Abstract Cosmetic regulations prohibit animal testing for the purpose of safety assessment and recent REACH guidance states that the local lymph node assay (LLNA) in mice shall only be conducted if in vitro data cannot give sufficient information for classification and labelling. However, Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for fragrance ingredients requires a NESIL, a dose not expected to cause induction of skin sensitization in humans. In absence of human data, this is derived from the LLNA and it remains a key challenge for risk assessors to derive this value from non-animal data. Here we present a workflow using structural information, reactivity data and KeratinoSens results to predict a LLNA result as a point of departure. Specific additional tests (metabolic activation, complementary reactivity tests) are applied in selected cases depending on the chemical domain of a molecule. Finally, in vitro and in vivo data on close analogues are used to estimate uncertainty of the prediction in the specific chemical domain. This approach was applied to three molecules which were subsequently tested in the LLNA and 22 molecules with available and sometimes discordant human and LLNA data. Four additional case studies illustrate how this approach is being applied to recently developed molecules in the absence of animal data. Estimation of uncertainty and how this can be applied to determine a final NESIL for risk assessment is discussed. We conclude that, in the data-rich domain of fragrance ingredients, sensitization risk assessment without animal testing is possible in most cases by this integrated approach. Skin sensitization, risk assessment, alternative methods, QRA, point of departure © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)
Toxicological Sciences – Oxford University Press
Published: Jun 1, 2018
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