc 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 6 (4.3) 1 (0.7) 19 (3.2)   Mild 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 3 (2.2) 1 (0.7) 16 (2.7)   Moderate 0 0 3 (2.2) 0 3 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 0 0 0  Edemad 0 19 (14.7) 0 0 19 (3.2)   Mild 0 12 (9.3) 0 0 12 (2.0)   Moderate 0 4 (3.1) 0 0 4 (0.7)   Severe 0 3 (2.3) 0 0 3 (0.5) Systemic evente 34 (17.5) 35 (27.1) 25 (18.0) 69 (49.3) 163 (27.1)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 21 (10.8) 6 (4.7) 6 (4.3) 37 (26.4) 70 (11.6)   Headache 1 (0.5) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 15 (10.7) 20 (3.3)   Pyrexia 19 (9.8) 0 3 (2.2) 19 (13.6) 41 (6.8) Serious event 0 2 (1.6) 0 0 2 (0.3)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEf 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 194 129 139 140 602 Maximum temperatures (oral)g  ≥37.8°C 20 (10.3) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.9) 24 (17.1) 50 (8.3)  ≥38.9°C 0 0 1 (0.7) 5 (3.6) 6 (1.0) Every participant is counted a single time for each applicable specific AE. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; AE, adverse event. N = number of participants who underwent randomization, received at least 1 dose of vaccine, and had at least 1 follow-up visit related to the AE. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. aAEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. bInjection-site events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. cIntensities of pain and itching were defined as: mild if there was an awareness of the sign or symptom but it did not interfere with usual activities; as moderate if there was enough discomfort to cause interference with usual activity; and as severe if the pain or discomfort was incapacitating, rendering the participant unable to work or carry out usual activities. dInjection-site edema was reported in 19 girls and boys from a single study site in South Korea in Study 002. Edema was not reported as an AE at other study sites in South Korea or other countries; moreover, this particular study site did not report any event of injection-site swelling, even though this would have been anticipated because injection-site swelling is one of the most common AEs following vaccination. Reports of injection-site AE of edema at this study site may be due to language-related misinterpretation (ie, even though there are 2 distinct Korean words for swelling and edema, respectively, there is also another word for both swelling and edema). eSystemic events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. fDiscontinuation due to AE was reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. gTemperatures were recorded within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. View Large In both studies, discontinuations due to AEs were rare (9vHPV, n = 2; qHPV, n = 1; see Supplementary Material for details). No serious vaccine-related AEs were reported among Asian participants for the entire study duration. Three Asian participants (all from Study 001) died during the entire course of the study (see the Supplementary Material for more information); none of the deaths were considered vaccine related. DISCUSSION The 9vHPV vaccine markedly reduced the risk of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection, cervical cytological abnormalities, disease, and medical procedures in Asian participants. Consistent with the HPV type distribution observed in epidemiological studies in Asia, HPV-52 and HPV-58 were most commonly associated with persistent infections and cervical cytological abnormalities in participants who received the qHPV vaccine [1, 6, 31]. In the mITT analyses, nearly all cases of persistent infection and cervical cytological abnormalities and disease occurred among participants who were infected with HPV before vaccination, which highlights the value of implementing vaccination before exposure to HPV. The 9vHPV vaccine induced robust anti–HPV-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 antibody responses, with seroconversion rates ≥97.9%. GMTs to HPV-6/11/16/18 were generally comparable between 9vHPV and qHPV vaccine recipients, although GMTs for HPV-11 tended to be lower with 9vHPV vaccine. This is similar to observations in the overall study population and may not be clinically meaningful, as robust HPV-11 antibody responses were observed with both vaccines and no cases of HPV-11–related persistent infection or disease were observed in per-protocol analyses [18, 19]. GMTs to all 9 included HPV types were higher in girls and boys compared with young women from the same country, similar to previous reports in other regions (including Europe, Latin America, and North America [32], and Japan [25]). The 9vHPV vaccine was generally well tolerated in all subgroups. Injection-site AEs were generally more frequent with the 9vHPV vaccine than the qHPV vaccine, as previously observed in the overall study population [18]. Rates of vaccine-related systemic AEs were generally lower among Asian participants than in the overall population. Participants from Thailand, however, were more likely to experience vaccine-related AEs, due to a higher frequency of low-grade, short-lived fevers. The reasons for these differences are unknown; however, their impact is limited, and they do not appear to represent a clinical concern. Overall, the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety profile of the 9vHPV vaccine was generally consistent with published results from the overall study populations [18–20]. Real-world experience in the 10 years following introduction of qHPV and bivalent HPV vaccines has demonstrated that vaccination prevents HPV infections and HPV-related disease and supports the favorable safety profile of HPV vaccines [9, 33, 34]. A recent meta-analysis found that HPV vaccines were highly immunogenic and well tolerated in Asian populations, consistent with international HPV vaccination studies [35]. Vaccination programs may represent the most effective prevention strategies in countries without organized cervical cancer screening programs [3, 36]. This is relevant to Asia, which contributes over half of the global cervical cancer burden, and where comprehensive, organized screening programs have not been widely implemented [4]. The 9vHPV vaccine can provide additional benefits over bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines by expanding coverage to HPV-31/33/45/52/58. The expansion of vaccine coverage to HPV-52/58 is of particular importance in Asia due to the relatively high prevalence of these types (see Supplementary Material) [1, 12]. The robust reduction of HPV-52– and HPV-58–related persistent infection and cervical cytological abnormalities in 9vHPV vaccine recipients should inform cervical screening algorithms in vaccinated populations in Asia. HPV vaccination is considered likely to be cost effective in preventing HPV-associated cancers, particularly in developing countries with limited access to other forms of cervical cancer prevention and control [37–39]. Based on studies using Japanese, US and Austrian data, a vaccination program for 9vHPV is expected to improve health outcomes and be cost effective compared with programs implemented with bivalent or qHPV vaccines [40–43]. Although several Asian countries have licensed bivalent or qHPV vaccines, few have implemented national HPV vaccination programs to date [3–5], and only approximately 0.2% of Asian women have received a full course of HPV vaccination, compared with 1.4% worldwide [3]. In Malaysia, a national school-based HPV vaccination program has been in place since 2010 and achieved a high degree of coverage [3–5]. Pilot programs had been implemented in India and Thailand as of 2015 [3]. Issues related to loss of public confidence in vaccination and misperceptions surrounding vaccine safety have emerged in some regions [44–46], despite data from large epidemiological studies and active surveillance programs by national and international organizations, which overwhelmingly support the safety of HPV vaccination [47–49]. As misperceptions regarding vaccine safety and clusters of anxiety-related immunization reactions can have damaging consequences for vaccination programs [46, 50], health care professionals and authorities must be prepared to respond to these challenges in implementing successful vaccination programs [50]. In conclusion, the 9vHPV vaccine is efficacious, immunogenic, and generally well tolerated in clinical studies in Asian girls, boys, and young women, consistent with findings in the global clinical program. These data support widespread vaccination programs in Asia. This information may represent valuable insight for decision-making purposes regarding implementation of vaccination programs/HPV-related disease prevention. Supplementary Data Supplementary materials are available at The Journal of Infectious Diseases online. Consisting of data provided by the authors to benefit the reader, the posted materials are not copyedited and are the sole responsibility of the authors, so questions or comments should be addressed to the corresponding author. Notes Acknowledgments. Medical writing support was provided by Erin Bekes, PhD, of Complete Medical Communications and was funded by Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. Primary Investigators in Asia, Study V503-001: Hong-Kong: Tak-Hong Cheung, Yuen-Sheung Hextan Ngan; Japan: Hideki Hanashi, Masaru Sakamoto, Nobuhiro Takeshima, Yuzuru Takeuchi, Wataru Tsunezawa; South Korea: Chi-Heum Cho, Byoung Gie Kim, Seung Cheol Kim, Young Tak Kim, Hee-Sug Ryu, Yong Sang Song; Taiwan: Chi-An Chen, Hung-Hsueh Chou, Tang-Yuan Chu, Chung-Yuan Lee, Nae-Fang Twu, Yuh-Cheng Yang, Mu-Hsien Yu; Thailand: Nipon Khemapech, Sompong Koonlerkit, Sutham Pinjaroen, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Sarikapan Wilailak. Study V503-002: India: Amaresh Adyar, Neerja Bhatla, Sukanta Chatterjee, Hemant Jain, Sanjay Lalwani, Sudha Marwah, Daljit Singh; Korea: Chi-Heum Cho, Jin Han Kang, Dongsoo Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim; Taiwan: Li-Min Huang, Tzou-Yien Liu, Horng-Der Tsai; Thailand: Punnee Pitisuttithum, Rudiwilai Samakoses. Financial support. This work was supported by Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. Potential conflicts of interest. S. M. G. has received grants from Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, GlaxoSmithKline, CSL, and Commonwealth Department of Health through her institution, travel, and accommodation expenses paid by Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, to present at HPV advisory board meetings, and has delivered lectures and received speaking fees from Merck Sharpe & Dohme (MSD) and SPMSD for work performed in her personal time. L.-M. H. has received personal fees as a lecturer for educational symposium from MSD, a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. N. B. has received research funding through her institution for this study. H. Y. has received lecture and advisory fees from GlaxoSmithKline K.K. and MSD K.K., Tokyo, Japan. M. C. E., E. M., M. R., C. S., A. W., G. P., and A. L. are employees of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, and may have received stock/stock options. S. R. H., S. M., and M. S. are employees of MSD K.K., Tokyo, Japan. 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Statement on safety of HPV vaccines . http://www.who.int/vaccine_safety/committee/GACVS_HPV_statement_17Dec2015.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 20 June 2017 . 50. World Health Organization (WHO) . Guide to introducing HPV vaccine into national immunization programmes . http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/253123/1/9789241549769-eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 15 March 2017 . © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. 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Oxford University Press
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© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
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0022-1899
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Abstract

Abstract Background A 9-valent human papillomavirus-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 (9vHPV) vaccine extends coverage to 5 next most common oncogenic types (31/33/45/52/58) in cervical cancer versus quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine. We describe efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety in Asian participants (India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand) from 2 international studies: a randomized, double-blinded, qHPV vaccine-controlled efficacy study (young women aged 16–26 years; NCT00543543; Study 001); and an immunogenicity study (girls and boys aged 9–15 years; NCT00943722; Study 002). Methods Participants (N = 2519) were vaccinated at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Gynecological samples (Study 001 only) and serum were collected for HPV DNA and antibody assessments, respectively. Injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) were monitored. Data were analyzed by country and vaccination group. Results 9vHPV vaccine prevented HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection with 90.4%–100% efficacy across included countries. At month 7, ≥97.9% of participants seroconverted for each HPV type. Injection-site AEs occurred in 77.7%–83.1% and 81.9%–87.5% of qHPV and 9vHPV vaccine recipients in Study 001, respectively, and 62.4%–85.7% of girls/boys in Study 002; most were mild to moderate. Conclusions The 9vHPV vaccine is efficacious, immunogenic, and well tolerated in Asian participants. Data support 9vHPV vaccination programs in Asia. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00543543; NCT00943722. 9vHPV, Asia, cervical cancer, human papillomavirus, vaccine Approximately 280000 new cervical cancers and over 140000 related deaths occur annually in Asia (based on 2012 data [1, 2]). An additional approximately 40000 new annual cases of other human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers (vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers) are estimated to affect Asian men and women [2]. Access to cervical cancer screening is highly variable in the region, and interventions for high-grade dysplasia are generally limited [1, 3–5]. Prophylactic HPV vaccination represents a unique opportunity to reduce the burden of HPV-associated disease. Bivalent HPV-16/18 and quadrivalent HPV-6/11/16/18 (qHPV) vaccines introduced over the past decade have potential to prevent the approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases attributable to HPV-16/18, both worldwide and within Asia [6]. The qHPV vaccine also protects against the approximately 90% of genital warts cases associated with HPV-6/11 [7]. Partial and inconsistent cross-protection against phylogenetically related oncogenic HPV types (31/33/45) has been observed for both vaccines in clinical studies [8]; however, its extent, duration, and public health significance remain uncertain [8–11]. The 9-valent HPV (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine (9vHPV vaccine; Gardasil 9, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA) extends coverage to HPV-31/33/45/52/58, which are next most commonly associated with cervical cancer globally [6, 12, 13]. Global epidemiological data indicate that the 9vHPV vaccine has potential to prevent approximately 90% of cervical cancers and HPV-related vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers, 70%–85% of cervical precancerous lesions, and 90% of anogenital warts [7, 14–17]. Based on HPV subtype distribution across Asia, the 9vHPV vaccine may offer even greater cervical cancer protection (approximately 92% of cases) in Asia [6, 17], possibly because of the higher relative contributions of HPV-52 and HPV-58 (see Supplementary Material for more information). In an international phase 2b/3 trial (Study 001 [18, 19]), the 9vHPV vaccine demonstrated 97% efficacy against HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related infection and disease and elicited noninferior antibody responses to HPV-6/11/16/18 compared with the qHPV vaccine in young women 16–26 years of age. In a separate phase 3 trial (Study 002), antibody responses to HPV-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 in girls and boys aged 9–15 years were noninferior to those among young women aged 16–26 years following 9vHPV vaccination, thereby supporting the bridging of efficacy findings with 9vHPV vaccine from young women to girls and boys [20]. These 2 studies included participants from multiple Asian countries (Hong Kong, India, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand), highlighting the regional importance of HPV-related disease in these countries. Given the specific epidemiology of HPV in East Asia (higher prevalence of HPV-52/58; see Supplementary Material for more information), it is of interest to assess the impact of the 9vHPV vaccine on the incidence of persistent infection and cervical cytological abnormalities, disease, and medical procedures related to these 2 HPV types in the subgroup of Asian participants: differences between the Asian subgroup and the overall study population may not be apparent in the overall analyses, as Asian participants represent 12% of the population enrolled in Study 001. Also, few studies have reported the incidence of cervical cytological abnormalities related to HPV-52 and HPV-58 in populations from East Asia. Subpopulation analyses of efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety in Asian participants enrolled in Study 001 and 002 were conducted to better understand the potential impact of the 9vHPV vaccine on reducing the burden of HPV-related infection and disease in the region, and help support public health decisions regarding HPV vaccination programs in Asia. METHODS Study Design and Population Study 001 (Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA Protocol V503-001 [NCT00543543]) [18, 19, 21–23] was a randomized, double-blind, qHPV vaccine-controlled study that evaluated 9vHPV vaccine efficacy in 14215 young women (aged 16–26 years) across 105 sites and 18 countries worldwide, including 25 sites in 5 Asian countries (Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand; N = 1717; Supplementary Table 1). All Asian participants randomized in the efficacy study were included in the subgroup analysis; those who received low or high doses of 9vHPV vaccine during the dose selection phase (69 participants from Taiwan) were not included. Data from participants from Hong Kong and Taiwan were pooled, as these individuals were considered to be part of the same ethnic group (Chinese). Study 002 (Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA Protocol V503-002 [NCT00943722]) [20, 24] assessed immunogenicity and safety of the 9vHPV vaccine in girls and boys (aged 9–15 years) compared with young women (aged 16–26 years) across 72 sites in 17 countries (N = 3074), including 16 sites in 4 Asian countries (India, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand; N = 733; Supplementary Table 1). All randomized girls and boys from these countries were included in the subgroup analysis. Data from girls and boys were pooled within each country. Because only small numbers of women from South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand (20, 20, and 60, respectively) were enrolled in Study 002 (only 1 site enrolled young women in each of these countries) and substantial numbers of young women from these countries had participated in Study 001 (307, 531, and 465, respectively) (Supplementary Table 1), women from Study 001 were used as the comparator. Immunogenicity and safety data for Indian young women who participated in Study 002 are described, because Study 001 did not include this country. Study 002 did not include Japanese participants; a separate immunogenicity and safety study of the 9vHPV vaccine was conducted in a group of 100 Japanese girls (Study V503-008 [NCT01254643]), as reported separately [25]. Studies 001 and 002 were performed in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice and were approved by the appropriate institutional review boards and regulatory agencies. All participants provided written, informed consent before study participation in accordance with local laws and regulations. Vaccination and Follow-up The 9vHPV vaccine (both studies) and qHPV vaccine (control arm of Study 001) were administered as a series of 3 intramuscular doses on day 1 and at months 2 and 6. In Study 001, cervical cytology samples and cervical and external genital swabs for detection of HPV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were collected on day 1 and at months 7, 12, and every 6 months thereafter up to month 54. Participants with cervical cytological abnormalities were referred for colposcopy, based on a protocol-specified algorithm [18, 19, 22]. Tissue samples were adjudicated by a pathology panel and tested for HPV by PCR, as previously described [22, 26, 27]. Serum levels of vaccine HPV-type antibodies were assessed at day 1 and month 7 using a 9-valent competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA) [28]. Antibody titers for each individual HPV type were determined through competition with type-specific monoclonal antibodies, so it is not possible to directly compare assay results across HPV types. Following each vaccination, participants recorded their oral temperature for 5 days and injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) for 15 days on vaccination report cards [29]. AE causality was determined by the study site investigator as previously described [29]. Serious AEs (SAEs) were prespecified as those considered life threatening by the investigator or resulted in death, significant disability or incapacity, or new or prolonged existing hospitalization, or were a congenital anomaly, cancer, or “other important medical event”. Statistical Analyses Efficacy was evaluated in the per-protocol efficacy (PPE) population of Study 001, defined as participants who: (1) were seronegative on day 1 and PCR negative from day 1 through month 7 for the HPV type being analyzed; (2) received all 3 doses of assigned vaccine within 1 year; and (3) had no protocol violations that could interfere with the evaluation of vaccine efficacy, as judged by the study director. Supportive analyses were conducted in the HPV type-specific naïve (HNTS) population, consisting of participants who were seronegative and PCR negative on day 1 for the HPV type being analyzed, received at least 1 dose of the 9vHPV or qHPV vaccine, and had efficacy follow-up after day 1; and in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population, consisting of participants who received at least 1 dose of the 9vHPV or qHPV vaccine and had efficacy follow-up after day 1. Combined incidence of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease (any grade), combined incidence of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical cytological abnormalities, and combined incidence of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection, as well as incidence by HPV type, are presented using incidence rates (cases per 10000 person-years), vaccine efficacy, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Vaccine efficacy was calculated as 100 × (1 − 9vHPV vaccine incidence rate / qHPV vaccine incidence rate). The 95% CI of vaccine efficacy was calculated with the use of a binomial distribution-based exact method [30]. Immunogenicity was assessed in the per-protocol immunogenicity populations from each study, which included participants who: (1) were seronegative on day 1 and (for young women aged 16–26 years) PCR-negative from day 1 through month 7 for the HPV type being analyzed; (2) received all 3 vaccinations within prespecified visit intervals and had available month 7 serology results obtained within a prespecified interval; and (3) had no protocol violations that could interfere with the evaluation of the immune response to vaccine, as judged by the study director. For each HPV type, the geometric mean titer (GMT) and 95% CIs were estimated using an analysis of variance model, with log anti-HPV as the response and vaccination group as the fixed effect. Seroconversion rates and exact 95% CIs for a binomial proportion were also calculated. All of these evaluations were post hoc analyses; therefore, no statistical hypothesis tests were performed. Nonoverlapping 95% CIs were used as indicators of differences of immune response. Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least 1 study vaccination and had follow-up data. AEs, SAEs, and AEs leading to discontinuation were summarized by vaccination group in subgroups of participants defined by country of residence. RESULTS Participants Of the 14215 young women randomized in the efficacy study (Study 001), 1717 (12.0%) were enrolled at sites in Asia. Participant baseline characteristics are shown in Table 1. Japanese participants tended to have more lifetime sexual partners than other Asian participants. Across countries, 31.0%–47.8% of participants were HPV positive at baseline (by serology or PCR), with highest rates in Japan and Thailand (Table 1). Proportions of participants testing positive for HPV by PCR or serology are shown in Supplementary Tables 2 and 3, respectively. Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of Asian Participants (Young Women Aged 16–26 Years) in Study 001 by Country Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 154) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 858) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 153) Thailand (N = 233) Total (N = 859) Age, y  Mean ± SD 23.7 ± 1.9 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.8 22.4 ± 2.7 23.2 ± 2.2 23.8 ± 2.0 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.9 22.0 ± 2.6 23.1 ± 2.3  Median 24.0 23.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 22.0 23.0  Range 19–26 18–26 19–26 16–26 16–26 17–26 18–26 18–26 16–26 16–26 Age at first sexual intercourse, y  Mean ± SD 18.9 ± 2.5 17.7 ± 1.9 20.9 ± 2.2 18.0 ± 2.7 18.8 ± 2.7 19.1 ± 2.3 17.6 ± 1.9 21.2 ± 2.2 17.7 ± 2.2 18.8 ± 2.5 Smoking status, No. (%)  Current smoker 28 (8.1) 31 (24.4) 15 (9.7) 17 (7.3) 91 (10.6) 32 (9.2) 37 (29.1) 14 (9.2) 14 (6.0) 97 (11.3)  Former smoker 15 (4.3) 12 (9.4) 7 (4.5) 16 (6.9) 50 (5.8) 14 (4.0) 12 (9.4) 8 (5.2) 7 (3.0) 41 (4.8)  Never smoked 302 (87.5) 84 (66.1) 130 (84.4) 199 (85.8) 715 (83.3) 299 (86.4) 78 (61.4) 130 (85.0) 212 (91.0) 719 (83.7)  Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) Lifetime sexual partners, No. (%)a  1 143 (41.4) 23 (18.1) 54 (35.1) 121 (52.2) 341 (39.7) 135 (39.0) 21 (16.5) 60 (39.5) 131 (56.2) 347 (40.4)  2 86 (24.9) 15 (11.8) 45 (29.2) 73 (31.5) 219 (25.5) 95 (27.5) 21 (16.5) 29 (19.1) 63 (27.0) 208 (24.2)  3 79 (22.9) 37 (29.1) 24 (15.6) 28 (12.1) 168 (19.6) 72 (20.8) 33 (26.0) 31 (20.4) 26 (11.2) 162 (18.9)  4 30 (8.7) 49 (38.6) 21 (13.6) 10 (4.3) 110 (12.8) 34 (9.8) 42 (33.1) 18 (11.8) 13 (5.6) 107 (12.5)  >4 6 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 7 (0.8) 10 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 13 (1.5) Non-HPV–related cervicovaginal infections or sexually transmitted diseases, No. (%)  Any 15 (4.3) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 29 (12.5) 61 (7.1) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 23 (9.9) 61 (7.1)  Chlamydia 12 (3.5) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 28 (12.1) 57 (6.6) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 22 (9.4) 60 (7.0)  Gonorrhea 4 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4) 5 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Contraceptive use, No. (%)b  Barrier 261 (75.7) 59 (46.5) 64 (41.6) 60 (25.9) 444 (51.7) 259 (74.9) 60 (47.6) 58 (38.4) 70 (30.0) 447 (52.2)  Behavior 100 (29.0) 80 (63.0) 82 (53.2) 15 (6.5) 277 (32.3) 96 (27.7) 73 (57.9) 84 (55.6) 12 (5.2) 265 (31.0)  Hormonal 41 (11.9) 11 (8.7) 5 (3.2) 140 (60.3) 197 (23.0) 40 (11.6) 8 (6.3) 6 (4.0) 143 (61.4) 197 (23.0) Day 1 composite HPV positivity, No./total No. (%)c  Serologic test 88/344 (25.6) 47/127 (37.0) 48/151 (31.8) 99/232 (42.7) 282/854 (33.0) 73/344 (21.2) 31/127 (24.4) 46/149 (30.9) 94/233 (40.3) 244/853 (28.6)  PCR assay 38/331 (11.5) 32/126 (25.4) 23/147 (15.6) 44/229 (19.2) 137/833 (16.4) 35/335 (10.4) 25/123 (20.3) 30/143 (21.0) 42/228 (18.4) 132/829 (15.9)  Serologic test or PCR assay 104/336 (31.0) 58/127 (45.7) 58/148 (39.2) 110/230 (47.8) 330/841 (39.2) 88/335 (26.3) 46/125 (36.8) 56/145 (38.6) 106/231 (45.9) 296/836 (35.4) Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 154) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 858) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 153) Thailand (N = 233) Total (N = 859) Age, y  Mean ± SD 23.7 ± 1.9 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.8 22.4 ± 2.7 23.2 ± 2.2 23.8 ± 2.0 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.9 22.0 ± 2.6 23.1 ± 2.3  Median 24.0 23.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 22.0 23.0  Range 19–26 18–26 19–26 16–26 16–26 17–26 18–26 18–26 16–26 16–26 Age at first sexual intercourse, y  Mean ± SD 18.9 ± 2.5 17.7 ± 1.9 20.9 ± 2.2 18.0 ± 2.7 18.8 ± 2.7 19.1 ± 2.3 17.6 ± 1.9 21.2 ± 2.2 17.7 ± 2.2 18.8 ± 2.5 Smoking status, No. (%)  Current smoker 28 (8.1) 31 (24.4) 15 (9.7) 17 (7.3) 91 (10.6) 32 (9.2) 37 (29.1) 14 (9.2) 14 (6.0) 97 (11.3)  Former smoker 15 (4.3) 12 (9.4) 7 (4.5) 16 (6.9) 50 (5.8) 14 (4.0) 12 (9.4) 8 (5.2) 7 (3.0) 41 (4.8)  Never smoked 302 (87.5) 84 (66.1) 130 (84.4) 199 (85.8) 715 (83.3) 299 (86.4) 78 (61.4) 130 (85.0) 212 (91.0) 719 (83.7)  Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) Lifetime sexual partners, No. (%)a  1 143 (41.4) 23 (18.1) 54 (35.1) 121 (52.2) 341 (39.7) 135 (39.0) 21 (16.5) 60 (39.5) 131 (56.2) 347 (40.4)  2 86 (24.9) 15 (11.8) 45 (29.2) 73 (31.5) 219 (25.5) 95 (27.5) 21 (16.5) 29 (19.1) 63 (27.0) 208 (24.2)  3 79 (22.9) 37 (29.1) 24 (15.6) 28 (12.1) 168 (19.6) 72 (20.8) 33 (26.0) 31 (20.4) 26 (11.2) 162 (18.9)  4 30 (8.7) 49 (38.6) 21 (13.6) 10 (4.3) 110 (12.8) 34 (9.8) 42 (33.1) 18 (11.8) 13 (5.6) 107 (12.5)  >4 6 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 7 (0.8) 10 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 13 (1.5) Non-HPV–related cervicovaginal infections or sexually transmitted diseases, No. (%)  Any 15 (4.3) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 29 (12.5) 61 (7.1) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 23 (9.9) 61 (7.1)  Chlamydia 12 (3.5) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 28 (12.1) 57 (6.6) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 22 (9.4) 60 (7.0)  Gonorrhea 4 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4) 5 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Contraceptive use, No. (%)b  Barrier 261 (75.7) 59 (46.5) 64 (41.6) 60 (25.9) 444 (51.7) 259 (74.9) 60 (47.6) 58 (38.4) 70 (30.0) 447 (52.2)  Behavior 100 (29.0) 80 (63.0) 82 (53.2) 15 (6.5) 277 (32.3) 96 (27.7) 73 (57.9) 84 (55.6) 12 (5.2) 265 (31.0)  Hormonal 41 (11.9) 11 (8.7) 5 (3.2) 140 (60.3) 197 (23.0) 40 (11.6) 8 (6.3) 6 (4.0) 143 (61.4) 197 (23.0) Day 1 composite HPV positivity, No./total No. (%)c  Serologic test 88/344 (25.6) 47/127 (37.0) 48/151 (31.8) 99/232 (42.7) 282/854 (33.0) 73/344 (21.2) 31/127 (24.4) 46/149 (30.9) 94/233 (40.3) 244/853 (28.6)  PCR assay 38/331 (11.5) 32/126 (25.4) 23/147 (15.6) 44/229 (19.2) 137/833 (16.4) 35/335 (10.4) 25/123 (20.3) 30/143 (21.0) 42/228 (18.4) 132/829 (15.9)  Serologic test or PCR assay 104/336 (31.0) 58/127 (45.7) 58/148 (39.2) 110/230 (47.8) 330/841 (39.2) 88/335 (26.3) 46/125 (36.8) 56/145 (38.6) 106/231 (45.9) 296/836 (35.4) Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; SD, standard deviation; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. aThe percentages for the number of lifetime sexual partners were calculated on the basis of the number of participants for whom there were data on sexual history at enrollment. bParticipants may have used more than 1 contraceptive method. A participant is counted once within a category and may be counted in more than 1 category. The percentages for the numbers of participants who used contraceptives were based on the number for whom this information was available. cPositivity was defined as an anti-HPV titer on immunoassay of at least 30, 16, 20, 24, 10, 8, 8, 8, and 8 for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively. The numerator in this category represents the number of HPV-positive participants, and the denominator the total number of participants with assay results that could be evaluated. View Large Table 1. Baseline Characteristics of Asian Participants (Young Women Aged 16–26 Years) in Study 001 by Country Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 154) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 858) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 153) Thailand (N = 233) Total (N = 859) Age, y  Mean ± SD 23.7 ± 1.9 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.8 22.4 ± 2.7 23.2 ± 2.2 23.8 ± 2.0 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.9 22.0 ± 2.6 23.1 ± 2.3  Median 24.0 23.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 22.0 23.0  Range 19–26 18–26 19–26 16–26 16–26 17–26 18–26 18–26 16–26 16–26 Age at first sexual intercourse, y  Mean ± SD 18.9 ± 2.5 17.7 ± 1.9 20.9 ± 2.2 18.0 ± 2.7 18.8 ± 2.7 19.1 ± 2.3 17.6 ± 1.9 21.2 ± 2.2 17.7 ± 2.2 18.8 ± 2.5 Smoking status, No. (%)  Current smoker 28 (8.1) 31 (24.4) 15 (9.7) 17 (7.3) 91 (10.6) 32 (9.2) 37 (29.1) 14 (9.2) 14 (6.0) 97 (11.3)  Former smoker 15 (4.3) 12 (9.4) 7 (4.5) 16 (6.9) 50 (5.8) 14 (4.0) 12 (9.4) 8 (5.2) 7 (3.0) 41 (4.8)  Never smoked 302 (87.5) 84 (66.1) 130 (84.4) 199 (85.8) 715 (83.3) 299 (86.4) 78 (61.4) 130 (85.0) 212 (91.0) 719 (83.7)  Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) Lifetime sexual partners, No. (%)a  1 143 (41.4) 23 (18.1) 54 (35.1) 121 (52.2) 341 (39.7) 135 (39.0) 21 (16.5) 60 (39.5) 131 (56.2) 347 (40.4)  2 86 (24.9) 15 (11.8) 45 (29.2) 73 (31.5) 219 (25.5) 95 (27.5) 21 (16.5) 29 (19.1) 63 (27.0) 208 (24.2)  3 79 (22.9) 37 (29.1) 24 (15.6) 28 (12.1) 168 (19.6) 72 (20.8) 33 (26.0) 31 (20.4) 26 (11.2) 162 (18.9)  4 30 (8.7) 49 (38.6) 21 (13.6) 10 (4.3) 110 (12.8) 34 (9.8) 42 (33.1) 18 (11.8) 13 (5.6) 107 (12.5)  >4 6 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 7 (0.8) 10 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 13 (1.5) Non-HPV–related cervicovaginal infections or sexually transmitted diseases, No. (%)  Any 15 (4.3) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 29 (12.5) 61 (7.1) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 23 (9.9) 61 (7.1)  Chlamydia 12 (3.5) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 28 (12.1) 57 (6.6) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 22 (9.4) 60 (7.0)  Gonorrhea 4 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4) 5 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Contraceptive use, No. (%)b  Barrier 261 (75.7) 59 (46.5) 64 (41.6) 60 (25.9) 444 (51.7) 259 (74.9) 60 (47.6) 58 (38.4) 70 (30.0) 447 (52.2)  Behavior 100 (29.0) 80 (63.0) 82 (53.2) 15 (6.5) 277 (32.3) 96 (27.7) 73 (57.9) 84 (55.6) 12 (5.2) 265 (31.0)  Hormonal 41 (11.9) 11 (8.7) 5 (3.2) 140 (60.3) 197 (23.0) 40 (11.6) 8 (6.3) 6 (4.0) 143 (61.4) 197 (23.0) Day 1 composite HPV positivity, No./total No. (%)c  Serologic test 88/344 (25.6) 47/127 (37.0) 48/151 (31.8) 99/232 (42.7) 282/854 (33.0) 73/344 (21.2) 31/127 (24.4) 46/149 (30.9) 94/233 (40.3) 244/853 (28.6)  PCR assay 38/331 (11.5) 32/126 (25.4) 23/147 (15.6) 44/229 (19.2) 137/833 (16.4) 35/335 (10.4) 25/123 (20.3) 30/143 (21.0) 42/228 (18.4) 132/829 (15.9)  Serologic test or PCR assay 104/336 (31.0) 58/127 (45.7) 58/148 (39.2) 110/230 (47.8) 330/841 (39.2) 88/335 (26.3) 46/125 (36.8) 56/145 (38.6) 106/231 (45.9) 296/836 (35.4) Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 154) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 858) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 153) Thailand (N = 233) Total (N = 859) Age, y  Mean ± SD 23.7 ± 1.9 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.8 22.4 ± 2.7 23.2 ± 2.2 23.8 ± 2.0 22.9 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.9 22.0 ± 2.6 23.1 ± 2.3  Median 24.0 23.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 24.0 23.0 24.0 22.0 23.0  Range 19–26 18–26 19–26 16–26 16–26 17–26 18–26 18–26 16–26 16–26 Age at first sexual intercourse, y  Mean ± SD 18.9 ± 2.5 17.7 ± 1.9 20.9 ± 2.2 18.0 ± 2.7 18.8 ± 2.7 19.1 ± 2.3 17.6 ± 1.9 21.2 ± 2.2 17.7 ± 2.2 18.8 ± 2.5 Smoking status, No. (%)  Current smoker 28 (8.1) 31 (24.4) 15 (9.7) 17 (7.3) 91 (10.6) 32 (9.2) 37 (29.1) 14 (9.2) 14 (6.0) 97 (11.3)  Former smoker 15 (4.3) 12 (9.4) 7 (4.5) 16 (6.9) 50 (5.8) 14 (4.0) 12 (9.4) 8 (5.2) 7 (3.0) 41 (4.8)  Never smoked 302 (87.5) 84 (66.1) 130 (84.4) 199 (85.8) 715 (83.3) 299 (86.4) 78 (61.4) 130 (85.0) 212 (91.0) 719 (83.7)  Unknown 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) Lifetime sexual partners, No. (%)a  1 143 (41.4) 23 (18.1) 54 (35.1) 121 (52.2) 341 (39.7) 135 (39.0) 21 (16.5) 60 (39.5) 131 (56.2) 347 (40.4)  2 86 (24.9) 15 (11.8) 45 (29.2) 73 (31.5) 219 (25.5) 95 (27.5) 21 (16.5) 29 (19.1) 63 (27.0) 208 (24.2)  3 79 (22.9) 37 (29.1) 24 (15.6) 28 (12.1) 168 (19.6) 72 (20.8) 33 (26.0) 31 (20.4) 26 (11.2) 162 (18.9)  4 30 (8.7) 49 (38.6) 21 (13.6) 10 (4.3) 110 (12.8) 34 (9.8) 42 (33.1) 18 (11.8) 13 (5.6) 107 (12.5)  >4 6 (1.7) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 7 (0.8) 10 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 13 (1.5) Non-HPV–related cervicovaginal infections or sexually transmitted diseases, No. (%)  Any 15 (4.3) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 29 (12.5) 61 (7.1) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 23 (9.9) 61 (7.1)  Chlamydia 12 (3.5) 7 (5.5) 10 (6.5) 28 (12.1) 57 (6.6) 21 (6.1) 6 (4.7) 11 (7.2) 22 (9.4) 60 (7.0)  Gonorrhea 4 (1.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.4) 5 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Contraceptive use, No. (%)b  Barrier 261 (75.7) 59 (46.5) 64 (41.6) 60 (25.9) 444 (51.7) 259 (74.9) 60 (47.6) 58 (38.4) 70 (30.0) 447 (52.2)  Behavior 100 (29.0) 80 (63.0) 82 (53.2) 15 (6.5) 277 (32.3) 96 (27.7) 73 (57.9) 84 (55.6) 12 (5.2) 265 (31.0)  Hormonal 41 (11.9) 11 (8.7) 5 (3.2) 140 (60.3) 197 (23.0) 40 (11.6) 8 (6.3) 6 (4.0) 143 (61.4) 197 (23.0) Day 1 composite HPV positivity, No./total No. (%)c  Serologic test 88/344 (25.6) 47/127 (37.0) 48/151 (31.8) 99/232 (42.7) 282/854 (33.0) 73/344 (21.2) 31/127 (24.4) 46/149 (30.9) 94/233 (40.3) 244/853 (28.6)  PCR assay 38/331 (11.5) 32/126 (25.4) 23/147 (15.6) 44/229 (19.2) 137/833 (16.4) 35/335 (10.4) 25/123 (20.3) 30/143 (21.0) 42/228 (18.4) 132/829 (15.9)  Serologic test or PCR assay 104/336 (31.0) 58/127 (45.7) 58/148 (39.2) 110/230 (47.8) 330/841 (39.2) 88/335 (26.3) 46/125 (36.8) 56/145 (38.6) 106/231 (45.9) 296/836 (35.4) Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; SD, standard deviation; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. aThe percentages for the number of lifetime sexual partners were calculated on the basis of the number of participants for whom there were data on sexual history at enrollment. bParticipants may have used more than 1 contraceptive method. A participant is counted once within a category and may be counted in more than 1 category. The percentages for the numbers of participants who used contraceptives were based on the number for whom this information was available. cPositivity was defined as an anti-HPV titer on immunoassay of at least 30, 16, 20, 24, 10, 8, 8, 8, and 8 for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively. The numerator in this category represents the number of HPV-positive participants, and the denominator the total number of participants with assay results that could be evaluated. View Large Of the 2604 girls and boys enrolled in Study 002, 608 (23.3%) were enrolled at sites in Asia (423 girls; 185 boys). Participant baseline characteristics are shown in Table 2. Table 2. Baseline Characteristics of Asian Participants (Girls and Boys Aged 9–15 Years) in Study 002 by Country Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Gender, No. (%)  Male 75 (37.5) 40 (31.0) 30 (21.6) 40 (28.6) 185 (30.4)  Female 125 (62.5) 89 (69.0) 109 (78.4) 100 (71.4) 423 (69.6) Age  9–12 y, No. (%) 137 (68.5) 90 (69.8) 87 (62.6) 81 (57.9) 395 (65.0)  13–15 y, No. (%) 63 (31.5) 39 (30.2) 52 (37.4) 59 (42.1) 213 (35.0)  Mean, y ± SD 11.5 ± 1.8 11.6 ± 1.8 11.7 ± 1.9 12.0 ± 1.7 11.7 ± 1.8  Median, y 11.0 12.0 11.0 12.0 12.0  Range, y 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 Weight, kg  Mean ± SD 36.8 ± 9.8 47.2 ± 15.0 44.8 ± 12.6 42.6 ± 12.1 42.1 ± 12.8  Median 36.0 43.9 42.0 42.0 40.0  Range 19.0–72.0 21.5–101.1 24.5–84.0 19.0–93.5 19.0–101.1 BMI, kg/m2  Mean ± SD 17.7 ± 3.0 20.0 ± 4.1 19.2 ± 3.5 18.7 ± 3.8 18.8 ± 3.6  Median 17.4 19.1 18.6 18.1 18.1  Range 10.1–29.8 11.6–35.0 14.0–30.1 12.6–32.0 10.1–35.0 Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Gender, No. (%)  Male 75 (37.5) 40 (31.0) 30 (21.6) 40 (28.6) 185 (30.4)  Female 125 (62.5) 89 (69.0) 109 (78.4) 100 (71.4) 423 (69.6) Age  9–12 y, No. (%) 137 (68.5) 90 (69.8) 87 (62.6) 81 (57.9) 395 (65.0)  13–15 y, No. (%) 63 (31.5) 39 (30.2) 52 (37.4) 59 (42.1) 213 (35.0)  Mean, y ± SD 11.5 ± 1.8 11.6 ± 1.8 11.7 ± 1.9 12.0 ± 1.7 11.7 ± 1.8  Median, y 11.0 12.0 11.0 12.0 12.0  Range, y 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 Weight, kg  Mean ± SD 36.8 ± 9.8 47.2 ± 15.0 44.8 ± 12.6 42.6 ± 12.1 42.1 ± 12.8  Median 36.0 43.9 42.0 42.0 40.0  Range 19.0–72.0 21.5–101.1 24.5–84.0 19.0–93.5 19.0–101.1 BMI, kg/m2  Mean ± SD 17.7 ± 3.0 20.0 ± 4.1 19.2 ± 3.5 18.7 ± 3.8 18.8 ± 3.6  Median 17.4 19.1 18.6 18.1 18.1  Range 10.1–29.8 11.6–35.0 14.0–30.1 12.6–32.0 10.1–35.0 Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; BMI, body mass index; SD, standard deviation. View Large Table 2. Baseline Characteristics of Asian Participants (Girls and Boys Aged 9–15 Years) in Study 002 by Country Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Gender, No. (%)  Male 75 (37.5) 40 (31.0) 30 (21.6) 40 (28.6) 185 (30.4)  Female 125 (62.5) 89 (69.0) 109 (78.4) 100 (71.4) 423 (69.6) Age  9–12 y, No. (%) 137 (68.5) 90 (69.8) 87 (62.6) 81 (57.9) 395 (65.0)  13–15 y, No. (%) 63 (31.5) 39 (30.2) 52 (37.4) 59 (42.1) 213 (35.0)  Mean, y ± SD 11.5 ± 1.8 11.6 ± 1.8 11.7 ± 1.9 12.0 ± 1.7 11.7 ± 1.8  Median, y 11.0 12.0 11.0 12.0 12.0  Range, y 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 Weight, kg  Mean ± SD 36.8 ± 9.8 47.2 ± 15.0 44.8 ± 12.6 42.6 ± 12.1 42.1 ± 12.8  Median 36.0 43.9 42.0 42.0 40.0  Range 19.0–72.0 21.5–101.1 24.5–84.0 19.0–93.5 19.0–101.1 BMI, kg/m2  Mean ± SD 17.7 ± 3.0 20.0 ± 4.1 19.2 ± 3.5 18.7 ± 3.8 18.8 ± 3.6  Median 17.4 19.1 18.6 18.1 18.1  Range 10.1–29.8 11.6–35.0 14.0–30.1 12.6–32.0 10.1–35.0 Characteristics 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Gender, No. (%)  Male 75 (37.5) 40 (31.0) 30 (21.6) 40 (28.6) 185 (30.4)  Female 125 (62.5) 89 (69.0) 109 (78.4) 100 (71.4) 423 (69.6) Age  9–12 y, No. (%) 137 (68.5) 90 (69.8) 87 (62.6) 81 (57.9) 395 (65.0)  13–15 y, No. (%) 63 (31.5) 39 (30.2) 52 (37.4) 59 (42.1) 213 (35.0)  Mean, y ± SD 11.5 ± 1.8 11.6 ± 1.8 11.7 ± 1.9 12.0 ± 1.7 11.7 ± 1.8  Median, y 11.0 12.0 11.0 12.0 12.0  Range, y 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 9–15 Weight, kg  Mean ± SD 36.8 ± 9.8 47.2 ± 15.0 44.8 ± 12.6 42.6 ± 12.1 42.1 ± 12.8  Median 36.0 43.9 42.0 42.0 40.0  Range 19.0–72.0 21.5–101.1 24.5–84.0 19.0–93.5 19.0–101.1 BMI, kg/m2  Mean ± SD 17.7 ± 3.0 20.0 ± 4.1 19.2 ± 3.5 18.7 ± 3.8 18.8 ± 3.6  Median 17.4 19.1 18.6 18.1 18.1  Range 10.1–29.8 11.6–35.0 14.0–30.1 12.6–32.0 10.1–35.0 Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; BMI, body mass index; SD, standard deviation. View Large Efficacy In Study 001, the 9vHPV vaccine prevented HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent (≥6 months) infections in Asian participants with an efficacy of 95.8% (95% CI, 87.8–98.9). Efficacy ranged from 90.4% and 94.9% among participants from Japan and Thailand, respectively, to 100% among participants from Hong Kong/Taiwan and South Korea (Table 3). Efficacy was 91.3% to 100% across the HPV types. In participants who received the qHPV vaccine, HPV-52– and HPV-58–related persistent infections were most frequent in all countries. As seen in Supplementary Table 4, the 9vHPV vaccine demonstrated efficacy against persistent infection related to HPV-52 or HPV-58 among participants from Hong Kong/Taiwan, Japan, and Thailand. No cases of HPV-52/58–related persistent infection were observed in the 9vHPV vaccine group from South Korea. The vaccine also prevented HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent (≥12 months) infections with an efficacy of 93.9% (95% CI, 81.4–98.4) in Asian participants. Table 3. Impact of the 9vHPV Vaccine on the Incidence of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–Related Persistent Infection; Cervical, Vulvar, and Vaginal Disease; Cervical Cytological Abnormalities; and Cervical Medical Procedures in Asian Participants (Young Women Aged 16–26 Years) in the PPE Population in Study 001 by Vaccination Group Endpoint 9vHPV Vaccine (N = 856) qHPV Vaccine (N = 857) Vaccine Efficacy (95% CI)% Cases / n Rate Cases / n Rate HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥6 months durationa 3 / 736 13.1 67 / 739 309.1 95.8 (87.8–98.9)  By country   Hong Kong/Taiwanb 0 / 291 0.0 17 / 300 202.1 100 (78.2–100)   Japan 2 / 112 55.1 20 / 117 575.7 90.4 (62.4–98.4)   South Korea 0 / 124 0.0 11 / 113 354.0 100 (71.2–100)   Thailand 1 / 209 14.5 19 / 209 284.2 94.9 (70.9–99.8)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 7 / 702 32.5 100 (41.0–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 33 / 644 169.0 91.3 (74.5–97.7)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 25 / 685 120.1 100 (86.3–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥12 months durationc 3 / 736 13.1 47 / 739 214.1 93.9 (81.4–98.4)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 5 / 702 23.2 100 (2.5–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 24 / 644 122.0 87.9 (61.1–96.9)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 11 / 685 52.3 100 (66.5–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 7 / 745 29.4 100 (40.0–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 726 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 720 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.2 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 740 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 662 0.0 4 / 650 19.2 100 (−10.1 to 100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 676 0.0 1 / 689 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)  By lesion type   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical disease (any grade) 0 / 738 0.0 7 / 737 30.5 100 (39.7–100)    CIN 1 0 / 738 0.0 6 / 737 26.2 100 (33.0–100)    CIN 2/3, AIS, and cervical cancer 0 / 738 0.0 1 / 737 4.3 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related vulvar and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related ASC-US HR-HPV positive or worse 2 / 731 8.8 25 / 729 111.5 92.1 (71.5–98.7)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 708 0.0 3 / 694 13.9 100 (−68.3 to 100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 703 0.0 3 / 708 13.6 100 (−72.8 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 722 0.0 2 / 717 9.0 100 (−245.6 to 100)   HPV-52–related 1 / 649 4.9 15 / 638 75.6 93.5 (58.4–99.7)   HPV-58–related 1 / 662 4.8 9 / 678 42.8 88.7 (18.8–99.5)  By lesion type   ASC-US HR-HPV positive 1 / 731 4.4 12 / 729 53.0 91.7 (51.5–99.6)   Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion 1 / 731 4.4 19 / 729 84.5 94.8 (70.3–99.7)   High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worsed 0 / 731 0.0 2 / 729 8.8 100 (−247.0 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical biopsy 0 / 750 0.0 15 / 745 63.8 100 (73.4–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 725 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 719 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.5 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 739 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 661 0.0 11 / 650 53.3 100 (67.3–100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 675 0.0 3 / 689 13.7 100 (−74.7 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical definitive therapy 0 / 750 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related external genital procedures 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA Endpoint 9vHPV Vaccine (N = 856) qHPV Vaccine (N = 857) Vaccine Efficacy (95% CI)% Cases / n Rate Cases / n Rate HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥6 months durationa 3 / 736 13.1 67 / 739 309.1 95.8 (87.8–98.9)  By country   Hong Kong/Taiwanb 0 / 291 0.0 17 / 300 202.1 100 (78.2–100)   Japan 2 / 112 55.1 20 / 117 575.7 90.4 (62.4–98.4)   South Korea 0 / 124 0.0 11 / 113 354.0 100 (71.2–100)   Thailand 1 / 209 14.5 19 / 209 284.2 94.9 (70.9–99.8)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 7 / 702 32.5 100 (41.0–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 33 / 644 169.0 91.3 (74.5–97.7)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 25 / 685 120.1 100 (86.3–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥12 months durationc 3 / 736 13.1 47 / 739 214.1 93.9 (81.4–98.4)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 5 / 702 23.2 100 (2.5–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 24 / 644 122.0 87.9 (61.1–96.9)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 11 / 685 52.3 100 (66.5–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 7 / 745 29.4 100 (40.0–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 726 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 720 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.2 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 740 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 662 0.0 4 / 650 19.2 100 (−10.1 to 100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 676 0.0 1 / 689 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)  By lesion type   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical disease (any grade) 0 / 738 0.0 7 / 737 30.5 100 (39.7–100)    CIN 1 0 / 738 0.0 6 / 737 26.2 100 (33.0–100)    CIN 2/3, AIS, and cervical cancer 0 / 738 0.0 1 / 737 4.3 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related vulvar and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related ASC-US HR-HPV positive or worse 2 / 731 8.8 25 / 729 111.5 92.1 (71.5–98.7)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 708 0.0 3 / 694 13.9 100 (−68.3 to 100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 703 0.0 3 / 708 13.6 100 (−72.8 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 722 0.0 2 / 717 9.0 100 (−245.6 to 100)   HPV-52–related 1 / 649 4.9 15 / 638 75.6 93.5 (58.4–99.7)   HPV-58–related 1 / 662 4.8 9 / 678 42.8 88.7 (18.8–99.5)  By lesion type   ASC-US HR-HPV positive 1 / 731 4.4 12 / 729 53.0 91.7 (51.5–99.6)   Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion 1 / 731 4.4 19 / 729 84.5 94.8 (70.3–99.7)   High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worsed 0 / 731 0.0 2 / 729 8.8 100 (−247.0 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical biopsy 0 / 750 0.0 15 / 745 63.8 100 (73.4–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 725 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 719 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.5 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 739 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 661 0.0 11 / 650 53.3 100 (67.3–100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 675 0.0 3 / 689 13.7 100 (−74.7 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical definitive therapy 0 / 750 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related external genital procedures 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA The PPE population consisted of participants who received all 3 doses of vaccine within 1 year, were seronegative at day 1, and had negative results on PCR assays for all HPV types tested from day 1 through month 7 to the vaccine HPV type being analyzed, and had no protocol violations that could interfere with the evaluation of vaccine efficacy as judged by the study director. Participants are counted once in each applicable endpoint category. A participant may appear in more than 1 category. Rate is the estimate of number of cases per 10000 person-years. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; AIS, adenocarcinoma in situ; ASC-US, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; CI, confidence interval; CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; HPV, human papillomavirus; HR, high risk; NA, not available (ie, not calculable); PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PPE, per-protocol efficacy; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. N = number of participants randomized to the respective vaccination group who received at least 1 injection. n = number of participants who have at least 1 follow-up visit after month 7. aA case of persistent infection occurred if a participant, after completion of the month 7 visit, is positive for the same HPV type by the HPV-31/33/45/52/58 PCR assay to at least 1 common gene in 2 or more consecutive cervicovaginal/external genital swab, biopsy, or definitive therapy samples obtained at 2 or more consecutive visits at least 6 months (± 1 month visit windows) apart. bResults for participants from Taiwan only are 0/216 and 13/228 cases in the 9vHPV and qHPV vaccine groups, respectively, representing an efficacy of 100% (95% CI, 71.7–100). cA case of persistent infection occurred if a participant, after completion of the month 7 visit, is positive for the same HPV type by the HPV-31/33/45/52/58 PCR assay to at least 1 common gene in 2 or more consecutive cervicovaginal/external genital swab, biopsy, or definitive therapy samples obtained for over a period of at least 12 months (± 1 month visit windows) apart. dIncludes high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; atypical glandular cells, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. View Large Table 3. Impact of the 9vHPV Vaccine on the Incidence of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–Related Persistent Infection; Cervical, Vulvar, and Vaginal Disease; Cervical Cytological Abnormalities; and Cervical Medical Procedures in Asian Participants (Young Women Aged 16–26 Years) in the PPE Population in Study 001 by Vaccination Group Endpoint 9vHPV Vaccine (N = 856) qHPV Vaccine (N = 857) Vaccine Efficacy (95% CI)% Cases / n Rate Cases / n Rate HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥6 months durationa 3 / 736 13.1 67 / 739 309.1 95.8 (87.8–98.9)  By country   Hong Kong/Taiwanb 0 / 291 0.0 17 / 300 202.1 100 (78.2–100)   Japan 2 / 112 55.1 20 / 117 575.7 90.4 (62.4–98.4)   South Korea 0 / 124 0.0 11 / 113 354.0 100 (71.2–100)   Thailand 1 / 209 14.5 19 / 209 284.2 94.9 (70.9–99.8)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 7 / 702 32.5 100 (41.0–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 33 / 644 169.0 91.3 (74.5–97.7)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 25 / 685 120.1 100 (86.3–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥12 months durationc 3 / 736 13.1 47 / 739 214.1 93.9 (81.4–98.4)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 5 / 702 23.2 100 (2.5–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 24 / 644 122.0 87.9 (61.1–96.9)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 11 / 685 52.3 100 (66.5–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 7 / 745 29.4 100 (40.0–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 726 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 720 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.2 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 740 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 662 0.0 4 / 650 19.2 100 (−10.1 to 100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 676 0.0 1 / 689 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)  By lesion type   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical disease (any grade) 0 / 738 0.0 7 / 737 30.5 100 (39.7–100)    CIN 1 0 / 738 0.0 6 / 737 26.2 100 (33.0–100)    CIN 2/3, AIS, and cervical cancer 0 / 738 0.0 1 / 737 4.3 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related vulvar and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related ASC-US HR-HPV positive or worse 2 / 731 8.8 25 / 729 111.5 92.1 (71.5–98.7)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 708 0.0 3 / 694 13.9 100 (−68.3 to 100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 703 0.0 3 / 708 13.6 100 (−72.8 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 722 0.0 2 / 717 9.0 100 (−245.6 to 100)   HPV-52–related 1 / 649 4.9 15 / 638 75.6 93.5 (58.4–99.7)   HPV-58–related 1 / 662 4.8 9 / 678 42.8 88.7 (18.8–99.5)  By lesion type   ASC-US HR-HPV positive 1 / 731 4.4 12 / 729 53.0 91.7 (51.5–99.6)   Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion 1 / 731 4.4 19 / 729 84.5 94.8 (70.3–99.7)   High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worsed 0 / 731 0.0 2 / 729 8.8 100 (−247.0 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical biopsy 0 / 750 0.0 15 / 745 63.8 100 (73.4–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 725 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 719 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.5 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 739 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 661 0.0 11 / 650 53.3 100 (67.3–100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 675 0.0 3 / 689 13.7 100 (−74.7 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical definitive therapy 0 / 750 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related external genital procedures 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA Endpoint 9vHPV Vaccine (N = 856) qHPV Vaccine (N = 857) Vaccine Efficacy (95% CI)% Cases / n Rate Cases / n Rate HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥6 months durationa 3 / 736 13.1 67 / 739 309.1 95.8 (87.8–98.9)  By country   Hong Kong/Taiwanb 0 / 291 0.0 17 / 300 202.1 100 (78.2–100)   Japan 2 / 112 55.1 20 / 117 575.7 90.4 (62.4–98.4)   South Korea 0 / 124 0.0 11 / 113 354.0 100 (71.2–100)   Thailand 1 / 209 14.5 19 / 209 284.2 94.9 (70.9–99.8)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 7 / 702 32.5 100 (41.0–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 33 / 644 169.0 91.3 (74.5–97.7)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 25 / 685 120.1 100 (86.3–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection ≥12 months durationc 3 / 736 13.1 47 / 739 214.1 93.9 (81.4–98.4)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 712 0.0 5 / 702 23.2 100 (2.5–100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 707 0.0 8 / 716 36.4 100 (46.5–100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 726 0.0 1 / 725 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-52–related 3 / 652 14.8 24 / 644 122.0 87.9 (61.1–96.9)   HPV-58–related 0 / 666 0.0 11 / 685 52.3 100 (66.5–100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 7 / 745 29.4 100 (40.0–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 726 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 720 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.2 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 740 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 662 0.0 4 / 650 19.2 100 (−10.1 to 100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 676 0.0 1 / 689 4.5 100 (≤−999 to 100)  By lesion type   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical disease (any grade) 0 / 738 0.0 7 / 737 30.5 100 (39.7–100)    CIN 1 0 / 738 0.0 6 / 737 26.2 100 (33.0–100)    CIN 2/3, AIS, and cervical cancer 0 / 738 0.0 1 / 737 4.3 100 (≤−999 to 100)   HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related vulvar and vaginal disease (any grade) 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related ASC-US HR-HPV positive or worse 2 / 731 8.8 25 / 729 111.5 92.1 (71.5–98.7)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 708 0.0 3 / 694 13.9 100 (−68.3 to 100)   HPV-33–related 0 / 703 0.0 3 / 708 13.6 100 (−72.8 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 722 0.0 2 / 717 9.0 100 (−245.6 to 100)   HPV-52–related 1 / 649 4.9 15 / 638 75.6 93.5 (58.4–99.7)   HPV-58–related 1 / 662 4.8 9 / 678 42.8 88.7 (18.8–99.5)  By lesion type   ASC-US HR-HPV positive 1 / 731 4.4 12 / 729 53.0 91.7 (51.5–99.6)   Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion 1 / 731 4.4 19 / 729 84.5 94.8 (70.3–99.7)   High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worsed 0 / 731 0.0 2 / 729 8.8 100 (−247.0 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical biopsy 0 / 750 0.0 15 / 745 63.8 100 (73.4–100)  By HPV type   HPV-31–related 0 / 725 0.0 0 / 710 0.0 NA   HPV-33–related 0 / 719 0.0 2 / 722 8.7 100 (−248.5 to 100)   HPV-45–related 0 / 739 0.0 0 / 733 0.0 NA   HPV-52–related 0 / 661 0.0 11 / 650 53.3 100 (67.3–100)   HPV-58–related 0 / 675 0.0 3 / 689 13.7 100 (−74.7 to 100) HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical definitive therapy 0 / 750 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related external genital procedures 0 / 751 0.0 0 / 745 0.0 NA The PPE population consisted of participants who received all 3 doses of vaccine within 1 year, were seronegative at day 1, and had negative results on PCR assays for all HPV types tested from day 1 through month 7 to the vaccine HPV type being analyzed, and had no protocol violations that could interfere with the evaluation of vaccine efficacy as judged by the study director. Participants are counted once in each applicable endpoint category. A participant may appear in more than 1 category. Rate is the estimate of number of cases per 10000 person-years. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; AIS, adenocarcinoma in situ; ASC-US, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; CI, confidence interval; CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; HPV, human papillomavirus; HR, high risk; NA, not available (ie, not calculable); PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PPE, per-protocol efficacy; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. N = number of participants randomized to the respective vaccination group who received at least 1 injection. n = number of participants who have at least 1 follow-up visit after month 7. aA case of persistent infection occurred if a participant, after completion of the month 7 visit, is positive for the same HPV type by the HPV-31/33/45/52/58 PCR assay to at least 1 common gene in 2 or more consecutive cervicovaginal/external genital swab, biopsy, or definitive therapy samples obtained at 2 or more consecutive visits at least 6 months (± 1 month visit windows) apart. bResults for participants from Taiwan only are 0/216 and 13/228 cases in the 9vHPV and qHPV vaccine groups, respectively, representing an efficacy of 100% (95% CI, 71.7–100). cA case of persistent infection occurred if a participant, after completion of the month 7 visit, is positive for the same HPV type by the HPV-31/33/45/52/58 PCR assay to at least 1 common gene in 2 or more consecutive cervicovaginal/external genital swab, biopsy, or definitive therapy samples obtained for over a period of at least 12 months (± 1 month visit windows) apart. dIncludes high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; atypical glandular cells, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. View Large No cases of cervical, vulvar, or vaginal disease (any grade) related to HPV-31/33/45/52/58 were detected in the 9vHPV vaccination group, compared with 7 cases of cervical disease (4, 2, and 1 among participants from Hong Kong/Taiwan, Japan, and Thailand, respectively) in the qHPV vaccine group (Table 3). The 9vHPV vaccine reduced the risk of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical cytological abnormalities by 92.1% (95% CI, 71.5–98.7) (Table 3); reduced risk of cervical cytological abnormalities related to HPV-52 or HPV-58 was also demonstrated. The incidence of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related cervical biopsies was reduced by 100% (95% CI, 73.4–100). Supportive analyses in the HNTS population showed reduction of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related infection and disease endpoints (Supplementary Table 4). In the mITT analyses, efficacy was demonstrated in susceptible participants (not infected at baseline for the HPV type being analyzed); in the participants infected at baseline, incidence of infection or disease was similar between the 2 vaccine groups (Supplementary Table 4). In the qHPV vaccine group, incidence of persistent infection increased over time in the PPE, HNTS, and mITT populations. In the 9vHPV vaccine group, the incidence of persistent infection was low in the PPE and HNTS populations and started to plateau after month 24 in the mITT population (Supplementary Figure 1). Immunogenicity Among Asian young women from Study 001, GMTs for anti–HPV-6/11/16/18 at month 7 were generally similar between the qHPV vaccine and 9vHPV vaccine groups within each country (Table 4). Overall, ≥97.9% of participants underwent seroconversion within 1 month after the last 9vHPV vaccination (ie, study month 7) to each of the vaccine types (Table 4). Among young Indian women in Study 002 (Supplementary Table 5), GMTs were similar or higher across HPV types compared with young women in the overall Study 001 population, indicating that HPV antibody responses in young Indian women were sufficient to induce high-level protective efficacy; seroconversion rates at month 7 were 100% for all 9 HPV types (Supplementary Table 5). However, the number of young Indian women enrolled in Study 002 was limited (N = 25). Table 4. Summary of Anti-HPV cLIA GMTs and Seropositivity at Month 7 in Asian Participants (Young Women Aged 16–26 Years) in the PPI Population in Study 001 by Vaccination Group and Country Assay (cLIA) 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Hong Kong and Taiwan N = 313 N = 312 N = 313 N = 312 Anti–HPV-6 229 734.6 (660.0–817.7) 237 718.0 (646.2–797.7) 227 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 235 99.2 (97.0–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 230 496.5 (443.1–556.2) 237 616.5 (551.2–689.5) 229 99.6 (97.6–100) 236 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-16 237 2654.6 (2394.3–2943.1) 245 2579.9 (2330.9–2855.5) 237 100 (98.5–100) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-18 245 790.6 (698.5–894.7) 259 669.4 (593.4–755.0) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) 258 99.6 (97.9–100) Anti–HPV-31 247 607.4 (524.1–703.9) 260 8.5 (7.3–9.8) 245 99.2 (97.1–99.9) 126 48.5 (42.2–54.7) Anti–HPV-33 245 383.5 (339.2–433.6) 260 <4 (<4 to <4) 242 98.8 (96.5–99.7) 29 11.2 (7.6–15.6) Anti–HPV-45 250 234.6 (206.7–266.2) 264 <3 (<3 to <3) 246 98.4 (96.0–99.6) 24 9.1 (5.9–13.2) Anti–HPV-52 231 313.4 (279.0–352.1) 238 <3 (<3 to <3) 229 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 10 4.2 (2.0–7.6) Anti–HPV-58 236 487.2 (429.4–552.8) 257 <4 (<4 to <4) 234 99.2 (97.0, 99.9) 39 15.2 (11.0–20.2) Japan N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 Anti–HPV-6 93 839.7 (696.3–1012.7) 100 621.2 (518.5–744.1) 93 100 (96.1–100) 98 98.0 (93.0–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 93 611.1 (516.4–723.3) 100 607.3 (516.2–714.5) 93 100 (96.1–100) 100 100 (96.4–100) Anti–HPV-16 96 2672.7 (2269.6–3147.3) 103 2223.4 (1898.7–2603.5) 96 100 (96.2–100) 103 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-18 99 688.7 (563.3–842.0) 109 471.9 (389.6–571.5) 99 100 (96.3–100) 106 97.2 (92.2–99.4) Anti–HPV-31 104 672.3 (552.4–818.2) 109 5.9 (4.9–7.2) 104 100 (96.5–100) 37 33.9 (25.1–43.6) Anti–HPV-33 109 398.3 (344.8–460.2) 111 <4 (<4 to <4) 109 100 (96.7–100) 11 9.9 (5.1–17.0) Anti–HPV-45 111 258.5 (224.8–297.3) 111 <3 (<3 to <3) 111 100 (96.7–100) 6 5.4 (2.0–11.4) Anti–HPV-52 98 306.3 (267.5–350.7) 96 <3 (<3 to <3) 98 100 (96.3–100) 4 4.2 (1.1–10.3) Anti–HPV-58 95 459.6 (399.9–528.3) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 95 100 (96.2–100) 12 12.1 (6.4–20.2) South Korea N = 152 N = 151 N = 152 N = 151 Anti–HPV-6 94 820.1 (684.3–982.8) 88 801.9 (665.1–966.9) 92 97.9 (92.5–99.7) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-11 94 613.0 (518.3–724.9) 88 658.2 (553.5–782.8) 94 100 (96.2–100) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 103 2641.6 (2323.2–3003.7) 99 2691.6 (2361.0–3068.3) 103 100 (96.5–100) 99 100 (96.3–100) Anti–HPV-18 109 634.9 (531.0–759.1) 104 627.0 (522.2–752.8) 108 99.1 (95.0–100) 104 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-31 113 553.9 (455.4–673.8) 99 7.6 (6.2–9.4) 112 99.1 (95.2–100) 45 45.5 (35.4–55.8) Anti–HPV-33 112 337.2 (297.1–382.6) 102 <4 (<4 to <4) 112 100 (96.8–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-45 114 213.8 (183.0–249.6) 102 <3 (<3 to <3) 113 99.1 (95.2–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 100 310.5 (262.0–368.0) 93 <3 (<3 to <3) 100 100 (96.4–100) 3 3.2 (0.7–9.1) Anti–HPV-58 104 420.1 (361.3–488.5) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 104 100 (96.5–100) 15 15.2 (8.7–23.8) Thailand N = 232 N = 233 N = 232 N = 233 Anti–HPV-6 158 910.5 (806.4–1028.0) 168 832.5 (740.0–936.5) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-11 158 668.1 (586.2–761.4) 168 736.7 (649.0–836.3) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-16 172 3479.4 (3125.1–3873.9) 182 3371.3 (3037.1–3742.3) 172 100 (97.9–100) 182 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-18 181 1095.5 (960.7–1249.2) 183 890.7 (781.7–1014.9) 181 100 (98.0–100) 183 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-31 195 809.1 (687.0–952.9) 189 14.2 (12.0–16.8) 194 99.5 (97.2–100) 117 61.9 (54.6–68.9) Anti–HPV-33 189 473.3 (415.1–539.7) 196 <4 (<4 to <4) 188 99.5 (97.1–100) 28 14.3 (9.7–20.0) Anti–HPV-45 200 357.8 (313.7–408.0) 201 <3 (<3 to <3) 199 99.5 (97.2–100) 24 11.9 (7.8–17.2) Anti–HPV-52 172 387.7 (343.1–438.2) 174 <3 (<3 to <3) 171 99.4 (96.8–100) 8 4.6 (2.0–8.9) Anti–HPV-58 177 545.0 (481.8–616.4) 184 <4 (<4 to 4.2) 177 100 (97.9–100) 39 21.2 (15.5–27.8) Total N = 824 N = 823 N = 824 N = 823 Anti–HPV-6 574 810.9 (756.9–868.7) 593 742.7 (694.1–794.8) 570 99.3 (98.2–99.8) 589 99.3 (98.3–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 575 576.6 (537.7–618.3) 593 653.1 (609.7–699.6) 574 99.8 (99.0–100) 592 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-16 608 2866.4 (2695.9–3047.8) 629 2738.7 (2578.4–2908.9) 608 100 (99.4–100) 628 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-18 634 817.8 (757.7–882.7) 655 676.9 (628.0–729.7) 632 99.7 (98.9–100) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-31 659 661.3 (605.5–722.2) 657 9.1 (8.3–10.0) 655 99.4 (98.5–99.8) 325 49.5 (45.6–53.4) Anti–HPV-33 655 401.2 (374.8–429.5) 669 < 4 (<4 to <4) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) 73 10.9 (8.7–13.5) Anti–HPV-45 675 265.9 (247.7–285.5) 678 < 3 (<3 to <3) 669 99.1 (98.1–99.7) 59 8.7 (6.7–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 601 331.3 (309.8–354.3) 601 < 3 (<3 to <3) 598 99.5 (98.5–99.9) 25 4.2 (2.7–6.1) Anti–HPV-58 612 486.3 (453.8–521.1) 639 < 4 (<4 to <4) 610 99.7 (98.8–100) 105 16.4 (13.6–19.5) Assay (cLIA) 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Hong Kong and Taiwan N = 313 N = 312 N = 313 N = 312 Anti–HPV-6 229 734.6 (660.0–817.7) 237 718.0 (646.2–797.7) 227 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 235 99.2 (97.0–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 230 496.5 (443.1–556.2) 237 616.5 (551.2–689.5) 229 99.6 (97.6–100) 236 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-16 237 2654.6 (2394.3–2943.1) 245 2579.9 (2330.9–2855.5) 237 100 (98.5–100) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-18 245 790.6 (698.5–894.7) 259 669.4 (593.4–755.0) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) 258 99.6 (97.9–100) Anti–HPV-31 247 607.4 (524.1–703.9) 260 8.5 (7.3–9.8) 245 99.2 (97.1–99.9) 126 48.5 (42.2–54.7) Anti–HPV-33 245 383.5 (339.2–433.6) 260 <4 (<4 to <4) 242 98.8 (96.5–99.7) 29 11.2 (7.6–15.6) Anti–HPV-45 250 234.6 (206.7–266.2) 264 <3 (<3 to <3) 246 98.4 (96.0–99.6) 24 9.1 (5.9–13.2) Anti–HPV-52 231 313.4 (279.0–352.1) 238 <3 (<3 to <3) 229 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 10 4.2 (2.0–7.6) Anti–HPV-58 236 487.2 (429.4–552.8) 257 <4 (<4 to <4) 234 99.2 (97.0, 99.9) 39 15.2 (11.0–20.2) Japan N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 Anti–HPV-6 93 839.7 (696.3–1012.7) 100 621.2 (518.5–744.1) 93 100 (96.1–100) 98 98.0 (93.0–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 93 611.1 (516.4–723.3) 100 607.3 (516.2–714.5) 93 100 (96.1–100) 100 100 (96.4–100) Anti–HPV-16 96 2672.7 (2269.6–3147.3) 103 2223.4 (1898.7–2603.5) 96 100 (96.2–100) 103 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-18 99 688.7 (563.3–842.0) 109 471.9 (389.6–571.5) 99 100 (96.3–100) 106 97.2 (92.2–99.4) Anti–HPV-31 104 672.3 (552.4–818.2) 109 5.9 (4.9–7.2) 104 100 (96.5–100) 37 33.9 (25.1–43.6) Anti–HPV-33 109 398.3 (344.8–460.2) 111 <4 (<4 to <4) 109 100 (96.7–100) 11 9.9 (5.1–17.0) Anti–HPV-45 111 258.5 (224.8–297.3) 111 <3 (<3 to <3) 111 100 (96.7–100) 6 5.4 (2.0–11.4) Anti–HPV-52 98 306.3 (267.5–350.7) 96 <3 (<3 to <3) 98 100 (96.3–100) 4 4.2 (1.1–10.3) Anti–HPV-58 95 459.6 (399.9–528.3) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 95 100 (96.2–100) 12 12.1 (6.4–20.2) South Korea N = 152 N = 151 N = 152 N = 151 Anti–HPV-6 94 820.1 (684.3–982.8) 88 801.9 (665.1–966.9) 92 97.9 (92.5–99.7) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-11 94 613.0 (518.3–724.9) 88 658.2 (553.5–782.8) 94 100 (96.2–100) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 103 2641.6 (2323.2–3003.7) 99 2691.6 (2361.0–3068.3) 103 100 (96.5–100) 99 100 (96.3–100) Anti–HPV-18 109 634.9 (531.0–759.1) 104 627.0 (522.2–752.8) 108 99.1 (95.0–100) 104 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-31 113 553.9 (455.4–673.8) 99 7.6 (6.2–9.4) 112 99.1 (95.2–100) 45 45.5 (35.4–55.8) Anti–HPV-33 112 337.2 (297.1–382.6) 102 <4 (<4 to <4) 112 100 (96.8–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-45 114 213.8 (183.0–249.6) 102 <3 (<3 to <3) 113 99.1 (95.2–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 100 310.5 (262.0–368.0) 93 <3 (<3 to <3) 100 100 (96.4–100) 3 3.2 (0.7–9.1) Anti–HPV-58 104 420.1 (361.3–488.5) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 104 100 (96.5–100) 15 15.2 (8.7–23.8) Thailand N = 232 N = 233 N = 232 N = 233 Anti–HPV-6 158 910.5 (806.4–1028.0) 168 832.5 (740.0–936.5) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-11 158 668.1 (586.2–761.4) 168 736.7 (649.0–836.3) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-16 172 3479.4 (3125.1–3873.9) 182 3371.3 (3037.1–3742.3) 172 100 (97.9–100) 182 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-18 181 1095.5 (960.7–1249.2) 183 890.7 (781.7–1014.9) 181 100 (98.0–100) 183 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-31 195 809.1 (687.0–952.9) 189 14.2 (12.0–16.8) 194 99.5 (97.2–100) 117 61.9 (54.6–68.9) Anti–HPV-33 189 473.3 (415.1–539.7) 196 <4 (<4 to <4) 188 99.5 (97.1–100) 28 14.3 (9.7–20.0) Anti–HPV-45 200 357.8 (313.7–408.0) 201 <3 (<3 to <3) 199 99.5 (97.2–100) 24 11.9 (7.8–17.2) Anti–HPV-52 172 387.7 (343.1–438.2) 174 <3 (<3 to <3) 171 99.4 (96.8–100) 8 4.6 (2.0–8.9) Anti–HPV-58 177 545.0 (481.8–616.4) 184 <4 (<4 to 4.2) 177 100 (97.9–100) 39 21.2 (15.5–27.8) Total N = 824 N = 823 N = 824 N = 823 Anti–HPV-6 574 810.9 (756.9–868.7) 593 742.7 (694.1–794.8) 570 99.3 (98.2–99.8) 589 99.3 (98.3–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 575 576.6 (537.7–618.3) 593 653.1 (609.7–699.6) 574 99.8 (99.0–100) 592 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-16 608 2866.4 (2695.9–3047.8) 629 2738.7 (2578.4–2908.9) 608 100 (99.4–100) 628 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-18 634 817.8 (757.7–882.7) 655 676.9 (628.0–729.7) 632 99.7 (98.9–100) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-31 659 661.3 (605.5–722.2) 657 9.1 (8.3–10.0) 655 99.4 (98.5–99.8) 325 49.5 (45.6–53.4) Anti–HPV-33 655 401.2 (374.8–429.5) 669 < 4 (<4 to <4) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) 73 10.9 (8.7–13.5) Anti–HPV-45 675 265.9 (247.7–285.5) 678 < 3 (<3 to <3) 669 99.1 (98.1–99.7) 59 8.7 (6.7–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 601 331.3 (309.8–354.3) 601 < 3 (<3 to <3) 598 99.5 (98.5–99.9) 25 4.2 (2.7–6.1) Anti–HPV-58 612 486.3 (453.8–521.1) 639 < 4 (<4 to <4) 610 99.7 (98.8–100) 105 16.4 (13.6–19.5) The PPI population included all participants who had no protocol violation that could interfere with the evaluation of the immune response to vaccine as judged by the study director, received all 3 vaccinations within acceptable day ranges, were seronegative at day 1 and PCR negative day 1 through month 7 for the relevant HPV type(s), and had a month 7 serum sample collected within an acceptable day range. Seropositive percent represents proportion of participants with anti-HPV serum levels ≥30, 16, 20, 24, 10, 8, 8, 8, and 8 mMU/mL for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; CI, confidence interval; cLIA, competitive Luminex immunoassay; GMT, geometric mean titer; mMU, milli-Merck units; PPI, per-protocol immunogenicity; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. N = number of participants randomized to the respective vaccination group who received at least 1 injection. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. m = number of participants who had seroconversion. View Large Table 4. Summary of Anti-HPV cLIA GMTs and Seropositivity at Month 7 in Asian Participants (Young Women Aged 16–26 Years) in the PPI Population in Study 001 by Vaccination Group and Country Assay (cLIA) 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Hong Kong and Taiwan N = 313 N = 312 N = 313 N = 312 Anti–HPV-6 229 734.6 (660.0–817.7) 237 718.0 (646.2–797.7) 227 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 235 99.2 (97.0–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 230 496.5 (443.1–556.2) 237 616.5 (551.2–689.5) 229 99.6 (97.6–100) 236 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-16 237 2654.6 (2394.3–2943.1) 245 2579.9 (2330.9–2855.5) 237 100 (98.5–100) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-18 245 790.6 (698.5–894.7) 259 669.4 (593.4–755.0) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) 258 99.6 (97.9–100) Anti–HPV-31 247 607.4 (524.1–703.9) 260 8.5 (7.3–9.8) 245 99.2 (97.1–99.9) 126 48.5 (42.2–54.7) Anti–HPV-33 245 383.5 (339.2–433.6) 260 <4 (<4 to <4) 242 98.8 (96.5–99.7) 29 11.2 (7.6–15.6) Anti–HPV-45 250 234.6 (206.7–266.2) 264 <3 (<3 to <3) 246 98.4 (96.0–99.6) 24 9.1 (5.9–13.2) Anti–HPV-52 231 313.4 (279.0–352.1) 238 <3 (<3 to <3) 229 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 10 4.2 (2.0–7.6) Anti–HPV-58 236 487.2 (429.4–552.8) 257 <4 (<4 to <4) 234 99.2 (97.0, 99.9) 39 15.2 (11.0–20.2) Japan N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 Anti–HPV-6 93 839.7 (696.3–1012.7) 100 621.2 (518.5–744.1) 93 100 (96.1–100) 98 98.0 (93.0–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 93 611.1 (516.4–723.3) 100 607.3 (516.2–714.5) 93 100 (96.1–100) 100 100 (96.4–100) Anti–HPV-16 96 2672.7 (2269.6–3147.3) 103 2223.4 (1898.7–2603.5) 96 100 (96.2–100) 103 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-18 99 688.7 (563.3–842.0) 109 471.9 (389.6–571.5) 99 100 (96.3–100) 106 97.2 (92.2–99.4) Anti–HPV-31 104 672.3 (552.4–818.2) 109 5.9 (4.9–7.2) 104 100 (96.5–100) 37 33.9 (25.1–43.6) Anti–HPV-33 109 398.3 (344.8–460.2) 111 <4 (<4 to <4) 109 100 (96.7–100) 11 9.9 (5.1–17.0) Anti–HPV-45 111 258.5 (224.8–297.3) 111 <3 (<3 to <3) 111 100 (96.7–100) 6 5.4 (2.0–11.4) Anti–HPV-52 98 306.3 (267.5–350.7) 96 <3 (<3 to <3) 98 100 (96.3–100) 4 4.2 (1.1–10.3) Anti–HPV-58 95 459.6 (399.9–528.3) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 95 100 (96.2–100) 12 12.1 (6.4–20.2) South Korea N = 152 N = 151 N = 152 N = 151 Anti–HPV-6 94 820.1 (684.3–982.8) 88 801.9 (665.1–966.9) 92 97.9 (92.5–99.7) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-11 94 613.0 (518.3–724.9) 88 658.2 (553.5–782.8) 94 100 (96.2–100) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 103 2641.6 (2323.2–3003.7) 99 2691.6 (2361.0–3068.3) 103 100 (96.5–100) 99 100 (96.3–100) Anti–HPV-18 109 634.9 (531.0–759.1) 104 627.0 (522.2–752.8) 108 99.1 (95.0–100) 104 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-31 113 553.9 (455.4–673.8) 99 7.6 (6.2–9.4) 112 99.1 (95.2–100) 45 45.5 (35.4–55.8) Anti–HPV-33 112 337.2 (297.1–382.6) 102 <4 (<4 to <4) 112 100 (96.8–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-45 114 213.8 (183.0–249.6) 102 <3 (<3 to <3) 113 99.1 (95.2–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 100 310.5 (262.0–368.0) 93 <3 (<3 to <3) 100 100 (96.4–100) 3 3.2 (0.7–9.1) Anti–HPV-58 104 420.1 (361.3–488.5) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 104 100 (96.5–100) 15 15.2 (8.7–23.8) Thailand N = 232 N = 233 N = 232 N = 233 Anti–HPV-6 158 910.5 (806.4–1028.0) 168 832.5 (740.0–936.5) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-11 158 668.1 (586.2–761.4) 168 736.7 (649.0–836.3) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-16 172 3479.4 (3125.1–3873.9) 182 3371.3 (3037.1–3742.3) 172 100 (97.9–100) 182 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-18 181 1095.5 (960.7–1249.2) 183 890.7 (781.7–1014.9) 181 100 (98.0–100) 183 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-31 195 809.1 (687.0–952.9) 189 14.2 (12.0–16.8) 194 99.5 (97.2–100) 117 61.9 (54.6–68.9) Anti–HPV-33 189 473.3 (415.1–539.7) 196 <4 (<4 to <4) 188 99.5 (97.1–100) 28 14.3 (9.7–20.0) Anti–HPV-45 200 357.8 (313.7–408.0) 201 <3 (<3 to <3) 199 99.5 (97.2–100) 24 11.9 (7.8–17.2) Anti–HPV-52 172 387.7 (343.1–438.2) 174 <3 (<3 to <3) 171 99.4 (96.8–100) 8 4.6 (2.0–8.9) Anti–HPV-58 177 545.0 (481.8–616.4) 184 <4 (<4 to 4.2) 177 100 (97.9–100) 39 21.2 (15.5–27.8) Total N = 824 N = 823 N = 824 N = 823 Anti–HPV-6 574 810.9 (756.9–868.7) 593 742.7 (694.1–794.8) 570 99.3 (98.2–99.8) 589 99.3 (98.3–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 575 576.6 (537.7–618.3) 593 653.1 (609.7–699.6) 574 99.8 (99.0–100) 592 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-16 608 2866.4 (2695.9–3047.8) 629 2738.7 (2578.4–2908.9) 608 100 (99.4–100) 628 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-18 634 817.8 (757.7–882.7) 655 676.9 (628.0–729.7) 632 99.7 (98.9–100) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-31 659 661.3 (605.5–722.2) 657 9.1 (8.3–10.0) 655 99.4 (98.5–99.8) 325 49.5 (45.6–53.4) Anti–HPV-33 655 401.2 (374.8–429.5) 669 < 4 (<4 to <4) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) 73 10.9 (8.7–13.5) Anti–HPV-45 675 265.9 (247.7–285.5) 678 < 3 (<3 to <3) 669 99.1 (98.1–99.7) 59 8.7 (6.7–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 601 331.3 (309.8–354.3) 601 < 3 (<3 to <3) 598 99.5 (98.5–99.9) 25 4.2 (2.7–6.1) Anti–HPV-58 612 486.3 (453.8–521.1) 639 < 4 (<4 to <4) 610 99.7 (98.8–100) 105 16.4 (13.6–19.5) Assay (cLIA) 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Hong Kong and Taiwan N = 313 N = 312 N = 313 N = 312 Anti–HPV-6 229 734.6 (660.0–817.7) 237 718.0 (646.2–797.7) 227 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 235 99.2 (97.0–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 230 496.5 (443.1–556.2) 237 616.5 (551.2–689.5) 229 99.6 (97.6–100) 236 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-16 237 2654.6 (2394.3–2943.1) 245 2579.9 (2330.9–2855.5) 237 100 (98.5–100) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) Anti–HPV-18 245 790.6 (698.5–894.7) 259 669.4 (593.4–755.0) 244 99.6 (97.7–100) 258 99.6 (97.9–100) Anti–HPV-31 247 607.4 (524.1–703.9) 260 8.5 (7.3–9.8) 245 99.2 (97.1–99.9) 126 48.5 (42.2–54.7) Anti–HPV-33 245 383.5 (339.2–433.6) 260 <4 (<4 to <4) 242 98.8 (96.5–99.7) 29 11.2 (7.6–15.6) Anti–HPV-45 250 234.6 (206.7–266.2) 264 <3 (<3 to <3) 246 98.4 (96.0–99.6) 24 9.1 (5.9–13.2) Anti–HPV-52 231 313.4 (279.0–352.1) 238 <3 (<3 to <3) 229 99.1 (96.9–99.9) 10 4.2 (2.0–7.6) Anti–HPV-58 236 487.2 (429.4–552.8) 257 <4 (<4 to <4) 234 99.2 (97.0, 99.9) 39 15.2 (11.0–20.2) Japan N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 N = 127 Anti–HPV-6 93 839.7 (696.3–1012.7) 100 621.2 (518.5–744.1) 93 100 (96.1–100) 98 98.0 (93.0–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 93 611.1 (516.4–723.3) 100 607.3 (516.2–714.5) 93 100 (96.1–100) 100 100 (96.4–100) Anti–HPV-16 96 2672.7 (2269.6–3147.3) 103 2223.4 (1898.7–2603.5) 96 100 (96.2–100) 103 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-18 99 688.7 (563.3–842.0) 109 471.9 (389.6–571.5) 99 100 (96.3–100) 106 97.2 (92.2–99.4) Anti–HPV-31 104 672.3 (552.4–818.2) 109 5.9 (4.9–7.2) 104 100 (96.5–100) 37 33.9 (25.1–43.6) Anti–HPV-33 109 398.3 (344.8–460.2) 111 <4 (<4 to <4) 109 100 (96.7–100) 11 9.9 (5.1–17.0) Anti–HPV-45 111 258.5 (224.8–297.3) 111 <3 (<3 to <3) 111 100 (96.7–100) 6 5.4 (2.0–11.4) Anti–HPV-52 98 306.3 (267.5–350.7) 96 <3 (<3 to <3) 98 100 (96.3–100) 4 4.2 (1.1–10.3) Anti–HPV-58 95 459.6 (399.9–528.3) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 95 100 (96.2–100) 12 12.1 (6.4–20.2) South Korea N = 152 N = 151 N = 152 N = 151 Anti–HPV-6 94 820.1 (684.3–982.8) 88 801.9 (665.1–966.9) 92 97.9 (92.5–99.7) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-11 94 613.0 (518.3–724.9) 88 658.2 (553.5–782.8) 94 100 (96.2–100) 88 100 (95.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 103 2641.6 (2323.2–3003.7) 99 2691.6 (2361.0–3068.3) 103 100 (96.5–100) 99 100 (96.3–100) Anti–HPV-18 109 634.9 (531.0–759.1) 104 627.0 (522.2–752.8) 108 99.1 (95.0–100) 104 100 (96.5–100) Anti–HPV-31 113 553.9 (455.4–673.8) 99 7.6 (6.2–9.4) 112 99.1 (95.2–100) 45 45.5 (35.4–55.8) Anti–HPV-33 112 337.2 (297.1–382.6) 102 <4 (<4 to <4) 112 100 (96.8–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-45 114 213.8 (183.0–249.6) 102 <3 (<3 to <3) 113 99.1 (95.2–100) 5 4.9 (1.6–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 100 310.5 (262.0–368.0) 93 <3 (<3 to <3) 100 100 (96.4–100) 3 3.2 (0.7–9.1) Anti–HPV-58 104 420.1 (361.3–488.5) 99 <4 (<4 to <4) 104 100 (96.5–100) 15 15.2 (8.7–23.8) Thailand N = 232 N = 233 N = 232 N = 233 Anti–HPV-6 158 910.5 (806.4–1028.0) 168 832.5 (740.0–936.5) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-11 158 668.1 (586.2–761.4) 168 736.7 (649.0–836.3) 158 100 (97.7–100) 168 100 (97.8–100) Anti–HPV-16 172 3479.4 (3125.1–3873.9) 182 3371.3 (3037.1–3742.3) 172 100 (97.9–100) 182 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-18 181 1095.5 (960.7–1249.2) 183 890.7 (781.7–1014.9) 181 100 (98.0–100) 183 100 (98.0–100) Anti–HPV-31 195 809.1 (687.0–952.9) 189 14.2 (12.0–16.8) 194 99.5 (97.2–100) 117 61.9 (54.6–68.9) Anti–HPV-33 189 473.3 (415.1–539.7) 196 <4 (<4 to <4) 188 99.5 (97.1–100) 28 14.3 (9.7–20.0) Anti–HPV-45 200 357.8 (313.7–408.0) 201 <3 (<3 to <3) 199 99.5 (97.2–100) 24 11.9 (7.8–17.2) Anti–HPV-52 172 387.7 (343.1–438.2) 174 <3 (<3 to <3) 171 99.4 (96.8–100) 8 4.6 (2.0–8.9) Anti–HPV-58 177 545.0 (481.8–616.4) 184 <4 (<4 to 4.2) 177 100 (97.9–100) 39 21.2 (15.5–27.8) Total N = 824 N = 823 N = 824 N = 823 Anti–HPV-6 574 810.9 (756.9–868.7) 593 742.7 (694.1–794.8) 570 99.3 (98.2–99.8) 589 99.3 (98.3–99.8) Anti–HPV-11 575 576.6 (537.7–618.3) 593 653.1 (609.7–699.6) 574 99.8 (99.0–100) 592 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-16 608 2866.4 (2695.9–3047.8) 629 2738.7 (2578.4–2908.9) 608 100 (99.4–100) 628 99.8 (99.1–100) Anti–HPV-18 634 817.8 (757.7–882.7) 655 676.9 (628.0–729.7) 632 99.7 (98.9–100) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-31 659 661.3 (605.5–722.2) 657 9.1 (8.3–10.0) 655 99.4 (98.5–99.8) 325 49.5 (45.6–53.4) Anti–HPV-33 655 401.2 (374.8–429.5) 669 < 4 (<4 to <4) 651 99.4 (98.4–99.8) 73 10.9 (8.7–13.5) Anti–HPV-45 675 265.9 (247.7–285.5) 678 < 3 (<3 to <3) 669 99.1 (98.1–99.7) 59 8.7 (6.7–11.1) Anti–HPV-52 601 331.3 (309.8–354.3) 601 < 3 (<3 to <3) 598 99.5 (98.5–99.9) 25 4.2 (2.7–6.1) Anti–HPV-58 612 486.3 (453.8–521.1) 639 < 4 (<4 to <4) 610 99.7 (98.8–100) 105 16.4 (13.6–19.5) The PPI population included all participants who had no protocol violation that could interfere with the evaluation of the immune response to vaccine as judged by the study director, received all 3 vaccinations within acceptable day ranges, were seronegative at day 1 and PCR negative day 1 through month 7 for the relevant HPV type(s), and had a month 7 serum sample collected within an acceptable day range. Seropositive percent represents proportion of participants with anti-HPV serum levels ≥30, 16, 20, 24, 10, 8, 8, 8, and 8 mMU/mL for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; CI, confidence interval; cLIA, competitive Luminex immunoassay; GMT, geometric mean titer; mMU, milli-Merck units; PPI, per-protocol immunogenicity; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. N = number of participants randomized to the respective vaccination group who received at least 1 injection. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. m = number of participants who had seroconversion. View Large Among Asian girls and boys from Study 002, GMTs for each of the 9 HPV types were higher than in the overall population of young women (N = 6792) from Study 001 (Table 5) and the subgroups of young women from each corresponding country in Study 001 (Table 4). Overall, ≥98.8% of Asian girls and boys underwent seroconversion at month 7 to each of the 9 HPV types (Table 5). Results were similar when considering GMTs and seroconversion rates for girls only (Supplementary Table 6). Table 5. Summary of Anti-HPV cLIA GMTs and Seropositivity at Month 7 in the PPI Population of Asian Girls and Boys (Aged 9–15 Years) in Study 002, by Country, and the Overall Population of Young Women (Aged 16–26 Years) From Study 001 Assay (cLIA) Study 002 Study 001a 9vHPV Vaccine (Girls and Boys Aged 9–15 y) 9vHPV Vaccine (Women Aged 16–26 y) India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Overall Study Population (N = 6792) n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL Anti–HPV-6 170 1641.2 (1428.0–1886.2) 120 2226.3 (1931.8–2565.6) 134 1308.8 (1129.9–1516.0) 131 1464.8 (1277.5–1679.6) 555 1615.9 (1503.3–1736.8) 3993 893.1 (871.7–915.1) Anti–HPV-11 170 1180.0 (1024.2–1359.5) 120 1524.0 (1318.2–1761.9) 134 956.6 (836.9–1093.5) 131 1024.5 (888.4–1181.5) 555 1146.6 (1067.2–1231.9) 3995 666.3 (649.6–683.4) Anti–HPV-16 175 7061.4 (6125.2–8140.8) 121 8265.5 (7182.8–9511.5) 135 5804.4 (5142.0–6552.1) 135 6598.6 (5742.3–7582.6) 566 6857.8 (6399.4–7349.0) 4032 3131.1 (3057.1–3206.9) Anti–HPV-18 178 2118.5 (1798.9–2494.9) 120 2530.4 (2147.5–2981.7) 137 1688.0 (1469.3–1939.3) 132 2433.7 (2081.7–2845.1) 567 2150.5 (1986.0–2328.8) 4539 804.6 (782.7–827.1) Anti–HPV-31 171 1666.0 (1453.4–1909.7) 119 2177.4 (1864.5–2542.9) 136 1636.2 (1424.7–1879.1) 133 1748.3 (1518.0–2013.7) 559 1776.3 (1654.0–1907.6) 4466 658.4 (636.7–680.9) Anti–HPV-33 175 855.0 (736.9–992.0) 121 1053.1 (907.2–1222.4) 137 796.4 (696.6–910.5) 134 891.4 (777.0–1022.6) 567 887.4 (825.7–953.7) 4702 415.9 (405.6–426.4) Anti–HPV-45 179 742.0 (627.4–877.5) 121 900.1 (746.6–1085.2) 137 715.2 (602.4–849.0) 134 787.2 (675.7–917.1) 571 776.9 (713.6–845.9) 4792 252.8 (246.2–259.6) Anti–HPV-52 176 827.0 (708.2–965.8) 121 1005.9 (866.0–1168.5) 136 779.0 (668.6–907.7) 134 753.8 (657.1–864.8) 567 831.6 (771.1–896.9) 4455 379.7 (371.6–388.0) Anti–HPV-58 173 1198.1 (1030.5–1393.0) 121 1572.7 (1362.8–1814.9) 136 1152.8 (1006.3–1320.7) 133 1209.3 (1045.5–1398.9) 563 1261.2 (1172.3–1357.0) 4486 482.5 (469.9–495.3) Assay (cLIA) m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Anti–HPV-6 168 98.8 (95.8–99.9) 120 100 (97.0–100) 133 99.3 (95.9–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 552 99.5 (98.4–99.9) 3985 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 169 99.4 (96.8–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 554 99.8 (99.0–100) 3994 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 565 99.8 (99.0–100) 4031 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-18 177 99.4 (96.9–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 132 100 (97.2–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4532 99.8 (99.7–99.9) Anti–HPV-31 171 100 (97.9–100) 119 100 (96.9–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 559 100 (99.3–100) 4457 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-33 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4689 99.7 (99.5–99.9) Anti–HPV-45 178 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 570 99.8 (99.0–100) 4773 99.6 (99.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-52 175 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4446 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-58 172 99.4 (96.8–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 562 99.8 (99.0–100) 4476 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Assay (cLIA) Study 002 Study 001a 9vHPV Vaccine (Girls and Boys Aged 9–15 y) 9vHPV Vaccine (Women Aged 16–26 y) India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Overall Study Population (N = 6792) n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL Anti–HPV-6 170 1641.2 (1428.0–1886.2) 120 2226.3 (1931.8–2565.6) 134 1308.8 (1129.9–1516.0) 131 1464.8 (1277.5–1679.6) 555 1615.9 (1503.3–1736.8) 3993 893.1 (871.7–915.1) Anti–HPV-11 170 1180.0 (1024.2–1359.5) 120 1524.0 (1318.2–1761.9) 134 956.6 (836.9–1093.5) 131 1024.5 (888.4–1181.5) 555 1146.6 (1067.2–1231.9) 3995 666.3 (649.6–683.4) Anti–HPV-16 175 7061.4 (6125.2–8140.8) 121 8265.5 (7182.8–9511.5) 135 5804.4 (5142.0–6552.1) 135 6598.6 (5742.3–7582.6) 566 6857.8 (6399.4–7349.0) 4032 3131.1 (3057.1–3206.9) Anti–HPV-18 178 2118.5 (1798.9–2494.9) 120 2530.4 (2147.5–2981.7) 137 1688.0 (1469.3–1939.3) 132 2433.7 (2081.7–2845.1) 567 2150.5 (1986.0–2328.8) 4539 804.6 (782.7–827.1) Anti–HPV-31 171 1666.0 (1453.4–1909.7) 119 2177.4 (1864.5–2542.9) 136 1636.2 (1424.7–1879.1) 133 1748.3 (1518.0–2013.7) 559 1776.3 (1654.0–1907.6) 4466 658.4 (636.7–680.9) Anti–HPV-33 175 855.0 (736.9–992.0) 121 1053.1 (907.2–1222.4) 137 796.4 (696.6–910.5) 134 891.4 (777.0–1022.6) 567 887.4 (825.7–953.7) 4702 415.9 (405.6–426.4) Anti–HPV-45 179 742.0 (627.4–877.5) 121 900.1 (746.6–1085.2) 137 715.2 (602.4–849.0) 134 787.2 (675.7–917.1) 571 776.9 (713.6–845.9) 4792 252.8 (246.2–259.6) Anti–HPV-52 176 827.0 (708.2–965.8) 121 1005.9 (866.0–1168.5) 136 779.0 (668.6–907.7) 134 753.8 (657.1–864.8) 567 831.6 (771.1–896.9) 4455 379.7 (371.6–388.0) Anti–HPV-58 173 1198.1 (1030.5–1393.0) 121 1572.7 (1362.8–1814.9) 136 1152.8 (1006.3–1320.7) 133 1209.3 (1045.5–1398.9) 563 1261.2 (1172.3–1357.0) 4486 482.5 (469.9–495.3) Assay (cLIA) m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Anti–HPV-6 168 98.8 (95.8–99.9) 120 100 (97.0–100) 133 99.3 (95.9–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 552 99.5 (98.4–99.9) 3985 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 169 99.4 (96.8–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 554 99.8 (99.0–100) 3994 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 565 99.8 (99.0–100) 4031 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-18 177 99.4 (96.9–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 132 100 (97.2–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4532 99.8 (99.7–99.9) Anti–HPV-31 171 100 (97.9–100) 119 100 (96.9–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 559 100 (99.3–100) 4457 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-33 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4689 99.7 (99.5–99.9) Anti–HPV-45 178 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 570 99.8 (99.0–100) 4773 99.6 (99.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-52 175 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4446 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-58 172 99.4 (96.8–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 562 99.8 (99.0–100) 4476 99.8 (99.6–99.9) The PPI population included all participants who had no protocol violation that could interfere with the evaluation of the immune response to vaccine as judged by the study director, received all 3 vaccinations within acceptable day ranges, were seronegative at day 1 and (16 to 26-year-old women only) PCR negative day 1 through month 7 for the relevant HPV type(s), and had a month 7 serum sample collected within an acceptable day range. Seropositive percent represents the proportion of participants with anti-HPV serum levels ≥30, 16, 20, 24, 10, 8, 8, 8, and 8 mMU/mL for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; CI, confidence interval; cLIA, competitive Luminex immunoassay; GMT, geometric mean titer; mMU, milli-Merck units; PPI, per-protocol immunogenicity. N = number of participants randomized to the respective vaccination group who received at least 1 injection. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. m = number of participants who had seroconversion. aBased on [19]. View Large Table 5. Summary of Anti-HPV cLIA GMTs and Seropositivity at Month 7 in the PPI Population of Asian Girls and Boys (Aged 9–15 Years) in Study 002, by Country, and the Overall Population of Young Women (Aged 16–26 Years) From Study 001 Assay (cLIA) Study 002 Study 001a 9vHPV Vaccine (Girls and Boys Aged 9–15 y) 9vHPV Vaccine (Women Aged 16–26 y) India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Overall Study Population (N = 6792) n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL Anti–HPV-6 170 1641.2 (1428.0–1886.2) 120 2226.3 (1931.8–2565.6) 134 1308.8 (1129.9–1516.0) 131 1464.8 (1277.5–1679.6) 555 1615.9 (1503.3–1736.8) 3993 893.1 (871.7–915.1) Anti–HPV-11 170 1180.0 (1024.2–1359.5) 120 1524.0 (1318.2–1761.9) 134 956.6 (836.9–1093.5) 131 1024.5 (888.4–1181.5) 555 1146.6 (1067.2–1231.9) 3995 666.3 (649.6–683.4) Anti–HPV-16 175 7061.4 (6125.2–8140.8) 121 8265.5 (7182.8–9511.5) 135 5804.4 (5142.0–6552.1) 135 6598.6 (5742.3–7582.6) 566 6857.8 (6399.4–7349.0) 4032 3131.1 (3057.1–3206.9) Anti–HPV-18 178 2118.5 (1798.9–2494.9) 120 2530.4 (2147.5–2981.7) 137 1688.0 (1469.3–1939.3) 132 2433.7 (2081.7–2845.1) 567 2150.5 (1986.0–2328.8) 4539 804.6 (782.7–827.1) Anti–HPV-31 171 1666.0 (1453.4–1909.7) 119 2177.4 (1864.5–2542.9) 136 1636.2 (1424.7–1879.1) 133 1748.3 (1518.0–2013.7) 559 1776.3 (1654.0–1907.6) 4466 658.4 (636.7–680.9) Anti–HPV-33 175 855.0 (736.9–992.0) 121 1053.1 (907.2–1222.4) 137 796.4 (696.6–910.5) 134 891.4 (777.0–1022.6) 567 887.4 (825.7–953.7) 4702 415.9 (405.6–426.4) Anti–HPV-45 179 742.0 (627.4–877.5) 121 900.1 (746.6–1085.2) 137 715.2 (602.4–849.0) 134 787.2 (675.7–917.1) 571 776.9 (713.6–845.9) 4792 252.8 (246.2–259.6) Anti–HPV-52 176 827.0 (708.2–965.8) 121 1005.9 (866.0–1168.5) 136 779.0 (668.6–907.7) 134 753.8 (657.1–864.8) 567 831.6 (771.1–896.9) 4455 379.7 (371.6–388.0) Anti–HPV-58 173 1198.1 (1030.5–1393.0) 121 1572.7 (1362.8–1814.9) 136 1152.8 (1006.3–1320.7) 133 1209.3 (1045.5–1398.9) 563 1261.2 (1172.3–1357.0) 4486 482.5 (469.9–495.3) Assay (cLIA) m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Anti–HPV-6 168 98.8 (95.8–99.9) 120 100 (97.0–100) 133 99.3 (95.9–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 552 99.5 (98.4–99.9) 3985 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 169 99.4 (96.8–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 554 99.8 (99.0–100) 3994 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 565 99.8 (99.0–100) 4031 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-18 177 99.4 (96.9–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 132 100 (97.2–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4532 99.8 (99.7–99.9) Anti–HPV-31 171 100 (97.9–100) 119 100 (96.9–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 559 100 (99.3–100) 4457 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-33 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4689 99.7 (99.5–99.9) Anti–HPV-45 178 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 570 99.8 (99.0–100) 4773 99.6 (99.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-52 175 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4446 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-58 172 99.4 (96.8–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 562 99.8 (99.0–100) 4476 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Assay (cLIA) Study 002 Study 001a 9vHPV Vaccine (Girls and Boys Aged 9–15 y) 9vHPV Vaccine (Women Aged 16–26 y) India (N = 200) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 608) Overall Study Population (N = 6792) n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL n GMT (95% CI), mMU/mL Anti–HPV-6 170 1641.2 (1428.0–1886.2) 120 2226.3 (1931.8–2565.6) 134 1308.8 (1129.9–1516.0) 131 1464.8 (1277.5–1679.6) 555 1615.9 (1503.3–1736.8) 3993 893.1 (871.7–915.1) Anti–HPV-11 170 1180.0 (1024.2–1359.5) 120 1524.0 (1318.2–1761.9) 134 956.6 (836.9–1093.5) 131 1024.5 (888.4–1181.5) 555 1146.6 (1067.2–1231.9) 3995 666.3 (649.6–683.4) Anti–HPV-16 175 7061.4 (6125.2–8140.8) 121 8265.5 (7182.8–9511.5) 135 5804.4 (5142.0–6552.1) 135 6598.6 (5742.3–7582.6) 566 6857.8 (6399.4–7349.0) 4032 3131.1 (3057.1–3206.9) Anti–HPV-18 178 2118.5 (1798.9–2494.9) 120 2530.4 (2147.5–2981.7) 137 1688.0 (1469.3–1939.3) 132 2433.7 (2081.7–2845.1) 567 2150.5 (1986.0–2328.8) 4539 804.6 (782.7–827.1) Anti–HPV-31 171 1666.0 (1453.4–1909.7) 119 2177.4 (1864.5–2542.9) 136 1636.2 (1424.7–1879.1) 133 1748.3 (1518.0–2013.7) 559 1776.3 (1654.0–1907.6) 4466 658.4 (636.7–680.9) Anti–HPV-33 175 855.0 (736.9–992.0) 121 1053.1 (907.2–1222.4) 137 796.4 (696.6–910.5) 134 891.4 (777.0–1022.6) 567 887.4 (825.7–953.7) 4702 415.9 (405.6–426.4) Anti–HPV-45 179 742.0 (627.4–877.5) 121 900.1 (746.6–1085.2) 137 715.2 (602.4–849.0) 134 787.2 (675.7–917.1) 571 776.9 (713.6–845.9) 4792 252.8 (246.2–259.6) Anti–HPV-52 176 827.0 (708.2–965.8) 121 1005.9 (866.0–1168.5) 136 779.0 (668.6–907.7) 134 753.8 (657.1–864.8) 567 831.6 (771.1–896.9) 4455 379.7 (371.6–388.0) Anti–HPV-58 173 1198.1 (1030.5–1393.0) 121 1572.7 (1362.8–1814.9) 136 1152.8 (1006.3–1320.7) 133 1209.3 (1045.5–1398.9) 563 1261.2 (1172.3–1357.0) 4486 482.5 (469.9–495.3) Assay (cLIA) m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % m Seropositive (95% CI), % Anti–HPV-6 168 98.8 (95.8–99.9) 120 100 (97.0–100) 133 99.3 (95.9–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 552 99.5 (98.4–99.9) 3985 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-11 169 99.4 (96.8–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 131 100 (97.2–100) 554 99.8 (99.0–100) 3994 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-16 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 135 100 (97.3–100) 565 99.8 (99.0–100) 4031 100 (99.9–100) Anti–HPV-18 177 99.4 (96.9–100) 120 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 132 100 (97.2–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4532 99.8 (99.7–99.9) Anti–HPV-31 171 100 (97.9–100) 119 100 (96.9–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 559 100 (99.3–100) 4457 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-33 174 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4689 99.7 (99.5–99.9) Anti–HPV-45 178 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 137 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 570 99.8 (99.0–100) 4773 99.6 (99.4–99.8) Anti–HPV-52 175 99.4 (96.9–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 134 100 (97.3–100) 566 99.8 (99.0–100) 4446 99.8 (99.6–99.9) Anti–HPV-58 172 99.4 (96.8–100) 121 100 (97.0–100) 136 100 (97.3–100) 133 100 (97.3–100) 562 99.8 (99.0–100) 4476 99.8 (99.6–99.9) The PPI population included all participants who had no protocol violation that could interfere with the evaluation of the immune response to vaccine as judged by the study director, received all 3 vaccinations within acceptable day ranges, were seronegative at day 1 and (16 to 26-year-old women only) PCR negative day 1 through month 7 for the relevant HPV type(s), and had a month 7 serum sample collected within an acceptable day range. Seropositive percent represents the proportion of participants with anti-HPV serum levels ≥30, 16, 20, 24, 10, 8, 8, 8, and 8 mMU/mL for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58, respectively. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; CI, confidence interval; cLIA, competitive Luminex immunoassay; GMT, geometric mean titer; mMU, milli-Merck units; PPI, per-protocol immunogenicity. N = number of participants randomized to the respective vaccination group who received at least 1 injection. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. m = number of participants who had seroconversion. aBased on [19]. View Large Safety In Study 001 (Table 6), injection-site AEs were more common within each country in young women in the 9vHPV vaccine group (85.2%, 81.9%, 87.5%, and 86.6% of participants from Hong Kong/Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, and Thailand, respectively) than in the qHPV vaccine group (77.7%, 79.5%, 82.0%, and 83.1%, respectively). The most common injection-site AEs were pain, swelling, and erythema; most were mild to moderate in intensity. The proportions of participants from Hong Kong/Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea who experienced a vaccine- related systemic AE (9vHPV, 11.8%–18.8%; qHPV, 6.3%–13.9%) were lower than in the overall study population (9vHPV, 29.5%; qHPV, 27.3 %) [18, 29]. The proportions of participants from Thailand with vaccine-related systemic AEs (9vHPV, 42.2%; qHPV, 40.3%) were significantly higher than in the overall population (Supplementary Table 7). The frequencies of severe vaccine-related systemic AEs were similar between participants from Thailand and the overall study population (Supplementary Table 7). The difference in frequency of vaccine-related systemic AEs was mainly due to a higher frequency of AEs of pyrexia among participants from Thailand (9vHPV, 16.4%; qHPV, 15.2%) versus the overall population (9vHPV, 5.0%; qHPV, 4.3%) (Supplementary Table 7); AEs of pyrexia experienced by participants from Thailand were mostly mild to moderate (Supplementary Table 7), of short duration (median, 1 day) (Supplementary Table 8), and fevers were mostly low grade (Table 6). AEs of pyrexia and elevated temperatures occurred across all the study sites in Thailand (Supplementary Table 9). Table 6. AEs in Asian Young Women (Aged 16–26 Years) from Study 001 by Vaccination Group and Country Event 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 152) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 856) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 150) Thailand (N = 231) Total (N = 854) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 304 (88.1) 108 (85.0) 137 (90.1) 211 (90.9) 760 (88.8) 297 (85.8) 103 (81.1) 130 (86.7) 206 (89.2) 736 (86.2) Injection-site eventb 294 (85.2) 104 (81.9) 133 (87.5) 201 (86.6) 732 (85.5) 269 (77.7) 101 (79.5) 123 (82.0) 192 (83.1) 685 (80.2)  Painc 286 (82.9) 104 (81.9) 131 (86.2) 199 (85.8) 720 (84.1) 260 (75.1) 100 (78.7) 119 (79.3) 189 (81.8) 668 (78.2)   Mild 216 (62.6) 63 (49.6) 76 (50.0) 103 (44.4) 458 (53.5) 217 (62.7) 76 (59.8) 86 (57.3) 93 (40.3) 472 (55.3)   Moderate 68 (19.7) 41 (32.3) 42 (27.6) 86 (37.1) 237 (27.7) 37 (10.7) 23 (18.1) 27 (18.0) 91 (39.4) 178 (20.8)   Severe 2 (0.6) 0 13 (8.6) 10 (4.3) 25 (2.9) 6 (1.7) 1 (0.8) 6 (4.0) 5 (2.2) 18 (2.1)  Swelling 160 (46.4) 57 (44.9) 79 (52.0) 71 (30.6) 367 (42.9) 99 (28.6) 53 (41.7) 53 (35.3) 63 (27.3) 268 (31.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 121 (35.1) 36 (28.3) 57 (37.5) 51 (22.0) 265 (31.0) 84 (24.3) 46 (36.2) 43 (28.7) 50 (21.6) 223 (26.1)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 27 (7.8) 14 (11.0) 11 (7.2) 15 (6.5) 67 (7.8) 12 (3.5) 5 (3.9) 6 (4.0) 11 (4.8) 34 (4.0)   Severe: >5.0 cm 11 (3.2) 7 (5.5) 11 (7.2) 5 (2.2) 34 (4.0) 3 (0.9) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.7) 2 (0.9) 11 (1.3)   Unknown 1 (0.3) 0 0 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0  Erythema 126 (36.5) 51 (40.2) 59 (38.8) 26 (11.2) 262 (30.6) 88 (25.4) 48 (37.8) 36 (24.0) 15 (6.5) 187 (21.9)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 108 (31.3) 35 (27.6) 42 (27.6) 20 (8.6) 205 (23.9) 78 (22.5) 44 (34.6) 29 (19.3) 13 (5.6) 164 (19.2)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 10 (6.6) 5 (2.2) 39 (4.6) 9 (2.6) 3 (2.4) 5 (3.3) 2 (0.9) 19 (2.2)   Severe: >5.0 cm 5 (1.4) 5 (3.9) 7 (4.6) 1 (0.4) 18 (2.1) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 0 4 (0.5)  Pruritusc 16 (4.6) 12 (9.4) 15 (9.9) 10 (4.3) 53 (6.2) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 7 (4.7) 7 (3.0) 32 (3.7)   Mild 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 12 (7.9) 7 (3.0) 43 (5.0) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 5 (3.3) 5 (2.2) 28 (3.3)   Moderate 3 (0.9) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 3 (1.3) 9 (1.1) 0 0 2 (1.3) 2 (0.9) 4 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0 Systemic eventd 136 (39.4) 41 (32.3) 70 (46.1) 128 (55.2) 375 (43.8) 141 (40.8) 38 (29.9) 72 (48.0) 139 (60.2) 390 (45.7)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 65 (18.8) 15 (11.8) 19 (12.5) 98 (42.2) 197 (23.0) 48 (13.9) 8 (6.3) 19 (12.7) 93 (40.3) 168 (19.7)   Headache 10 (2.9) 5 (3.9) 4 (2.6) 40 (17.2) 59 (6.9) 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 3 (2.0) 41 (17.7) 57 (6.7)   Pyrexia 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.3) 38 (16.4) 53 (6.2) 6 (1.7) 0 1 (0.7) 35 (15.2) 42 (4.9) Serious event 2 (0.6) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 6 (0.7) 2 (0.6) 2 (1.6) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 7 (0.8)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEe 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Serious event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Serious vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 344 127 148 231 850 346 126 148 231 851  Maximum temperatures (oral)f   ≥37.8°C 13 (3.8) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 38 (16.5) 57 (6.7) 12 (3.5) 1 (0.8) 3 (2.0) 38 (16.5) 54 (6.3)   ≥38.9°C 1 (0.3) 0 0 8 (3.5) 9 (1.1) 0 0 0 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Event 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 152) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 856) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 150) Thailand (N = 231) Total (N = 854) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 304 (88.1) 108 (85.0) 137 (90.1) 211 (90.9) 760 (88.8) 297 (85.8) 103 (81.1) 130 (86.7) 206 (89.2) 736 (86.2) Injection-site eventb 294 (85.2) 104 (81.9) 133 (87.5) 201 (86.6) 732 (85.5) 269 (77.7) 101 (79.5) 123 (82.0) 192 (83.1) 685 (80.2)  Painc 286 (82.9) 104 (81.9) 131 (86.2) 199 (85.8) 720 (84.1) 260 (75.1) 100 (78.7) 119 (79.3) 189 (81.8) 668 (78.2)   Mild 216 (62.6) 63 (49.6) 76 (50.0) 103 (44.4) 458 (53.5) 217 (62.7) 76 (59.8) 86 (57.3) 93 (40.3) 472 (55.3)   Moderate 68 (19.7) 41 (32.3) 42 (27.6) 86 (37.1) 237 (27.7) 37 (10.7) 23 (18.1) 27 (18.0) 91 (39.4) 178 (20.8)   Severe 2 (0.6) 0 13 (8.6) 10 (4.3) 25 (2.9) 6 (1.7) 1 (0.8) 6 (4.0) 5 (2.2) 18 (2.1)  Swelling 160 (46.4) 57 (44.9) 79 (52.0) 71 (30.6) 367 (42.9) 99 (28.6) 53 (41.7) 53 (35.3) 63 (27.3) 268 (31.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 121 (35.1) 36 (28.3) 57 (37.5) 51 (22.0) 265 (31.0) 84 (24.3) 46 (36.2) 43 (28.7) 50 (21.6) 223 (26.1)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 27 (7.8) 14 (11.0) 11 (7.2) 15 (6.5) 67 (7.8) 12 (3.5) 5 (3.9) 6 (4.0) 11 (4.8) 34 (4.0)   Severe: >5.0 cm 11 (3.2) 7 (5.5) 11 (7.2) 5 (2.2) 34 (4.0) 3 (0.9) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.7) 2 (0.9) 11 (1.3)   Unknown 1 (0.3) 0 0 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0  Erythema 126 (36.5) 51 (40.2) 59 (38.8) 26 (11.2) 262 (30.6) 88 (25.4) 48 (37.8) 36 (24.0) 15 (6.5) 187 (21.9)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 108 (31.3) 35 (27.6) 42 (27.6) 20 (8.6) 205 (23.9) 78 (22.5) 44 (34.6) 29 (19.3) 13 (5.6) 164 (19.2)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 10 (6.6) 5 (2.2) 39 (4.6) 9 (2.6) 3 (2.4) 5 (3.3) 2 (0.9) 19 (2.2)   Severe: >5.0 cm 5 (1.4) 5 (3.9) 7 (4.6) 1 (0.4) 18 (2.1) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 0 4 (0.5)  Pruritusc 16 (4.6) 12 (9.4) 15 (9.9) 10 (4.3) 53 (6.2) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 7 (4.7) 7 (3.0) 32 (3.7)   Mild 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 12 (7.9) 7 (3.0) 43 (5.0) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 5 (3.3) 5 (2.2) 28 (3.3)   Moderate 3 (0.9) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 3 (1.3) 9 (1.1) 0 0 2 (1.3) 2 (0.9) 4 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0 Systemic eventd 136 (39.4) 41 (32.3) 70 (46.1) 128 (55.2) 375 (43.8) 141 (40.8) 38 (29.9) 72 (48.0) 139 (60.2) 390 (45.7)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 65 (18.8) 15 (11.8) 19 (12.5) 98 (42.2) 197 (23.0) 48 (13.9) 8 (6.3) 19 (12.7) 93 (40.3) 168 (19.7)   Headache 10 (2.9) 5 (3.9) 4 (2.6) 40 (17.2) 59 (6.9) 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 3 (2.0) 41 (17.7) 57 (6.7)   Pyrexia 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.3) 38 (16.4) 53 (6.2) 6 (1.7) 0 1 (0.7) 35 (15.2) 42 (4.9) Serious event 2 (0.6) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 6 (0.7) 2 (0.6) 2 (1.6) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 7 (0.8)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEe 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Serious event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Serious vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 344 127 148 231 850 346 126 148 231 851  Maximum temperatures (oral)f   ≥37.8°C 13 (3.8) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 38 (16.5) 57 (6.7) 12 (3.5) 1 (0.8) 3 (2.0) 38 (16.5) 54 (6.3)   ≥38.9°C 1 (0.3) 0 0 8 (3.5) 9 (1.1) 0 0 0 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Every participant is counted a single time for each applicable specific AE. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; AE, adverse event; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. N = number of participants who underwent randomization, received at least 1 dose of vaccine, and had at least 1 follow-up visit related to the AE. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. aAEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. bInjection-site events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. cIntensities of pain and itching were defined as: mild if there was an awareness of the sign or symptom but it did not interfere with usual activities; as moderate if there was enough discomfort to cause interference with usual activity; and as severe if the pain or discomfort was incapacitating, rendering the participant unable to work or carry out usual activities. dSystemic events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. eDiscontinuation due to AE was reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. fTemperatures were recorded within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. View Large Table 6. AEs in Asian Young Women (Aged 16–26 Years) from Study 001 by Vaccination Group and Country Event 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 152) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 856) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 150) Thailand (N = 231) Total (N = 854) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 304 (88.1) 108 (85.0) 137 (90.1) 211 (90.9) 760 (88.8) 297 (85.8) 103 (81.1) 130 (86.7) 206 (89.2) 736 (86.2) Injection-site eventb 294 (85.2) 104 (81.9) 133 (87.5) 201 (86.6) 732 (85.5) 269 (77.7) 101 (79.5) 123 (82.0) 192 (83.1) 685 (80.2)  Painc 286 (82.9) 104 (81.9) 131 (86.2) 199 (85.8) 720 (84.1) 260 (75.1) 100 (78.7) 119 (79.3) 189 (81.8) 668 (78.2)   Mild 216 (62.6) 63 (49.6) 76 (50.0) 103 (44.4) 458 (53.5) 217 (62.7) 76 (59.8) 86 (57.3) 93 (40.3) 472 (55.3)   Moderate 68 (19.7) 41 (32.3) 42 (27.6) 86 (37.1) 237 (27.7) 37 (10.7) 23 (18.1) 27 (18.0) 91 (39.4) 178 (20.8)   Severe 2 (0.6) 0 13 (8.6) 10 (4.3) 25 (2.9) 6 (1.7) 1 (0.8) 6 (4.0) 5 (2.2) 18 (2.1)  Swelling 160 (46.4) 57 (44.9) 79 (52.0) 71 (30.6) 367 (42.9) 99 (28.6) 53 (41.7) 53 (35.3) 63 (27.3) 268 (31.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 121 (35.1) 36 (28.3) 57 (37.5) 51 (22.0) 265 (31.0) 84 (24.3) 46 (36.2) 43 (28.7) 50 (21.6) 223 (26.1)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 27 (7.8) 14 (11.0) 11 (7.2) 15 (6.5) 67 (7.8) 12 (3.5) 5 (3.9) 6 (4.0) 11 (4.8) 34 (4.0)   Severe: >5.0 cm 11 (3.2) 7 (5.5) 11 (7.2) 5 (2.2) 34 (4.0) 3 (0.9) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.7) 2 (0.9) 11 (1.3)   Unknown 1 (0.3) 0 0 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0  Erythema 126 (36.5) 51 (40.2) 59 (38.8) 26 (11.2) 262 (30.6) 88 (25.4) 48 (37.8) 36 (24.0) 15 (6.5) 187 (21.9)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 108 (31.3) 35 (27.6) 42 (27.6) 20 (8.6) 205 (23.9) 78 (22.5) 44 (34.6) 29 (19.3) 13 (5.6) 164 (19.2)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 10 (6.6) 5 (2.2) 39 (4.6) 9 (2.6) 3 (2.4) 5 (3.3) 2 (0.9) 19 (2.2)   Severe: >5.0 cm 5 (1.4) 5 (3.9) 7 (4.6) 1 (0.4) 18 (2.1) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 0 4 (0.5)  Pruritusc 16 (4.6) 12 (9.4) 15 (9.9) 10 (4.3) 53 (6.2) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 7 (4.7) 7 (3.0) 32 (3.7)   Mild 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 12 (7.9) 7 (3.0) 43 (5.0) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 5 (3.3) 5 (2.2) 28 (3.3)   Moderate 3 (0.9) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 3 (1.3) 9 (1.1) 0 0 2 (1.3) 2 (0.9) 4 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0 Systemic eventd 136 (39.4) 41 (32.3) 70 (46.1) 128 (55.2) 375 (43.8) 141 (40.8) 38 (29.9) 72 (48.0) 139 (60.2) 390 (45.7)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 65 (18.8) 15 (11.8) 19 (12.5) 98 (42.2) 197 (23.0) 48 (13.9) 8 (6.3) 19 (12.7) 93 (40.3) 168 (19.7)   Headache 10 (2.9) 5 (3.9) 4 (2.6) 40 (17.2) 59 (6.9) 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 3 (2.0) 41 (17.7) 57 (6.7)   Pyrexia 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.3) 38 (16.4) 53 (6.2) 6 (1.7) 0 1 (0.7) 35 (15.2) 42 (4.9) Serious event 2 (0.6) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 6 (0.7) 2 (0.6) 2 (1.6) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 7 (0.8)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEe 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Serious event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Serious vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 344 127 148 231 850 346 126 148 231 851  Maximum temperatures (oral)f   ≥37.8°C 13 (3.8) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 38 (16.5) 57 (6.7) 12 (3.5) 1 (0.8) 3 (2.0) 38 (16.5) 54 (6.3)   ≥38.9°C 1 (0.3) 0 0 8 (3.5) 9 (1.1) 0 0 0 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Event 9vHPV Vaccine qHPV Vaccine Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 345) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 152) Thailand (N = 232) Total (N = 856) Hong Kong and Taiwan (N = 346) Japan (N = 127) South Korea (N = 150) Thailand (N = 231) Total (N = 854) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 304 (88.1) 108 (85.0) 137 (90.1) 211 (90.9) 760 (88.8) 297 (85.8) 103 (81.1) 130 (86.7) 206 (89.2) 736 (86.2) Injection-site eventb 294 (85.2) 104 (81.9) 133 (87.5) 201 (86.6) 732 (85.5) 269 (77.7) 101 (79.5) 123 (82.0) 192 (83.1) 685 (80.2)  Painc 286 (82.9) 104 (81.9) 131 (86.2) 199 (85.8) 720 (84.1) 260 (75.1) 100 (78.7) 119 (79.3) 189 (81.8) 668 (78.2)   Mild 216 (62.6) 63 (49.6) 76 (50.0) 103 (44.4) 458 (53.5) 217 (62.7) 76 (59.8) 86 (57.3) 93 (40.3) 472 (55.3)   Moderate 68 (19.7) 41 (32.3) 42 (27.6) 86 (37.1) 237 (27.7) 37 (10.7) 23 (18.1) 27 (18.0) 91 (39.4) 178 (20.8)   Severe 2 (0.6) 0 13 (8.6) 10 (4.3) 25 (2.9) 6 (1.7) 1 (0.8) 6 (4.0) 5 (2.2) 18 (2.1)  Swelling 160 (46.4) 57 (44.9) 79 (52.0) 71 (30.6) 367 (42.9) 99 (28.6) 53 (41.7) 53 (35.3) 63 (27.3) 268 (31.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 121 (35.1) 36 (28.3) 57 (37.5) 51 (22.0) 265 (31.0) 84 (24.3) 46 (36.2) 43 (28.7) 50 (21.6) 223 (26.1)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 27 (7.8) 14 (11.0) 11 (7.2) 15 (6.5) 67 (7.8) 12 (3.5) 5 (3.9) 6 (4.0) 11 (4.8) 34 (4.0)   Severe: >5.0 cm 11 (3.2) 7 (5.5) 11 (7.2) 5 (2.2) 34 (4.0) 3 (0.9) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.7) 2 (0.9) 11 (1.3)   Unknown 1 (0.3) 0 0 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0  Erythema 126 (36.5) 51 (40.2) 59 (38.8) 26 (11.2) 262 (30.6) 88 (25.4) 48 (37.8) 36 (24.0) 15 (6.5) 187 (21.9)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 108 (31.3) 35 (27.6) 42 (27.6) 20 (8.6) 205 (23.9) 78 (22.5) 44 (34.6) 29 (19.3) 13 (5.6) 164 (19.2)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 10 (6.6) 5 (2.2) 39 (4.6) 9 (2.6) 3 (2.4) 5 (3.3) 2 (0.9) 19 (2.2)   Severe: >5.0 cm 5 (1.4) 5 (3.9) 7 (4.6) 1 (0.4) 18 (2.1) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 0 4 (0.5)  Pruritusc 16 (4.6) 12 (9.4) 15 (9.9) 10 (4.3) 53 (6.2) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 7 (4.7) 7 (3.0) 32 (3.7)   Mild 13 (3.8) 11 (8.7) 12 (7.9) 7 (3.0) 43 (5.0) 4 (1.2) 14 (11.0) 5 (3.3) 5 (2.2) 28 (3.3)   Moderate 3 (0.9) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.3) 3 (1.3) 9 (1.1) 0 0 2 (1.3) 2 (0.9) 4 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1) 0 0 0 0 0 Systemic eventd 136 (39.4) 41 (32.3) 70 (46.1) 128 (55.2) 375 (43.8) 141 (40.8) 38 (29.9) 72 (48.0) 139 (60.2) 390 (45.7)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 65 (18.8) 15 (11.8) 19 (12.5) 98 (42.2) 197 (23.0) 48 (13.9) 8 (6.3) 19 (12.7) 93 (40.3) 168 (19.7)   Headache 10 (2.9) 5 (3.9) 4 (2.6) 40 (17.2) 59 (6.9) 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 3 (2.0) 41 (17.7) 57 (6.7)   Pyrexia 9 (2.6) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.3) 38 (16.4) 53 (6.2) 6 (1.7) 0 1 (0.7) 35 (15.2) 42 (4.9) Serious event 2 (0.6) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 6 (0.7) 2 (0.6) 2 (1.6) 1 (0.7) 2 (0.9) 7 (0.8)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEe 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 0 0 1 (0.7) 0 1 (0.1)  Serious event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Serious vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 344 127 148 231 850 346 126 148 231 851  Maximum temperatures (oral)f   ≥37.8°C 13 (3.8) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 38 (16.5) 57 (6.7) 12 (3.5) 1 (0.8) 3 (2.0) 38 (16.5) 54 (6.3)   ≥38.9°C 1 (0.3) 0 0 8 (3.5) 9 (1.1) 0 0 0 4 (1.7) 4 (0.5) Every participant is counted a single time for each applicable specific AE. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; AE, adverse event; qHPV, quadrivalent human papillomavirus. N = number of participants who underwent randomization, received at least 1 dose of vaccine, and had at least 1 follow-up visit related to the AE. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. aAEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. bInjection-site events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. cIntensities of pain and itching were defined as: mild if there was an awareness of the sign or symptom but it did not interfere with usual activities; as moderate if there was enough discomfort to cause interference with usual activity; and as severe if the pain or discomfort was incapacitating, rendering the participant unable to work or carry out usual activities. dSystemic events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. eDiscontinuation due to AE was reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. fTemperatures were recorded within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. View Large In Study 002 (Table 7), 62.4%, 74.4%, 71.2%, and 85.7% of girls and boys from India, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand, respectively, experienced an injection-site AE. The most common injection-site AEs were pain, swelling, and erythema; most were mild to moderate in intensity. Similar results were observed when considering only girls (Supplementary Table 10). The 9vHPV vaccine was generally well tolerated in young Indian women (Supplementary Table 11). Vaccine-related systemic AEs were more common among girls and boys from Thailand (26.4%) than those from India, South Korea, and Taiwan (4.3%–10.8%) (Table 7) but comparable with girls and boys from the overall study population (21.1%) (Supplementary Table 12). The most common vaccine-related AEs were headache and pyrexia. The frequency of vaccine-related pyrexia was higher in girls and boys from Thailand (13.6%) compared with the overall study population (7.2%) (Supplementary Table 12); vaccine-related systemic AEs were mild to moderate (Supplementary Table 12) and generally of short duration (median, 1 day) in girls and boys from Thailand (Supplementary Table 13). AEs of pyrexia occurred at both study sites in Thailand (Supplementary Table 14). Table 7. AEs in Asian Girls and Boys (Aged 9–15 Years) in Study 002 by Country Event 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 194) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 602) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 127 (65.5) 99 (76.7) 104 (74.8) 126 (90.0) 456 (75.7) Injection-site eventb 121 (62.4) 96 (74.4) 99 (71.2) 120 (85.7) 436 (72.4)  Painc 117 (60.3) 91 (70.5) 96 (69.1) 118 (84.3) 422 (70.1)   Mild 62 (32.0) 72 (55.8) 77 (55.4) 74 (52.9) 285 (47.3)   Moderate 46 (23.7) 17 (13.2) 17 (12.2) 39 (27.9) 119 (19.8)   Severe 9 (4.6) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 5 (3.6) 18 (3.0)  Swelling 46 (23.7) 26 (20.2) 40 (28.8) 35 (25.0) 147 (24.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 35 (18.0) 12 (9.3) 29 (20.9) 23 (16.4) 99 (16.4)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 8 (4.1) 8 (6.2) 8 (5.8) 8 (5.7) 32 (5.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 3 (1.5) 6 (4.7) 3 (2.2) 4 (2.9) 16 (2.7)  Erythema 36 (18.6) 34 (26.4) 39 (28.1) 13 (9.3) 122 (20.3)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 31 (16.0) 27 (20.9) 33 (23.7) 9 (6.4) 100 (16.6)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 4 (2.1) 3 (2.3) 4 (2.9) 3 (2.1) 14 (2.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 1 (0.5) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 1 (0.7) 8 (1.3)  Pruritusc 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 6 (4.3) 1 (0.7) 19 (3.2)   Mild 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 3 (2.2) 1 (0.7) 16 (2.7)   Moderate 0 0 3 (2.2) 0 3 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 0 0 0  Edemad 0 19 (14.7) 0 0 19 (3.2)   Mild 0 12 (9.3) 0 0 12 (2.0)   Moderate 0 4 (3.1) 0 0 4 (0.7)   Severe 0 3 (2.3) 0 0 3 (0.5) Systemic evente 34 (17.5) 35 (27.1) 25 (18.0) 69 (49.3) 163 (27.1)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 21 (10.8) 6 (4.7) 6 (4.3) 37 (26.4) 70 (11.6)   Headache 1 (0.5) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 15 (10.7) 20 (3.3)   Pyrexia 19 (9.8) 0 3 (2.2) 19 (13.6) 41 (6.8) Serious event 0 2 (1.6) 0 0 2 (0.3)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEf 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 194 129 139 140 602 Maximum temperatures (oral)g  ≥37.8°C 20 (10.3) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.9) 24 (17.1) 50 (8.3)  ≥38.9°C 0 0 1 (0.7) 5 (3.6) 6 (1.0) Event 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 194) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 602) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 127 (65.5) 99 (76.7) 104 (74.8) 126 (90.0) 456 (75.7) Injection-site eventb 121 (62.4) 96 (74.4) 99 (71.2) 120 (85.7) 436 (72.4)  Painc 117 (60.3) 91 (70.5) 96 (69.1) 118 (84.3) 422 (70.1)   Mild 62 (32.0) 72 (55.8) 77 (55.4) 74 (52.9) 285 (47.3)   Moderate 46 (23.7) 17 (13.2) 17 (12.2) 39 (27.9) 119 (19.8)   Severe 9 (4.6) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 5 (3.6) 18 (3.0)  Swelling 46 (23.7) 26 (20.2) 40 (28.8) 35 (25.0) 147 (24.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 35 (18.0) 12 (9.3) 29 (20.9) 23 (16.4) 99 (16.4)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 8 (4.1) 8 (6.2) 8 (5.8) 8 (5.7) 32 (5.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 3 (1.5) 6 (4.7) 3 (2.2) 4 (2.9) 16 (2.7)  Erythema 36 (18.6) 34 (26.4) 39 (28.1) 13 (9.3) 122 (20.3)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 31 (16.0) 27 (20.9) 33 (23.7) 9 (6.4) 100 (16.6)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 4 (2.1) 3 (2.3) 4 (2.9) 3 (2.1) 14 (2.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 1 (0.5) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 1 (0.7) 8 (1.3)  Pruritusc 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 6 (4.3) 1 (0.7) 19 (3.2)   Mild 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 3 (2.2) 1 (0.7) 16 (2.7)   Moderate 0 0 3 (2.2) 0 3 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 0 0 0  Edemad 0 19 (14.7) 0 0 19 (3.2)   Mild 0 12 (9.3) 0 0 12 (2.0)   Moderate 0 4 (3.1) 0 0 4 (0.7)   Severe 0 3 (2.3) 0 0 3 (0.5) Systemic evente 34 (17.5) 35 (27.1) 25 (18.0) 69 (49.3) 163 (27.1)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 21 (10.8) 6 (4.7) 6 (4.3) 37 (26.4) 70 (11.6)   Headache 1 (0.5) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 15 (10.7) 20 (3.3)   Pyrexia 19 (9.8) 0 3 (2.2) 19 (13.6) 41 (6.8) Serious event 0 2 (1.6) 0 0 2 (0.3)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEf 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 194 129 139 140 602 Maximum temperatures (oral)g  ≥37.8°C 20 (10.3) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.9) 24 (17.1) 50 (8.3)  ≥38.9°C 0 0 1 (0.7) 5 (3.6) 6 (1.0) Every participant is counted a single time for each applicable specific AE. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; AE, adverse event. N = number of participants who underwent randomization, received at least 1 dose of vaccine, and had at least 1 follow-up visit related to the AE. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. aAEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. bInjection-site events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. cIntensities of pain and itching were defined as: mild if there was an awareness of the sign or symptom but it did not interfere with usual activities; as moderate if there was enough discomfort to cause interference with usual activity; and as severe if the pain or discomfort was incapacitating, rendering the participant unable to work or carry out usual activities. dInjection-site edema was reported in 19 girls and boys from a single study site in South Korea in Study 002. Edema was not reported as an AE at other study sites in South Korea or other countries; moreover, this particular study site did not report any event of injection-site swelling, even though this would have been anticipated because injection-site swelling is one of the most common AEs following vaccination. Reports of injection-site AE of edema at this study site may be due to language-related misinterpretation (ie, even though there are 2 distinct Korean words for swelling and edema, respectively, there is also another word for both swelling and edema). eSystemic events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. fDiscontinuation due to AE was reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. gTemperatures were recorded within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. View Large Table 7. AEs in Asian Girls and Boys (Aged 9–15 Years) in Study 002 by Country Event 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 194) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 602) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 127 (65.5) 99 (76.7) 104 (74.8) 126 (90.0) 456 (75.7) Injection-site eventb 121 (62.4) 96 (74.4) 99 (71.2) 120 (85.7) 436 (72.4)  Painc 117 (60.3) 91 (70.5) 96 (69.1) 118 (84.3) 422 (70.1)   Mild 62 (32.0) 72 (55.8) 77 (55.4) 74 (52.9) 285 (47.3)   Moderate 46 (23.7) 17 (13.2) 17 (12.2) 39 (27.9) 119 (19.8)   Severe 9 (4.6) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 5 (3.6) 18 (3.0)  Swelling 46 (23.7) 26 (20.2) 40 (28.8) 35 (25.0) 147 (24.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 35 (18.0) 12 (9.3) 29 (20.9) 23 (16.4) 99 (16.4)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 8 (4.1) 8 (6.2) 8 (5.8) 8 (5.7) 32 (5.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 3 (1.5) 6 (4.7) 3 (2.2) 4 (2.9) 16 (2.7)  Erythema 36 (18.6) 34 (26.4) 39 (28.1) 13 (9.3) 122 (20.3)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 31 (16.0) 27 (20.9) 33 (23.7) 9 (6.4) 100 (16.6)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 4 (2.1) 3 (2.3) 4 (2.9) 3 (2.1) 14 (2.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 1 (0.5) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 1 (0.7) 8 (1.3)  Pruritusc 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 6 (4.3) 1 (0.7) 19 (3.2)   Mild 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 3 (2.2) 1 (0.7) 16 (2.7)   Moderate 0 0 3 (2.2) 0 3 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 0 0 0  Edemad 0 19 (14.7) 0 0 19 (3.2)   Mild 0 12 (9.3) 0 0 12 (2.0)   Moderate 0 4 (3.1) 0 0 4 (0.7)   Severe 0 3 (2.3) 0 0 3 (0.5) Systemic evente 34 (17.5) 35 (27.1) 25 (18.0) 69 (49.3) 163 (27.1)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 21 (10.8) 6 (4.7) 6 (4.3) 37 (26.4) 70 (11.6)   Headache 1 (0.5) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 15 (10.7) 20 (3.3)   Pyrexia 19 (9.8) 0 3 (2.2) 19 (13.6) 41 (6.8) Serious event 0 2 (1.6) 0 0 2 (0.3)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEf 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 194 129 139 140 602 Maximum temperatures (oral)g  ≥37.8°C 20 (10.3) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.9) 24 (17.1) 50 (8.3)  ≥38.9°C 0 0 1 (0.7) 5 (3.6) 6 (1.0) Event 9vHPV Vaccine India (N = 194) South Korea (N = 129) Taiwan (N = 139) Thailand (N = 140) Total (N = 602) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) Participants with 1 or more AEa 127 (65.5) 99 (76.7) 104 (74.8) 126 (90.0) 456 (75.7) Injection-site eventb 121 (62.4) 96 (74.4) 99 (71.2) 120 (85.7) 436 (72.4)  Painc 117 (60.3) 91 (70.5) 96 (69.1) 118 (84.3) 422 (70.1)   Mild 62 (32.0) 72 (55.8) 77 (55.4) 74 (52.9) 285 (47.3)   Moderate 46 (23.7) 17 (13.2) 17 (12.2) 39 (27.9) 119 (19.8)   Severe 9 (4.6) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 5 (3.6) 18 (3.0)  Swelling 46 (23.7) 26 (20.2) 40 (28.8) 35 (25.0) 147 (24.4)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 35 (18.0) 12 (9.3) 29 (20.9) 23 (16.4) 99 (16.4)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 8 (4.1) 8 (6.2) 8 (5.8) 8 (5.7) 32 (5.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 3 (1.5) 6 (4.7) 3 (2.2) 4 (2.9) 16 (2.7)  Erythema 36 (18.6) 34 (26.4) 39 (28.1) 13 (9.3) 122 (20.3)   Mild: 0 to ≤2.5 cm 31 (16.0) 27 (20.9) 33 (23.7) 9 (6.4) 100 (16.6)   Moderate: >2.5 cm to ≤5.0 cm 4 (2.1) 3 (2.3) 4 (2.9) 3 (2.1) 14 (2.3)   Severe: >5.0 cm 1 (0.5) 4 (3.1) 2 (1.4) 1 (0.7) 8 (1.3)  Pruritusc 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 6 (4.3) 1 (0.7) 19 (3.2)   Mild 1 (0.5) 11 (8.5) 3 (2.2) 1 (0.7) 16 (2.7)   Moderate 0 0 3 (2.2) 0 3 (0.5)   Severe 0 0 0 0 0  Edemad 0 19 (14.7) 0 0 19 (3.2)   Mild 0 12 (9.3) 0 0 12 (2.0)   Moderate 0 4 (3.1) 0 0 4 (0.7)   Severe 0 3 (2.3) 0 0 3 (0.5) Systemic evente 34 (17.5) 35 (27.1) 25 (18.0) 69 (49.3) 163 (27.1)  Any vaccine-related systemic event 21 (10.8) 6 (4.7) 6 (4.3) 37 (26.4) 70 (11.6)   Headache 1 (0.5) 2 (1.6) 2 (1.4) 15 (10.7) 20 (3.3)   Pyrexia 19 (9.8) 0 3 (2.2) 19 (13.6) 41 (6.8) Serious event 0 2 (1.6) 0 0 2 (0.3)  Vaccine-related event 0 0 0 0 0  Death 0 0 0 0 0 Discontinuation due to AEf 0 0 0 0 0 Participants with temperature data (N) 194 129 139 140 602 Maximum temperatures (oral)g  ≥37.8°C 20 (10.3) 2 (1.6) 4 (2.9) 24 (17.1) 50 (8.3)  ≥38.9°C 0 0 1 (0.7) 5 (3.6) 6 (1.0) Every participant is counted a single time for each applicable specific AE. Abbreviations: 9vHPV, 9-valent human papillomavirus; AE, adverse event. N = number of participants who underwent randomization, received at least 1 dose of vaccine, and had at least 1 follow-up visit related to the AE. n = number of participants contributing to the analysis. aAEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. bInjection-site events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. cIntensities of pain and itching were defined as: mild if there was an awareness of the sign or symptom but it did not interfere with usual activities; as moderate if there was enough discomfort to cause interference with usual activity; and as severe if the pain or discomfort was incapacitating, rendering the participant unable to work or carry out usual activities. dInjection-site edema was reported in 19 girls and boys from a single study site in South Korea in Study 002. Edema was not reported as an AE at other study sites in South Korea or other countries; moreover, this particular study site did not report any event of injection-site swelling, even though this would have been anticipated because injection-site swelling is one of the most common AEs following vaccination. Reports of injection-site AE of edema at this study site may be due to language-related misinterpretation (ie, even though there are 2 distinct Korean words for swelling and edema, respectively, there is also another word for both swelling and edema). eSystemic events were AEs that were reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. A specific AE appears on this table only if its incidence in 1 or more of the columns is ≥5% incidence after rounding. fDiscontinuation due to AE was reported within 1 to 15 days after any vaccination. gTemperatures were recorded within 1 to 5 days after any vaccination. View Large In both studies, discontinuations due to AEs were rare (9vHPV, n = 2; qHPV, n = 1; see Supplementary Material for details). No serious vaccine-related AEs were reported among Asian participants for the entire study duration. Three Asian participants (all from Study 001) died during the entire course of the study (see the Supplementary Material for more information); none of the deaths were considered vaccine related. DISCUSSION The 9vHPV vaccine markedly reduced the risk of HPV-31/33/45/52/58–related persistent infection, cervical cytological abnormalities, disease, and medical procedures in Asian participants. Consistent with the HPV type distribution observed in epidemiological studies in Asia, HPV-52 and HPV-58 were most commonly associated with persistent infections and cervical cytological abnormalities in participants who received the qHPV vaccine [1, 6, 31]. In the mITT analyses, nearly all cases of persistent infection and cervical cytological abnormalities and disease occurred among participants who were infected with HPV before vaccination, which highlights the value of implementing vaccination before exposure to HPV. The 9vHPV vaccine induced robust anti–HPV-6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 antibody responses, with seroconversion rates ≥97.9%. GMTs to HPV-6/11/16/18 were generally comparable between 9vHPV and qHPV vaccine recipients, although GMTs for HPV-11 tended to be lower with 9vHPV vaccine. This is similar to observations in the overall study population and may not be clinically meaningful, as robust HPV-11 antibody responses were observed with both vaccines and no cases of HPV-11–related persistent infection or disease were observed in per-protocol analyses [18, 19]. GMTs to all 9 included HPV types were higher in girls and boys compared with young women from the same country, similar to previous reports in other regions (including Europe, Latin America, and North America [32], and Japan [25]). The 9vHPV vaccine was generally well tolerated in all subgroups. Injection-site AEs were generally more frequent with the 9vHPV vaccine than the qHPV vaccine, as previously observed in the overall study population [18]. Rates of vaccine-related systemic AEs were generally lower among Asian participants than in the overall population. Participants from Thailand, however, were more likely to experience vaccine-related AEs, due to a higher frequency of low-grade, short-lived fevers. The reasons for these differences are unknown; however, their impact is limited, and they do not appear to represent a clinical concern. Overall, the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety profile of the 9vHPV vaccine was generally consistent with published results from the overall study populations [18–20]. Real-world experience in the 10 years following introduction of qHPV and bivalent HPV vaccines has demonstrated that vaccination prevents HPV infections and HPV-related disease and supports the favorable safety profile of HPV vaccines [9, 33, 34]. A recent meta-analysis found that HPV vaccines were highly immunogenic and well tolerated in Asian populations, consistent with international HPV vaccination studies [35]. Vaccination programs may represent the most effective prevention strategies in countries without organized cervical cancer screening programs [3, 36]. This is relevant to Asia, which contributes over half of the global cervical cancer burden, and where comprehensive, organized screening programs have not been widely implemented [4]. The 9vHPV vaccine can provide additional benefits over bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines by expanding coverage to HPV-31/33/45/52/58. The expansion of vaccine coverage to HPV-52/58 is of particular importance in Asia due to the relatively high prevalence of these types (see Supplementary Material) [1, 12]. The robust reduction of HPV-52– and HPV-58–related persistent infection and cervical cytological abnormalities in 9vHPV vaccine recipients should inform cervical screening algorithms in vaccinated populations in Asia. HPV vaccination is considered likely to be cost effective in preventing HPV-associated cancers, particularly in developing countries with limited access to other forms of cervical cancer prevention and control [37–39]. Based on studies using Japanese, US and Austrian data, a vaccination program for 9vHPV is expected to improve health outcomes and be cost effective compared with programs implemented with bivalent or qHPV vaccines [40–43]. Although several Asian countries have licensed bivalent or qHPV vaccines, few have implemented national HPV vaccination programs to date [3–5], and only approximately 0.2% of Asian women have received a full course of HPV vaccination, compared with 1.4% worldwide [3]. In Malaysia, a national school-based HPV vaccination program has been in place since 2010 and achieved a high degree of coverage [3–5]. Pilot programs had been implemented in India and Thailand as of 2015 [3]. Issues related to loss of public confidence in vaccination and misperceptions surrounding vaccine safety have emerged in some regions [44–46], despite data from large epidemiological studies and active surveillance programs by national and international organizations, which overwhelmingly support the safety of HPV vaccination [47–49]. As misperceptions regarding vaccine safety and clusters of anxiety-related immunization reactions can have damaging consequences for vaccination programs [46, 50], health care professionals and authorities must be prepared to respond to these challenges in implementing successful vaccination programs [50]. In conclusion, the 9vHPV vaccine is efficacious, immunogenic, and generally well tolerated in clinical studies in Asian girls, boys, and young women, consistent with findings in the global clinical program. These data support widespread vaccination programs in Asia. This information may represent valuable insight for decision-making purposes regarding implementation of vaccination programs/HPV-related disease prevention. Supplementary Data Supplementary materials are available at The Journal of Infectious Diseases online. Consisting of data provided by the authors to benefit the reader, the posted materials are not copyedited and are the sole responsibility of the authors, so questions or comments should be addressed to the corresponding author. Notes Acknowledgments. Medical writing support was provided by Erin Bekes, PhD, of Complete Medical Communications and was funded by Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. Primary Investigators in Asia, Study V503-001: Hong-Kong: Tak-Hong Cheung, Yuen-Sheung Hextan Ngan; Japan: Hideki Hanashi, Masaru Sakamoto, Nobuhiro Takeshima, Yuzuru Takeuchi, Wataru Tsunezawa; South Korea: Chi-Heum Cho, Byoung Gie Kim, Seung Cheol Kim, Young Tak Kim, Hee-Sug Ryu, Yong Sang Song; Taiwan: Chi-An Chen, Hung-Hsueh Chou, Tang-Yuan Chu, Chung-Yuan Lee, Nae-Fang Twu, Yuh-Cheng Yang, Mu-Hsien Yu; Thailand: Nipon Khemapech, Sompong Koonlerkit, Sutham Pinjaroen, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Sarikapan Wilailak. Study V503-002: India: Amaresh Adyar, Neerja Bhatla, Sukanta Chatterjee, Hemant Jain, Sanjay Lalwani, Sudha Marwah, Daljit Singh; Korea: Chi-Heum Cho, Jin Han Kang, Dongsoo Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim; Taiwan: Li-Min Huang, Tzou-Yien Liu, Horng-Der Tsai; Thailand: Punnee Pitisuttithum, Rudiwilai Samakoses. Financial support. This work was supported by Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. Potential conflicts of interest. S. M. G. has received grants from Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, GlaxoSmithKline, CSL, and Commonwealth Department of Health through her institution, travel, and accommodation expenses paid by Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, to present at HPV advisory board meetings, and has delivered lectures and received speaking fees from Merck Sharpe & Dohme (MSD) and SPMSD for work performed in her personal time. L.-M. H. has received personal fees as a lecturer for educational symposium from MSD, a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. N. B. has received research funding through her institution for this study. H. Y. has received lecture and advisory fees from GlaxoSmithKline K.K. and MSD K.K., Tokyo, Japan. M. C. E., E. M., M. R., C. S., A. W., G. P., and A. L. are employees of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA, and may have received stock/stock options. S. R. H., S. M., and M. S. are employees of MSD K.K., Tokyo, Japan. 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The Journal of Infectious DiseasesOxford University Press

Published: May 15, 2018

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