Determinants of γ-herpesvirus shedding in saliva among Ugandan children and their mothers

Determinants of γ-herpesvirus shedding in saliva among Ugandan children and their mothers Abstract Introduction Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are transmitted via saliva but factors associated with salivary shedding are unknown. Methods We measured the shedding of both viruses in the saliva of ~500 Ugandan mothers and their six-year old children, testing all participants for EBV and KSHV seropositive individuals for KSHV. Results EBV and KSHV were shed by 72% and 22% of the mothers, and by 85% and 40% of children, respectively; boys were more likely than girls to shed KSHV (48% versus 30%), but not EBV. Children shed more KSHV and EBV than mothers, however salivary of loads EBV and KSHV were similar. KSHV shedding increased with increasing anti-KSHV (K8.1) antibodies in mothers and with decreasing anti-malarial antibodies both in mothers and children. Among mothers, 40% of KSHV shedders also shed EBV, compared to 75% of KSHV non-shedders; for children, it was 65% versus 83%. Conclusions In summary, in this population, individuals were more likely to shed EBV than KSHV in saliva; we have identified several factors, including child’s sex, that influence KSHV shedding, and an inverse relationship between EBV and KSHV shedding, suggesting a direct or indirect interaction between the two viruses. EBV, KSHV, saliva, shedding, Uganda Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2018. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journal of Infectious Diseases Oxford University Press

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Publisher
Oxford University Press
Copyright
Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2018. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
ISSN
0022-1899
eISSN
1537-6613
D.O.I.
10.1093/infdis/jiy262
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Introduction Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are transmitted via saliva but factors associated with salivary shedding are unknown. Methods We measured the shedding of both viruses in the saliva of ~500 Ugandan mothers and their six-year old children, testing all participants for EBV and KSHV seropositive individuals for KSHV. Results EBV and KSHV were shed by 72% and 22% of the mothers, and by 85% and 40% of children, respectively; boys were more likely than girls to shed KSHV (48% versus 30%), but not EBV. Children shed more KSHV and EBV than mothers, however salivary of loads EBV and KSHV were similar. KSHV shedding increased with increasing anti-KSHV (K8.1) antibodies in mothers and with decreasing anti-malarial antibodies both in mothers and children. Among mothers, 40% of KSHV shedders also shed EBV, compared to 75% of KSHV non-shedders; for children, it was 65% versus 83%. Conclusions In summary, in this population, individuals were more likely to shed EBV than KSHV in saliva; we have identified several factors, including child’s sex, that influence KSHV shedding, and an inverse relationship between EBV and KSHV shedding, suggesting a direct or indirect interaction between the two viruses. EBV, KSHV, saliva, shedding, Uganda Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2018. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

Journal

The Journal of Infectious DiseasesOxford University Press

Published: May 12, 2018

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