Could Increasing Cancer Incidence Be Tied to Human Adaptation of Living in Extreme Environments?

Could Increasing Cancer Incidence Be Tied to Human Adaptation of Living in Extreme Environments? News NEWS Could Increasing Cancer Incidence Be Tied to Human Adaptation of Living in Extreme Environments? It is well known that cancer incidence is increasing worldwide, “These data show that these populations exhibit extremely with pockets of human populations and geographical loca- high cancer incidence, especially for lung, breast and color- tions seemingly at higher risk than others. ectal cancer,” said Dr Voskarides. Genetic evidence was also clear and highly significant. Researcher Dr Konstantinos Voskarides, of the Univesity of Genes that are under selection to populations in order to Cyrpus’ Medical School, noted that populations living in very survive under extreme environmental conditions predispose low temperatures, like the Denmark and Norway ones, had also for cancer. Among the highest cancer associations with among the highest incidences of cancer in the world genes under selection is colorectal cancer for Native (Voskarides 2017). Americans and Siberian Eskimos, esophageal cancer and Now, in a new paper, he has advanced a new hypothesis: lung cancer for Siberian Eskimos, leukemia for Oromi (a There is an evolutionary relationship that exists between high-altitude population in Ethiopia), and a variety of cancers adaptation at extreme environmental conditions—like cold for high-altitude dwelling Andeans–Tibetans. and high altitude—and increased cancer risk in humans. “Evidence was found that cancer rates have been increased “The findings of this study provide evidence that in those populations through natural selection procedures,” genetic variants found to be beneficial in extreme envi- said Dr Voskarides. “This is the first study that provides evi- ronments, can also predispose for cancer,” said Dr dence that high cancer risk maybearesultofevolutionary Voskarides. “Cell resistance at low temperatures and at adaptation in certain environmental conditions.” high altitude probably increases probability for malig- Another finding of this study is that natural selection has nancy. This effect hardly could be filtered out by natural favored especially tumor suppressor genes in those popula- selection since most cancers appear late on age, after tions instead of oncogenes. This is in accordance with pre- most people have their children.” vious studies that showed that mutations in p53 (the most Dr Voskarides focused on the effect of low temperatures, frequently mutated gene in cancers) help animals to survive either within Arctic/Scandinavian climates or high altitudes. at very high altitude. Dr Voskarides’ analyses focused on the relationship between “It seems that the populations segregated under the con- cancer risk and local average annual temperatures. He con- cept of extreme environment–extreme cancer risk,” said cluded that the extreme cold environment contributed to Voskarides. the cancer risk. For scientists pursuing the confluence of the environment To do so, Dr Voskarides carefully examined the most and genetic on cancer risk, the new study will open a new accurate and reliable data of worldwide cancer incidence avenue for exploring some of the key adaptive forces that (the GLOBOCAN-2012 database permits a variety of inci- could be driving cancer epidemiology. dence/prevalence analysis per country or per cancer type (http://globocan.iarc.fr/), as well as sifting through genetic clues among 247 different cancer genome-wide associa- References tion studies. Additionally, he probed the available litera- Voskarides K. 2017. Combination of 247 genome-wide association ture bibliographic cancer incidence and genetic data for studies reveals high cancer risk as a result of evolutionary adaptation. Mol Biol Evol. 35(2):473–485. human populations living at extreme cold and extreme high altitudes. A striking pattern began to emerge, with the highest ,1 Joseph Caspermeyer* incidence of certain cancers linked to those populations MBE Press Office living in the coldest environments. Additionally, analysis *Corresponding author: E-mail: mbepress@gmail.com. of 186 human populations showed a great linearity of doi:10.1093/molbev/msx329 high cancer incidence with the lower the environmental temperature. Advance Access publication January 11, 2018 The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com 778 Mol. Biol. Evol. 35(3):778–779 Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/mbe/article-abstract/35/3/778/4801216 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 22 March 2018 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Molecular Biology and Evolution Oxford University Press

Could Increasing Cancer Incidence Be Tied to Human Adaptation of Living in Extreme Environments?

Free
1 page

Loading next page...
1 Page
 
/lp/ou_press/could-increasing-cancer-incidence-be-tied-to-human-adaptation-of-8J0ztfM0YS
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Copyright
© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
ISSN
0737-4038
eISSN
1537-1719
D.O.I.
10.1093/molbev/msx329
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

News NEWS Could Increasing Cancer Incidence Be Tied to Human Adaptation of Living in Extreme Environments? It is well known that cancer incidence is increasing worldwide, “These data show that these populations exhibit extremely with pockets of human populations and geographical loca- high cancer incidence, especially for lung, breast and color- tions seemingly at higher risk than others. ectal cancer,” said Dr Voskarides. Genetic evidence was also clear and highly significant. Researcher Dr Konstantinos Voskarides, of the Univesity of Genes that are under selection to populations in order to Cyrpus’ Medical School, noted that populations living in very survive under extreme environmental conditions predispose low temperatures, like the Denmark and Norway ones, had also for cancer. Among the highest cancer associations with among the highest incidences of cancer in the world genes under selection is colorectal cancer for Native (Voskarides 2017). Americans and Siberian Eskimos, esophageal cancer and Now, in a new paper, he has advanced a new hypothesis: lung cancer for Siberian Eskimos, leukemia for Oromi (a There is an evolutionary relationship that exists between high-altitude population in Ethiopia), and a variety of cancers adaptation at extreme environmental conditions—like cold for high-altitude dwelling Andeans–Tibetans. and high altitude—and increased cancer risk in humans. “Evidence was found that cancer rates have been increased “The findings of this study provide evidence that in those populations through natural selection procedures,” genetic variants found to be beneficial in extreme envi- said Dr Voskarides. “This is the first study that provides evi- ronments, can also predispose for cancer,” said Dr dence that high cancer risk maybearesultofevolutionary Voskarides. “Cell resistance at low temperatures and at adaptation in certain environmental conditions.” high altitude probably increases probability for malig- Another finding of this study is that natural selection has nancy. This effect hardly could be filtered out by natural favored especially tumor suppressor genes in those popula- selection since most cancers appear late on age, after tions instead of oncogenes. This is in accordance with pre- most people have their children.” vious studies that showed that mutations in p53 (the most Dr Voskarides focused on the effect of low temperatures, frequently mutated gene in cancers) help animals to survive either within Arctic/Scandinavian climates or high altitudes. at very high altitude. Dr Voskarides’ analyses focused on the relationship between “It seems that the populations segregated under the con- cancer risk and local average annual temperatures. He con- cept of extreme environment–extreme cancer risk,” said cluded that the extreme cold environment contributed to Voskarides. the cancer risk. For scientists pursuing the confluence of the environment To do so, Dr Voskarides carefully examined the most and genetic on cancer risk, the new study will open a new accurate and reliable data of worldwide cancer incidence avenue for exploring some of the key adaptive forces that (the GLOBOCAN-2012 database permits a variety of inci- could be driving cancer epidemiology. dence/prevalence analysis per country or per cancer type (http://globocan.iarc.fr/), as well as sifting through genetic clues among 247 different cancer genome-wide associa- References tion studies. Additionally, he probed the available litera- Voskarides K. 2017. Combination of 247 genome-wide association ture bibliographic cancer incidence and genetic data for studies reveals high cancer risk as a result of evolutionary adaptation. Mol Biol Evol. 35(2):473–485. human populations living at extreme cold and extreme high altitudes. A striking pattern began to emerge, with the highest ,1 Joseph Caspermeyer* incidence of certain cancers linked to those populations MBE Press Office living in the coldest environments. Additionally, analysis *Corresponding author: E-mail: mbepress@gmail.com. of 186 human populations showed a great linearity of doi:10.1093/molbev/msx329 high cancer incidence with the lower the environmental temperature. Advance Access publication January 11, 2018 The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com 778 Mol. Biol. Evol. 35(3):778–779 Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/mbe/article-abstract/35/3/778/4801216 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 22 March 2018

Journal

Molecular Biology and EvolutionOxford University Press

Published: Mar 1, 2018

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches

$49/month

Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

$588

$360/year

billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial