Commentary: Neurological Surgery at Vanderbilt University: 1873 to Present

Commentary: Neurological Surgery at Vanderbilt University: 1873 to Present ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATIONS AANS American Association of Neurological Surgeons V-SCoRe Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Research EARLY NASHVILLE AND VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY James Robertson—a Scotch–Irish settler, considered the founder of Nashville in 1779—performed what could be considered the first neurosurgical procedure in the region. Using an awl, he bored multiple holes through the outer cortical bone of a scalping victim to encourage re-epithelialization.1-3 There was no formal medical training program in the city until the College of Medicine at the University of Nashville was established in 1851.4,5 Following a generous grant of $500 000 from railroad and shipping magnate Cornelius “the Commodore” Vanderbilt on March 27, 1873, a charter was issued for the establishment of Vanderbilt University (Table 1).4,6,7 Construction of the first building began on September 15, 1873, and the first students were admitted on October 3, 1875.6 SCHOOL OF MEDICINE The University of Nashville and Vanderbilt University struck an agreement on April 21, 1874 to merge their medical programs.6 This agreement lasted until 1895 when 2 other programs in Nashville had come into existence: the University of Tennessee and Meharry Medical College.6,8 This herd of medical schools thinned considerably following Abraham Flexner's landmark 1910 report on the state of medical education. In it, Flexner noted the following about medical education in Tennessee: The institution to which the responsibility for medical education in Tennessee should just now be left is Vanderbilt University; for it is the only institution in position at this juncture to deal with the subject effectively.9 As a consequence of this favorable review, Vanderbilt benefited from a significant influx of $5M of funding. Chancellor James H. Kirkland used these new funds to hire G. Canby Robinson as the dean of the School of Medicine, build a new Hospital and School, and establish a full-time faculty.6 DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY (1925-1952) The original Vanderbilt Hospital on Fifth Avenue and Elm Street was closed on September 15, 1925 as the 21st Street location opened its doors (Figures 1 and 2).6 That same year, Robinson hired Barney Brooks (Figure 3), a preeminent surgeon from Barnes Hospital at Washington University in St. Louis, to lead the Department of Surgery. FIGURE 1. View largeDownload slide Entrance to the Vanderbilt Medical School c. 1925. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 1. View largeDownload slide Entrance to the Vanderbilt Medical School c. 1925. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 2. View largeDownload slide Operating Room in the new Vanderbilt University Hospital c. 1928. The door on the left leads to an anesthesia room; on the right, to the scrub room. This site would later house the Neurosurgery Departmental offices and research space following the expansion of the medical center campus (see Figure 7). Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 2. View largeDownload slide Operating Room in the new Vanderbilt University Hospital c. 1928. The door on the left leads to an anesthesia room; on the right, to the scrub room. This site would later house the Neurosurgery Departmental offices and research space following the expansion of the medical center campus (see Figure 7). Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 3. View largeDownload slide Barney Brooks c. 1935. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 3. View largeDownload slide Barney Brooks c. 1935. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. Brooks came from humble origins in Jack County, Texas, and made his way to the University of Texas in Austin for his premedical studies. Graduating with a Bachelor's of Science degree, Brooks found himself without the funds to pursue medical training. He spent 2 yr working as a high school science teacher until he scraped together enough money to begin medical school at Johns Hopkins. He completed a surgical internship under Sir William Halsted, and subsequently a residency at Barnes Hospital at Washington University in St. Louis. By 1925, Brooks was married with 2 children, had earned a position as a surgical teacher at Barnes Hospital, and gained notoriety throughout the country as a gifted surgeon, researcher, and teacher.5,10 After Brooks accepted the position of Chief of Surgery at Vanderbilt, his 7-yr-old son Jimmy was stricken with Scarlet Fever and died of meningitis; despite this tragedy, Brooks and his family moved to Nashville that spring. Some have speculated that his paternal attitude towards his residents originated from the loss of his own son.10 TABLE 1. Important Dates in the Development of the Department of Neurosurgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center Year Event 1873 Vanderbilt University is founded 1874 Vanderbilt acquires the School of Medicine from the University of Nashville 1910 Flexner's report on the State of Medical Education is published by the Carnegie Foundation 1925 The new Vanderbilt Hospital is opened First neurosurgical procedure is performed at Vanderbilt (“cerebellar exploration”) 1933 Thomas D. McKinney is designated the first faculty neurological surgeon 1947 Cobb Pilcher elected 15th President of the AANS 1949 Cobb Pilcher dies unexpectedly at age 45 1950 The Cobb Pilcher Memorial Lecture is established and Dr Percival Bailey of University of Illinois, Chicago gives the inaugural presentation 1953 William F. Meacham assumes leadership of the Division of Neurosurgery 1971 William F. Meacham elected President of the Society of Neurological Surgeons 1972 William F. Meacham elected 40th President of the AANS 1974 The Division of Neurosurgery earns Departmental status 1978 Vanderbilt graduate A. Byron Young named Chair of the Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Kentucky 1984 Vanderbilt acquires the first nuclear magnetic resonance imaging device in the Southeastern United States Edward H. Oldfield chosen Chief of the Clinical Neurosurgery Section, Surgical Neurology Branch at the National Institutes of Health 1987 William F. Meacham receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 1988 Neurological Intensive Care Unit opens; Vanderbilt is designated a Level I Trauma Center 1990 The first photon knife procedure in Tennessee is performed at Vanderbilt University by Dr Maciunas 1993 The inaugural Cully Cobb Lecture is given by Dr Mark Hopkins 1995 Sidney Tolchin elected 63rd President of the AANS 1999 William F. Meacham passes away in January Robert Maciunas appointed Chair of Department of Neurosurgery at University of Rochester 2008 Edward H. Oldfield elected President of the SNS 2009 Reid C. Thompson selected as the Department Chairman Edward H. Oldfield receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 2011 Residency program approved for three positions per year 2015 Noel B. Tulipan passes away in November 2017 Allen K. Sills named Chief Medical Officer of National Football League Edward H. Oldfield passes away in September Year Event 1873 Vanderbilt University is founded 1874 Vanderbilt acquires the School of Medicine from the University of Nashville 1910 Flexner's report on the State of Medical Education is published by the Carnegie Foundation 1925 The new Vanderbilt Hospital is opened First neurosurgical procedure is performed at Vanderbilt (“cerebellar exploration”) 1933 Thomas D. McKinney is designated the first faculty neurological surgeon 1947 Cobb Pilcher elected 15th President of the AANS 1949 Cobb Pilcher dies unexpectedly at age 45 1950 The Cobb Pilcher Memorial Lecture is established and Dr Percival Bailey of University of Illinois, Chicago gives the inaugural presentation 1953 William F. Meacham assumes leadership of the Division of Neurosurgery 1971 William F. Meacham elected President of the Society of Neurological Surgeons 1972 William F. Meacham elected 40th President of the AANS 1974 The Division of Neurosurgery earns Departmental status 1978 Vanderbilt graduate A. Byron Young named Chair of the Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Kentucky 1984 Vanderbilt acquires the first nuclear magnetic resonance imaging device in the Southeastern United States Edward H. Oldfield chosen Chief of the Clinical Neurosurgery Section, Surgical Neurology Branch at the National Institutes of Health 1987 William F. Meacham receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 1988 Neurological Intensive Care Unit opens; Vanderbilt is designated a Level I Trauma Center 1990 The first photon knife procedure in Tennessee is performed at Vanderbilt University by Dr Maciunas 1993 The inaugural Cully Cobb Lecture is given by Dr Mark Hopkins 1995 Sidney Tolchin elected 63rd President of the AANS 1999 William F. Meacham passes away in January Robert Maciunas appointed Chair of Department of Neurosurgery at University of Rochester 2008 Edward H. Oldfield elected President of the SNS 2009 Reid C. Thompson selected as the Department Chairman Edward H. Oldfield receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 2011 Residency program approved for three positions per year 2015 Noel B. Tulipan passes away in November 2017 Allen K. Sills named Chief Medical Officer of National Football League Edward H. Oldfield passes away in September View Large TABLE 1. Important Dates in the Development of the Department of Neurosurgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center Year Event 1873 Vanderbilt University is founded 1874 Vanderbilt acquires the School of Medicine from the University of Nashville 1910 Flexner's report on the State of Medical Education is published by the Carnegie Foundation 1925 The new Vanderbilt Hospital is opened First neurosurgical procedure is performed at Vanderbilt (“cerebellar exploration”) 1933 Thomas D. McKinney is designated the first faculty neurological surgeon 1947 Cobb Pilcher elected 15th President of the AANS 1949 Cobb Pilcher dies unexpectedly at age 45 1950 The Cobb Pilcher Memorial Lecture is established and Dr Percival Bailey of University of Illinois, Chicago gives the inaugural presentation 1953 William F. Meacham assumes leadership of the Division of Neurosurgery 1971 William F. Meacham elected President of the Society of Neurological Surgeons 1972 William F. Meacham elected 40th President of the AANS 1974 The Division of Neurosurgery earns Departmental status 1978 Vanderbilt graduate A. Byron Young named Chair of the Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Kentucky 1984 Vanderbilt acquires the first nuclear magnetic resonance imaging device in the Southeastern United States Edward H. Oldfield chosen Chief of the Clinical Neurosurgery Section, Surgical Neurology Branch at the National Institutes of Health 1987 William F. Meacham receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 1988 Neurological Intensive Care Unit opens; Vanderbilt is designated a Level I Trauma Center 1990 The first photon knife procedure in Tennessee is performed at Vanderbilt University by Dr Maciunas 1993 The inaugural Cully Cobb Lecture is given by Dr Mark Hopkins 1995 Sidney Tolchin elected 63rd President of the AANS 1999 William F. Meacham passes away in January Robert Maciunas appointed Chair of Department of Neurosurgery at University of Rochester 2008 Edward H. Oldfield elected President of the SNS 2009 Reid C. Thompson selected as the Department Chairman Edward H. Oldfield receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 2011 Residency program approved for three positions per year 2015 Noel B. Tulipan passes away in November 2017 Allen K. Sills named Chief Medical Officer of National Football League Edward H. Oldfield passes away in September Year Event 1873 Vanderbilt University is founded 1874 Vanderbilt acquires the School of Medicine from the University of Nashville 1910 Flexner's report on the State of Medical Education is published by the Carnegie Foundation 1925 The new Vanderbilt Hospital is opened First neurosurgical procedure is performed at Vanderbilt (“cerebellar exploration”) 1933 Thomas D. McKinney is designated the first faculty neurological surgeon 1947 Cobb Pilcher elected 15th President of the AANS 1949 Cobb Pilcher dies unexpectedly at age 45 1950 The Cobb Pilcher Memorial Lecture is established and Dr Percival Bailey of University of Illinois, Chicago gives the inaugural presentation 1953 William F. Meacham assumes leadership of the Division of Neurosurgery 1971 William F. Meacham elected President of the Society of Neurological Surgeons 1972 William F. Meacham elected 40th President of the AANS 1974 The Division of Neurosurgery earns Departmental status 1978 Vanderbilt graduate A. Byron Young named Chair of the Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Kentucky 1984 Vanderbilt acquires the first nuclear magnetic resonance imaging device in the Southeastern United States Edward H. Oldfield chosen Chief of the Clinical Neurosurgery Section, Surgical Neurology Branch at the National Institutes of Health 1987 William F. Meacham receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 1988 Neurological Intensive Care Unit opens; Vanderbilt is designated a Level I Trauma Center 1990 The first photon knife procedure in Tennessee is performed at Vanderbilt University by Dr Maciunas 1993 The inaugural Cully Cobb Lecture is given by Dr Mark Hopkins 1995 Sidney Tolchin elected 63rd President of the AANS 1999 William F. Meacham passes away in January Robert Maciunas appointed Chair of Department of Neurosurgery at University of Rochester 2008 Edward H. Oldfield elected President of the SNS 2009 Reid C. Thompson selected as the Department Chairman Edward H. Oldfield receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 2011 Residency program approved for three positions per year 2015 Noel B. Tulipan passes away in November 2017 Allen K. Sills named Chief Medical Officer of National Football League Edward H. Oldfield passes away in September View Large Under new leadership, the surgical enterprise at Vanderbilt wasted no time getting started. The first neurosurgical procedure at Vanderbilt was a “cerebellar exploration” performed by Drs Thomas McKinney and Alfred Blalock on October 5, 1925. Blalock would later gain notoriety for his eponymous vascular shunt procedure used in the treatment of Tetralogy of Fallot, developed in large part by Vivien Thomas, Blalock's African American surgical technician.11 Thomas and Blalock's partnership was immortalized in the PBS documentary “Partners of the Heart” in 1990 and in the Emmy award-winning film “Something the Lord Made” in 2004.12 McKinney would later become the first dedicated neurosurgery faculty member at Vanderbilt in 1933.13 In the 1920s and early ‘30s, neurosurgical cases were performed regularly by a host of general surgery faculty.11,14 During the first year at the new hospital, an industrious medical student by the name of Cobb Pilcher (Figure 4) first met Barney Brooks while completing his surgery clerkship. Born and raised in Nashville, Pilcher was a student of Vanderbilt University from age 12 to 22, when he earned his MD.8,15 He was trained for 2 yr under Harvey Cushing at Harvard, returning to Vanderbilt in 1928 to complete his training with Brooks.5 Pilcher, then, can be considered the first neurosurgeon trained at Vanderbilt (Table 2). FIGURE 4. View largeDownload slide Cobb Pilcher. Pilcher was the first specialty-trained neurosurgeon at Vanderbilt University. He earned his MD from Vanderbilt in 1927, and trained under Harvey Cushing from 1927 to 1928. He declined an offer from Cushing to continue training, instead returned to Vanderbilt to complete a surgical residency under Barney Brooks from 1928 to 1932. He studied neuropathology under Percival Baily at University of Chicago in 1932, and received additional neurosurgical fellowship training with Ernest Sachs at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis until returning to Vanderbilt in 1933 as assistant professor. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 4. View largeDownload slide Cobb Pilcher. Pilcher was the first specialty-trained neurosurgeon at Vanderbilt University. He earned his MD from Vanderbilt in 1927, and trained under Harvey Cushing from 1927 to 1928. He declined an offer from Cushing to continue training, instead returned to Vanderbilt to complete a surgical residency under Barney Brooks from 1928 to 1932. He studied neuropathology under Percival Baily at University of Chicago in 1932, and received additional neurosurgical fellowship training with Ernest Sachs at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis until returning to Vanderbilt in 1933 as assistant professor. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. After completing his training in 1933, Pilcher received a faculty appointment in Neurosurgery.16,17 He was a gifted surgeon and regularly took on cases of seemingly perilous complexity including large arteriovenous malformations, intracranial aneurysms, and “inoperable” tumors—with only electroencephalography and air studies in his diagnostic armamentarium.17,18 Pilcher also emphasized the importance of research. His early experimental research avenues included physiologic effects of hypo- and hypertonic solutions on cerebral blood flow, pathophysiology of cerebral trauma, and treatment of intracranial infections, and he oversaw the John B. Howe and Jack Fies Memorial Research Funds, both earmarked for neurosurgery.17,19 He published 85 articles and co-authored Surgical Treatment of the Nervous System over the course of only 16 yr.19 Apart from his active clinical practice and prolific research interests, Cobb Pilcher served as the de facto residency director during his tenure. He had high expectations for what proper neurosurgical training should look like, as outlined in his Presidential address for the Harvey Cushing Society.20 Among Pilcher's numerous lifetime trainees was William F. Meacham (Figure 5), who would later assume leadership of the Department. FIGURE 5. View largeDownload slide William F. Meacham, Chairman, Department of Neurosurgery 1953 to 1983. In the course of his career he served as the President for each of the Tennessee Neurosurgical Society, the Neurosurgical Society of America (1952), the Southern Neurosurgical Society (1957), the Society for Neurological Surgeons (1971), and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (1972).22 In 1973 a group of his previous trainees dating back to 1953 assembled at the Meacham Neurosurgical Society in Los Angeles. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 5. View largeDownload slide William F. Meacham, Chairman, Department of Neurosurgery 1953 to 1983. In the course of his career he served as the President for each of the Tennessee Neurosurgical Society, the Neurosurgical Society of America (1952), the Southern Neurosurgical Society (1957), the Society for Neurological Surgeons (1971), and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (1972).22 In 1973 a group of his previous trainees dating back to 1953 assembled at the Meacham Neurosurgical Society in Los Angeles. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. TABLE 2. Residents Trained at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1932 to 2017 Year Names Year Names Year Names 1932 Cobb Pilcher 1979 Arnulfo R. Garza-Vale 1999 Paul D. Boone 1942 Ralph J. Angelucci 1980 Edward H. Oldfield Michael J. Drewek 1943 Robert Raskind Timothy C. Wirt 2000 John A. Clough 1947 William F. Meacham 1981 Charles H. Clark III Gary Paul Cram, Jr 1948 Thomas J. Holbrook Robert E. Finelli 2001 Robert E. Isaacs 1949 Cully Cobb 1982 Frederick E. Finger III 2002 Melissa R. Chambers 1951 Duane Forman Paul R. McCombs III Kyle J. Mangels 1953 Clinton R. Harrison 1983 Rex E. H. Arendall II Matthew M. Pearson 1954 Arnold Meirowsky John W. Neblett 2003 Adam M. Kremer 1956 Joseph M. Capps 1984 Allan S. Fielding John K. Song C.C. McClure 1985 Timothy P. Schoettle 2004 Oran S. Aaronson 1957 Guy Owens 1986 Robert J. Plunkett Anthony J.G. Alastra Gray E.B. Stahlman Karen S. Woncik 2005 Jeffrey R. Albea 1958 Edwin F. Chobot, Jr 1987 Donn S. Fishbein Eric Eskioglu 1963 Hossein Sakhai Thomas J. Holbrook, Jr 2006 Karl A. Sillay 1964 Arthur G. Bond, III Thomas W. Rigsby 2007 John Robert Floyd II 1965 James W. Hayes 1989 Lucien Sidney Miranne, Jr Vicko Gluncic William R. Jouett Manuel Robert Weiss II Daniel M. Oberer Sidney Jolchin 1990 Patrick A. Juneau III 2008 John Spooner 1966 Richard H. Ashby Michael A. King Charles B. Stevenson Karl A. Jacob, Jr Lenwood P. Smith, Jr 2009 Tom Lou Yao 1967 Berkley L. Rish 1991 Gregory B. Lanford Hong Yu 1969 Ray W. Hester George H. Lien 2010 Scott Douglas Simon Warren D. Long, Jr 1992 Steven R. Abram David A. Sun 1970 Robert D. Dickins, Jr Richard Cody 2011 Richard Lindsey Lebow Suresh Ramnath Joel D. Pickett Adhikari Varaprasad Reddy 1971 Willard A. Emch 1993 Richard A. Berkman 2012 Lola B. Chambless A. Byron Young 1994 Craig M. Kemper Adam S. Reig 1972 Warren F. McPherson Christopher L. Sneed 2013 Jonathan Andrew Forbes 1973 Alan H. Fruin 1995 William K. Brennan Luke Tomycz Jerry O. Penix 1996 Michael L. Copeland 2014 Mahan Ghiassi 1974 James S. Warson Scott C. Standard Mayshan Ghiassi 1975 Everette I. Howell, Jr 1997 Laura Horky 2015 Moneeb Ehtesham Anthony G. Hucks-Follies Dale S. Horne Cyrus C. Wong 1976 Robert H. Legrand, Jr Peter E. Konrad 2016 Heather Kitska Sella R. Littlepage, II Douglas C. Mathews 2017 Thomas O’Lynnger 1977 James D. Dillon, Jr 1998 John Robert Pace Brandon J. Davis 1978 Vaughan A. Allen Robert J. Singer Scott L. Parker Verne E. Allen Year Names Year Names Year Names 1932 Cobb Pilcher 1979 Arnulfo R. Garza-Vale 1999 Paul D. Boone 1942 Ralph J. Angelucci 1980 Edward H. Oldfield Michael J. Drewek 1943 Robert Raskind Timothy C. Wirt 2000 John A. Clough 1947 William F. Meacham 1981 Charles H. Clark III Gary Paul Cram, Jr 1948 Thomas J. Holbrook Robert E. Finelli 2001 Robert E. Isaacs 1949 Cully Cobb 1982 Frederick E. Finger III 2002 Melissa R. Chambers 1951 Duane Forman Paul R. McCombs III Kyle J. Mangels 1953 Clinton R. Harrison 1983 Rex E. H. Arendall II Matthew M. Pearson 1954 Arnold Meirowsky John W. Neblett 2003 Adam M. Kremer 1956 Joseph M. Capps 1984 Allan S. Fielding John K. Song C.C. McClure 1985 Timothy P. Schoettle 2004 Oran S. Aaronson 1957 Guy Owens 1986 Robert J. Plunkett Anthony J.G. Alastra Gray E.B. Stahlman Karen S. Woncik 2005 Jeffrey R. Albea 1958 Edwin F. Chobot, Jr 1987 Donn S. Fishbein Eric Eskioglu 1963 Hossein Sakhai Thomas J. Holbrook, Jr 2006 Karl A. Sillay 1964 Arthur G. Bond, III Thomas W. Rigsby 2007 John Robert Floyd II 1965 James W. Hayes 1989 Lucien Sidney Miranne, Jr Vicko Gluncic William R. Jouett Manuel Robert Weiss II Daniel M. Oberer Sidney Jolchin 1990 Patrick A. Juneau III 2008 John Spooner 1966 Richard H. Ashby Michael A. King Charles B. Stevenson Karl A. Jacob, Jr Lenwood P. Smith, Jr 2009 Tom Lou Yao 1967 Berkley L. Rish 1991 Gregory B. Lanford Hong Yu 1969 Ray W. Hester George H. Lien 2010 Scott Douglas Simon Warren D. Long, Jr 1992 Steven R. Abram David A. Sun 1970 Robert D. Dickins, Jr Richard Cody 2011 Richard Lindsey Lebow Suresh Ramnath Joel D. Pickett Adhikari Varaprasad Reddy 1971 Willard A. Emch 1993 Richard A. Berkman 2012 Lola B. Chambless A. Byron Young 1994 Craig M. Kemper Adam S. Reig 1972 Warren F. McPherson Christopher L. Sneed 2013 Jonathan Andrew Forbes 1973 Alan H. Fruin 1995 William K. Brennan Luke Tomycz Jerry O. Penix 1996 Michael L. Copeland 2014 Mahan Ghiassi 1974 James S. Warson Scott C. Standard Mayshan Ghiassi 1975 Everette I. Howell, Jr 1997 Laura Horky 2015 Moneeb Ehtesham Anthony G. Hucks-Follies Dale S. Horne Cyrus C. Wong 1976 Robert H. Legrand, Jr Peter E. Konrad 2016 Heather Kitska Sella R. Littlepage, II Douglas C. Mathews 2017 Thomas O’Lynnger 1977 James D. Dillon, Jr 1998 John Robert Pace Brandon J. Davis 1978 Vaughan A. Allen Robert J. Singer Scott L. Parker Verne E. Allen View Large TABLE 2. Residents Trained at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1932 to 2017 Year Names Year Names Year Names 1932 Cobb Pilcher 1979 Arnulfo R. Garza-Vale 1999 Paul D. Boone 1942 Ralph J. Angelucci 1980 Edward H. Oldfield Michael J. Drewek 1943 Robert Raskind Timothy C. Wirt 2000 John A. Clough 1947 William F. Meacham 1981 Charles H. Clark III Gary Paul Cram, Jr 1948 Thomas J. Holbrook Robert E. Finelli 2001 Robert E. Isaacs 1949 Cully Cobb 1982 Frederick E. Finger III 2002 Melissa R. Chambers 1951 Duane Forman Paul R. McCombs III Kyle J. Mangels 1953 Clinton R. Harrison 1983 Rex E. H. Arendall II Matthew M. Pearson 1954 Arnold Meirowsky John W. Neblett 2003 Adam M. Kremer 1956 Joseph M. Capps 1984 Allan S. Fielding John K. Song C.C. McClure 1985 Timothy P. Schoettle 2004 Oran S. Aaronson 1957 Guy Owens 1986 Robert J. Plunkett Anthony J.G. Alastra Gray E.B. Stahlman Karen S. Woncik 2005 Jeffrey R. Albea 1958 Edwin F. Chobot, Jr 1987 Donn S. Fishbein Eric Eskioglu 1963 Hossein Sakhai Thomas J. Holbrook, Jr 2006 Karl A. Sillay 1964 Arthur G. Bond, III Thomas W. Rigsby 2007 John Robert Floyd II 1965 James W. Hayes 1989 Lucien Sidney Miranne, Jr Vicko Gluncic William R. Jouett Manuel Robert Weiss II Daniel M. Oberer Sidney Jolchin 1990 Patrick A. Juneau III 2008 John Spooner 1966 Richard H. Ashby Michael A. King Charles B. Stevenson Karl A. Jacob, Jr Lenwood P. Smith, Jr 2009 Tom Lou Yao 1967 Berkley L. Rish 1991 Gregory B. Lanford Hong Yu 1969 Ray W. Hester George H. Lien 2010 Scott Douglas Simon Warren D. Long, Jr 1992 Steven R. Abram David A. Sun 1970 Robert D. Dickins, Jr Richard Cody 2011 Richard Lindsey Lebow Suresh Ramnath Joel D. Pickett Adhikari Varaprasad Reddy 1971 Willard A. Emch 1993 Richard A. Berkman 2012 Lola B. Chambless A. Byron Young 1994 Craig M. Kemper Adam S. Reig 1972 Warren F. McPherson Christopher L. Sneed 2013 Jonathan Andrew Forbes 1973 Alan H. Fruin 1995 William K. Brennan Luke Tomycz Jerry O. Penix 1996 Michael L. Copeland 2014 Mahan Ghiassi 1974 James S. Warson Scott C. Standard Mayshan Ghiassi 1975 Everette I. Howell, Jr 1997 Laura Horky 2015 Moneeb Ehtesham Anthony G. Hucks-Follies Dale S. Horne Cyrus C. Wong 1976 Robert H. Legrand, Jr Peter E. Konrad 2016 Heather Kitska Sella R. Littlepage, II Douglas C. Mathews 2017 Thomas O’Lynnger 1977 James D. Dillon, Jr 1998 John Robert Pace Brandon J. Davis 1978 Vaughan A. Allen Robert J. Singer Scott L. Parker Verne E. Allen Year Names Year Names Year Names 1932 Cobb Pilcher 1979 Arnulfo R. Garza-Vale 1999 Paul D. Boone 1942 Ralph J. Angelucci 1980 Edward H. Oldfield Michael J. Drewek 1943 Robert Raskind Timothy C. Wirt 2000 John A. Clough 1947 William F. Meacham 1981 Charles H. Clark III Gary Paul Cram, Jr 1948 Thomas J. Holbrook Robert E. Finelli 2001 Robert E. Isaacs 1949 Cully Cobb 1982 Frederick E. Finger III 2002 Melissa R. Chambers 1951 Duane Forman Paul R. McCombs III Kyle J. Mangels 1953 Clinton R. Harrison 1983 Rex E. H. Arendall II Matthew M. Pearson 1954 Arnold Meirowsky John W. Neblett 2003 Adam M. Kremer 1956 Joseph M. Capps 1984 Allan S. Fielding John K. Song C.C. McClure 1985 Timothy P. Schoettle 2004 Oran S. Aaronson 1957 Guy Owens 1986 Robert J. Plunkett Anthony J.G. Alastra Gray E.B. Stahlman Karen S. Woncik 2005 Jeffrey R. Albea 1958 Edwin F. Chobot, Jr 1987 Donn S. Fishbein Eric Eskioglu 1963 Hossein Sakhai Thomas J. Holbrook, Jr 2006 Karl A. Sillay 1964 Arthur G. Bond, III Thomas W. Rigsby 2007 John Robert Floyd II 1965 James W. Hayes 1989 Lucien Sidney Miranne, Jr Vicko Gluncic William R. Jouett Manuel Robert Weiss II Daniel M. Oberer Sidney Jolchin 1990 Patrick A. Juneau III 2008 John Spooner 1966 Richard H. Ashby Michael A. King Charles B. Stevenson Karl A. Jacob, Jr Lenwood P. Smith, Jr 2009 Tom Lou Yao 1967 Berkley L. Rish 1991 Gregory B. Lanford Hong Yu 1969 Ray W. Hester George H. Lien 2010 Scott Douglas Simon Warren D. Long, Jr 1992 Steven R. Abram David A. Sun 1970 Robert D. Dickins, Jr Richard Cody 2011 Richard Lindsey Lebow Suresh Ramnath Joel D. Pickett Adhikari Varaprasad Reddy 1971 Willard A. Emch 1993 Richard A. Berkman 2012 Lola B. Chambless A. Byron Young 1994 Craig M. Kemper Adam S. Reig 1972 Warren F. McPherson Christopher L. Sneed 2013 Jonathan Andrew Forbes 1973 Alan H. Fruin 1995 William K. Brennan Luke Tomycz Jerry O. Penix 1996 Michael L. Copeland 2014 Mahan Ghiassi 1974 James S. Warson Scott C. Standard Mayshan Ghiassi 1975 Everette I. Howell, Jr 1997 Laura Horky 2015 Moneeb Ehtesham Anthony G. Hucks-Follies Dale S. Horne Cyrus C. Wong 1976 Robert H. Legrand, Jr Peter E. Konrad 2016 Heather Kitska Sella R. Littlepage, II Douglas C. Mathews 2017 Thomas O’Lynnger 1977 James D. Dillon, Jr 1998 John Robert Pace Brandon J. Davis 1978 Vaughan A. Allen Robert J. Singer Scott L. Parker Verne E. Allen View Large Meacham was born in 1913 and raised by his grandparents in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. While on bed rest for presumed tuberculosis as a teenager, he was inspired by the town doctor to pursue a career in medicine. He paid his way through Western Kentucky University and Vanderbilt Medical School as a big band saxophonist and part-time manual laborer. He stayed on at Vanderbilt to complete his surgery residency under Barney Brooks.21,22 Meacham had the good fortune to train under both Barney Brooks and Cobb Pilcher. During the Second World War, Brooks designated Pilcher as an “essential teacher” to keep the University Hospital running while others were sent into service (interestingly, Brooks had been given the same designation at Barnes Hospital during the First World War).10,17 The government had a keen interest in Pilcher's research on the treatment of intracranial infections, however, and had him travel often to present his findings. The result was that Meacham—as chief resident—was often charged with the care of the neurosurgical patients. His interest in the field of neurosurgery grew, and when Pilcher established the William Henry Howe Fellowship in neurosurgery in December of 1945 (in honor of his brother-in-law who died in the war); Meacham was its inaugural recipient.19,23,24 Sadly, Cobb Pilcher died unexpectedly in September of 1949 at the age of 45. That year, the department's fellowship was renamed the “Cobb Pilcher—William Henry Howe Fellowship in Neurosurgery” in his honor.25 Additionally, the Cobb Pilcher Memorial Lecture was created in 1950 to commemorate his illustrious but all-too brief career as an academic neurosurgeon.25 DIVISION OF NEUROLOGICAL SURGERY (1953-1974) The neurosurgical service was maintained in the following years by Meacham and Cully A. Cobb.18 Due to the increasing number of surgical subspecialties and rapid growth of faculty, the Department of Surgery was separated into divisions in 1953.5 William F. Meacham had recently been made a full professor and was the natural choice to head the division; under his leadership the division would create a proper residency training program and become the busiest clinical service in the hospital.5 The 1960s marked the origins of Vanderbilt's strength as a functional neurosurgical center; Dr Meacham and his colleagues began performing stereotactic basal ganglia lesioning for treatment of extrapyramidal disorders.5 Under Meacham's leadership, the department thrived clinically and developed a nationally respected residency program. Scientific research became less of a priority during these years, although Meacham alone published 50 articles between 1950 and 1962.18,24 Apart from his leadership role at Vanderbilt, Meacham was extremely active at the national level during the 1960s and ‘70s, and would eventually serve as president of the Society of Neurological Surgeons, the Southern Neurosurgical Society, and American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS). DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGICAL SURGERY (1974-2009) In 1974, several divisions within the Department of Surgery were spun off into individual departments, including neurosurgery. The Department enjoyed a prosperous clinical practice during the following years—between the University hospital and its 3 affiliates (Thayer Veterans, Nashville Metropolitan, and St. Thomas Hospitals) the department maintained an average daily census of 168 patients and performed 1191 operations during 1978 alone.26 Meacham announced his plan to retire as Department Chairman in 1983 once a successor was found; George S. Allen (Figure 6) was hired the following year and Meacham earned Emeritus status.5,24 Allen is a graduate of Wesleyan University and attended medical school at Washington University in St. Louis. He completed his internship at Duke. He then spent 2 yr at the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke from 1968 to 1970. He completed his neurosurgical residency training and PhD at the University of Minnesota before taking a faculty position at Johns Hopkins.27 FIGURE 6. View largeDownload slide George S. Allen. Dr Allen served as Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery from 1984 to 2009. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. FIGURE 6. View largeDownload slide George S. Allen. Dr Allen served as Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery from 1984 to 2009. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Departmental offices and research space were set aside for the Department of Neurosurgery in the original medical center building; coincidentally, this was the same location as the operating rooms of the original hospital prior to construction of the new hospital in 1980 (Figures 7 and 8).5 Within the new hospital facility, a dedicated Neurological Intensive Care Unit opened in 1988, and Vanderbilt earned Level I trauma center designation.5 FIGURE 7. View largeDownload slide Construction of the new Vanderbilt University Hospital, April 20, 1979. The original hospital (and future site of the neurosurgery department) can be seen in the background. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. FIGURE 7. View largeDownload slide Construction of the new Vanderbilt University Hospital, April 20, 1979. The original hospital (and future site of the neurosurgery department) can be seen in the background. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. FIGURE 8. View largeDownload slide Current neurosurgery departmental offices, housed in the same location as the original hospital's operating rooms (see Figure 2). FIGURE 8. View largeDownload slide Current neurosurgery departmental offices, housed in the same location as the original hospital's operating rooms (see Figure 2). The 1980s and early 1990s saw a number of firsts for the Department. Vanderbilt received the first magnetic resonance imaging machine in the Southeastern United States in 1984 (Figure 9), and in 1990 Dr Robert Maciunas performed the first radiosurgery procedure in Tennessee at Vanderbilt (Figure 10). Maciunas and Robert Galloway, a professor of Biomedical Engineering at Vanderbilt, together were pioneers in image guidance in neurosurgery. Dr Allen began performing adrenal-brain transplants in 1987.5 In 1995, Sidney Tolchin—a graduate of the Vanderbilt residency program—was elected as the 63rd President of the AANS.28 FIGURE 9. View largeDownload slide Installation of superconducting magnet for the Siemens Magnetom in Medical Center North Building, c. 1984. This machine cost approximately $2M USD and—when fully installed—weighed nearly 100 000 lbs. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. FIGURE 9. View largeDownload slide Installation of superconducting magnet for the Siemens Magnetom in Medical Center North Building, c. 1984. This machine cost approximately $2M USD and—when fully installed—weighed nearly 100 000 lbs. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. FIGURE 10. View largeDownload slide Dr Maciunas and Vanderbilt's photon knife device, c. 1990. Dr Maciunas later served as the Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Rochester. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. FIGURE 10. View largeDownload slide Dr Maciunas and Vanderbilt's photon knife device, c. 1990. Dr Maciunas later served as the Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Rochester. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. By this time, George Allen was a well-known figure in the world of neurosurgery in part due to his seminal work on the role of nimodipine in treating patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.29 He even gained brief notoriety in the lay public after an attempt was made on his life in April of 1995. Allen had declined a request from Dr Ray Mettetal to write a letter of recommendation for neurosurgery residency, and after several years of failed attempts to earn a residency position, Mettetal returned to Nashville to seek revenge. He was apprehended near Dr Allen's parking spot carrying a syringe of boric acid and Dr Allen was unharmed.30 In 1987, William Meacham was the recipient of the prestigious Harvey Cushing Medal from the AANS.5 The Meacham Society raised $1.25M in 1993 to endorse the William F. Meacham Chair in Neurosurgery at Vanderbilt. Sadly, Dr Meacham passed away on January 20, 1999.24 RECENT HISTORY The first decade of the 21st century saw increased emphasis on research endeavors under Allen's leadership. Pediatric neurosurgery continued to thrive in the free-standing children's hospital that was constructed in 2004; Vanderbilt was a pioneer of fetal neurosurgery under the direction of Dr Noel Tulipan, and served as one of the primary sites for the Management of Myelomeningocele Study trial. Meanwhile, several multidisciplinary glioma research partnerships were established and Dr Peter Konrad began his innovative work on deep brain stimulation. In 2009, Dr Edward Oldfield—a graduate of the Vanderbilt neurosurgery residency and trainee of Meacham—was awarded the Cushing Medal for his outstanding contributions to the field of neurosurgery (Figure 11).31 Dr Oldfield had an illustrious scientific and clinical career, authoring over 400 articles, becoming the Chief of the Clinical Neurosurgery Section of the National Institutes of Health, and subsequently serving as the President of the Society of Neurological Surgeons in 2008.32 Dr Oldfield passed away in September of 2017.33 FIGURE 11. View largeDownload slide Dr Edward H. Oldfield, recipient of the 2009 AANS Cushing Medal. Dr Oldfield is the author of over 400 scientific and clinical articles, and served as President of both the SNS and AANS. Printed with permission from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. FIGURE 11. View largeDownload slide Dr Edward H. Oldfield, recipient of the 2009 AANS Cushing Medal. Dr Oldfield is the author of over 400 scientific and clinical articles, and served as President of both the SNS and AANS. Printed with permission from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Reid C. Thompsonwho completed his MD and Neurosurgical residency at Johns Hopkins (Figure 12) assumed the chairmanship of the Department effective from January 1, 2010.34 Under his leadership, the department has grown to include 17 Neurosurgeons (Table 3). FIGURE 12. View largeDownload slide Dr Reid C. Thompson.41 Dr Thompson has served as the William F. Meacham Chair in Neurosurgery since 2009. Printed with permission from Vanderbilt University Section of Surgical Sciences. FIGURE 12. View largeDownload slide Dr Reid C. Thompson.41 Dr Thompson has served as the William F. Meacham Chair in Neurosurgery since 2009. Printed with permission from Vanderbilt University Section of Surgical Sciences. TABLE 3. Current Clinical Faculty in the Department of Neurosurgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center Name, Title Employed Since Residency Institution Fellowship Institution(s) Subspecialty Reid C. Thompson, MD 2002 Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Tumor, Vascular Chairman, Department of Neurological Surgery Cerebrovascular William F Meacham Professor of Neurological Surgery Director of Neurosurgical Oncology Professor of Otolaryngology Richard A. Berkman, MD 2016 Vanderbilt University Emory University Spine Assistant Professor Spine Christopher M. Bonfield, MD 2015 University of Pittsburgh University of Pittsburgh Pediatrics, Spine Assistant Professor Pediatrics Lola B. Chambless, MDAssistant ProfessorAssociate Program Director 2012 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt UniversityNeurosurgical OncologyCenter for Minimally Invasive NeurosurgerySkull Base Surgery Tumor, Skull Base, Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery Rohan V. Chitale, MDAssistant ProfessorAssistant Program Director 2015 Thomas Jefferson Medical College Thomas JeffersonEndovascular Vascular Mark A. Cobb, MD, FAANSAssistant Professor 1997 University of Arkansas YaleEpilepsy General Dario J. Englot, MD, PhDAssistant Professor 2017 University of California, San Francisco Vanderbilt UniversityFunctional Functional Matthew R. Fusco, MDAssistant Professor 2015 University of Alabama Birmingham Beth Israel Deaconess/Massachusetts General HospitalCerebrovascular, Endovascular Vascular Peter E. Konrad, MD, PhDProfessorVice Chairman for Research and InnovationDirector of Functional Neurosurgery 1998 Vanderbilt University Functional Robert P. Naftel, MDAssistant Professor 2013 University of Alabama Birmingham University of PittsburghPediatric Neurosurgery Pediatrics Scott L. Parker, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Vanderbilt University Spine Jacob P. Schwarz, MDAssistant Professor 2016 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology, Complex Spine Spine Hamid M. Shah, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Medical College of Georgia University of Tennessee, MemphisMinimally Invasive Spine General, Spine Allen K. Sills, MDAssociate Professor 2009 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology Tumor Kyle D. Weaver, MDAssistant Professor 2004 University of North Carolina Johns Hopkins UniversityNeuro-oncology Tumor John “Jay” Wellons, III, MD, MSPHProfessorVice Chairman for Academic and Faculty AffairsChief of Pediatric NeurosurgeryResidency Program Director 2012 Duke University University of Alabama BirminghamPediatrics Pediatrics Hong Yu, MDAssistant Professor 2010 Vanderbilt University Stanford UniversityFunctional Neurosurgery Functional Name, Title Employed Since Residency Institution Fellowship Institution(s) Subspecialty Reid C. Thompson, MD 2002 Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Tumor, Vascular Chairman, Department of Neurological Surgery Cerebrovascular William F Meacham Professor of Neurological Surgery Director of Neurosurgical Oncology Professor of Otolaryngology Richard A. Berkman, MD 2016 Vanderbilt University Emory University Spine Assistant Professor Spine Christopher M. Bonfield, MD 2015 University of Pittsburgh University of Pittsburgh Pediatrics, Spine Assistant Professor Pediatrics Lola B. Chambless, MDAssistant ProfessorAssociate Program Director 2012 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt UniversityNeurosurgical OncologyCenter for Minimally Invasive NeurosurgerySkull Base Surgery Tumor, Skull Base, Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery Rohan V. Chitale, MDAssistant ProfessorAssistant Program Director 2015 Thomas Jefferson Medical College Thomas JeffersonEndovascular Vascular Mark A. Cobb, MD, FAANSAssistant Professor 1997 University of Arkansas YaleEpilepsy General Dario J. Englot, MD, PhDAssistant Professor 2017 University of California, San Francisco Vanderbilt UniversityFunctional Functional Matthew R. Fusco, MDAssistant Professor 2015 University of Alabama Birmingham Beth Israel Deaconess/Massachusetts General HospitalCerebrovascular, Endovascular Vascular Peter E. Konrad, MD, PhDProfessorVice Chairman for Research and InnovationDirector of Functional Neurosurgery 1998 Vanderbilt University Functional Robert P. Naftel, MDAssistant Professor 2013 University of Alabama Birmingham University of PittsburghPediatric Neurosurgery Pediatrics Scott L. Parker, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Vanderbilt University Spine Jacob P. Schwarz, MDAssistant Professor 2016 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology, Complex Spine Spine Hamid M. Shah, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Medical College of Georgia University of Tennessee, MemphisMinimally Invasive Spine General, Spine Allen K. Sills, MDAssociate Professor 2009 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology Tumor Kyle D. Weaver, MDAssistant Professor 2004 University of North Carolina Johns Hopkins UniversityNeuro-oncology Tumor John “Jay” Wellons, III, MD, MSPHProfessorVice Chairman for Academic and Faculty AffairsChief of Pediatric NeurosurgeryResidency Program Director 2012 Duke University University of Alabama BirminghamPediatrics Pediatrics Hong Yu, MDAssistant Professor 2010 Vanderbilt University Stanford UniversityFunctional Neurosurgery Functional View Large TABLE 3. Current Clinical Faculty in the Department of Neurosurgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center Name, Title Employed Since Residency Institution Fellowship Institution(s) Subspecialty Reid C. Thompson, MD 2002 Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Tumor, Vascular Chairman, Department of Neurological Surgery Cerebrovascular William F Meacham Professor of Neurological Surgery Director of Neurosurgical Oncology Professor of Otolaryngology Richard A. Berkman, MD 2016 Vanderbilt University Emory University Spine Assistant Professor Spine Christopher M. Bonfield, MD 2015 University of Pittsburgh University of Pittsburgh Pediatrics, Spine Assistant Professor Pediatrics Lola B. Chambless, MDAssistant ProfessorAssociate Program Director 2012 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt UniversityNeurosurgical OncologyCenter for Minimally Invasive NeurosurgerySkull Base Surgery Tumor, Skull Base, Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery Rohan V. Chitale, MDAssistant ProfessorAssistant Program Director 2015 Thomas Jefferson Medical College Thomas JeffersonEndovascular Vascular Mark A. Cobb, MD, FAANSAssistant Professor 1997 University of Arkansas YaleEpilepsy General Dario J. Englot, MD, PhDAssistant Professor 2017 University of California, San Francisco Vanderbilt UniversityFunctional Functional Matthew R. Fusco, MDAssistant Professor 2015 University of Alabama Birmingham Beth Israel Deaconess/Massachusetts General HospitalCerebrovascular, Endovascular Vascular Peter E. Konrad, MD, PhDProfessorVice Chairman for Research and InnovationDirector of Functional Neurosurgery 1998 Vanderbilt University Functional Robert P. Naftel, MDAssistant Professor 2013 University of Alabama Birmingham University of PittsburghPediatric Neurosurgery Pediatrics Scott L. Parker, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Vanderbilt University Spine Jacob P. Schwarz, MDAssistant Professor 2016 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology, Complex Spine Spine Hamid M. Shah, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Medical College of Georgia University of Tennessee, MemphisMinimally Invasive Spine General, Spine Allen K. Sills, MDAssociate Professor 2009 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology Tumor Kyle D. Weaver, MDAssistant Professor 2004 University of North Carolina Johns Hopkins UniversityNeuro-oncology Tumor John “Jay” Wellons, III, MD, MSPHProfessorVice Chairman for Academic and Faculty AffairsChief of Pediatric NeurosurgeryResidency Program Director 2012 Duke University University of Alabama BirminghamPediatrics Pediatrics Hong Yu, MDAssistant Professor 2010 Vanderbilt University Stanford UniversityFunctional Neurosurgery Functional Name, Title Employed Since Residency Institution Fellowship Institution(s) Subspecialty Reid C. Thompson, MD 2002 Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Tumor, Vascular Chairman, Department of Neurological Surgery Cerebrovascular William F Meacham Professor of Neurological Surgery Director of Neurosurgical Oncology Professor of Otolaryngology Richard A. Berkman, MD 2016 Vanderbilt University Emory University Spine Assistant Professor Spine Christopher M. Bonfield, MD 2015 University of Pittsburgh University of Pittsburgh Pediatrics, Spine Assistant Professor Pediatrics Lola B. Chambless, MDAssistant ProfessorAssociate Program Director 2012 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt UniversityNeurosurgical OncologyCenter for Minimally Invasive NeurosurgerySkull Base Surgery Tumor, Skull Base, Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery Rohan V. Chitale, MDAssistant ProfessorAssistant Program Director 2015 Thomas Jefferson Medical College Thomas JeffersonEndovascular Vascular Mark A. Cobb, MD, FAANSAssistant Professor 1997 University of Arkansas YaleEpilepsy General Dario J. Englot, MD, PhDAssistant Professor 2017 University of California, San Francisco Vanderbilt UniversityFunctional Functional Matthew R. Fusco, MDAssistant Professor 2015 University of Alabama Birmingham Beth Israel Deaconess/Massachusetts General HospitalCerebrovascular, Endovascular Vascular Peter E. Konrad, MD, PhDProfessorVice Chairman for Research and InnovationDirector of Functional Neurosurgery 1998 Vanderbilt University Functional Robert P. Naftel, MDAssistant Professor 2013 University of Alabama Birmingham University of PittsburghPediatric Neurosurgery Pediatrics Scott L. Parker, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Vanderbilt University Spine Jacob P. Schwarz, MDAssistant Professor 2016 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology, Complex Spine Spine Hamid M. Shah, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Medical College of Georgia University of Tennessee, MemphisMinimally Invasive Spine General, Spine Allen K. Sills, MDAssociate Professor 2009 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology Tumor Kyle D. Weaver, MDAssistant Professor 2004 University of North Carolina Johns Hopkins UniversityNeuro-oncology Tumor John “Jay” Wellons, III, MD, MSPHProfessorVice Chairman for Academic and Faculty AffairsChief of Pediatric NeurosurgeryResidency Program Director 2012 Duke University University of Alabama BirminghamPediatrics Pediatrics Hong Yu, MDAssistant Professor 2010 Vanderbilt University Stanford UniversityFunctional Neurosurgery Functional View Large In the subsequent 5 yr, the hospital has constructed 2 dedicated hybrid neurointerventional suites (Figure 13), the department has increased its daily operating room utilization to 7 concurrent rooms, and the division of pediatric neurosurgery has grown in both size and clinical volume. Dr Tulipan was made professor emeritus in 2015; sadly, he passed away in November of that year, leaving behind a legacy of outstanding research, surgical expertise, and excellent patient care.35 FIGURE 13. View largeDownload slide Neurointerventional radiology and endovascular suite, Vanderbilt University. Printed with permission from Vanderbilt University Section of Surgical Sciences. FIGURE 13. View largeDownload slide Neurointerventional radiology and endovascular suite, Vanderbilt University. Printed with permission from Vanderbilt University Section of Surgical Sciences. Outcomes-based research programs are exceptionally strong at Vanderbilt Neurosurgery. The NeuroPoint Alliance Quality and Outcomes is housed at our institution, and the spine outcomes group has netted over 100 publications in the last 5 yr alone.36 Meanwhile, a prolific research group—Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Research (V-SCoRe)—has published 35 papers within 3 yr. Dr Allen Sills, co-director of V-SCoRe, was chosen as the first Chief Medical Officer of the National Football League in 2017.37 The pediatric neurosurgery division has a flourishing research program known as the Surgical Outcomes Center for Kids and is a member of the National Institutes of Health- and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network. Basic science collaborations with the University's neuroscience and neurophysiology groups span a range of topics from cell membrane receptors and signal transduction to glioma stem cells and epigenetic therapies. Additionally, Dr Thompson helped to establish the Vanderbilt Institute in Surgery and Engineering to foster research collaborations on topics such as intraoperative brain tissue deformation/relaxation, automated radiographic imaging analysis, and neurosurgical robotics. CONCLUSION The Vanderbilt Department of Neurosurgery has benefited from a long history of esteemed faculty and talented residents (Figures 14-16). Albeit a young department, Vanderbilt has produced 3 Department Chairmen and 2 each of AANS presidents, SNS presidents, and Cushing Medalists.28,31,38-40 In the coming years, the Department aims to continue its tradition of mentorship while ushering in a new phase of the residency training program, fostering new avenues for research, and expanding its clinical enterprise. FIGURE 14. View largeDownload slide Vanderbilt Neurosurgery Softball team, after placing first at the 2017 Annual Neurosurgery Charity Softball Tournament. FIGURE 14. View largeDownload slide Vanderbilt Neurosurgery Softball team, after placing first at the 2017 Annual Neurosurgery Charity Softball Tournament. FIGURE 15. View largeDownload slide The Vanderbilt University Medical Center Department of Neurosurgery. This photograph was taken at the annual Department dinner in celebration of the chief residents’ graduation in 2016. FIGURE 15. View largeDownload slide The Vanderbilt University Medical Center Department of Neurosurgery. This photograph was taken at the annual Department dinner in celebration of the chief residents’ graduation in 2016. FIGURE 16. View largeDownload slide Commemorative poster for 1987 graduating class. Depicted along the timeline are major characters in the history of neurosurgery both at-large and at Vanderbilt University. From the collection of Timothy P. Schoettle; used with permission. FIGURE 16. View largeDownload slide Commemorative poster for 1987 graduating class. Depicted along the timeline are major characters in the history of neurosurgery both at-large and at Vanderbilt University. From the collection of Timothy P. Schoettle; used with permission. Disclosure The authors have no personal, financial, or institutional interest in any of the drugs, materials, or devices described in this article. REFERENCES 1. Testerman GM , Sheffey JE . A novel frontier method of treating scalping injuries . Am Surg . 2011 ; 77 ( 8 ): 1106 - 1107 . Google Scholar PubMed 2. Goodpasture AV . Indian wars and warriors of the old southwest, 1730-1807 . Tenn Hist Mag . 1918 ; 4 ( 1 ): 3 - 49 . 3. Crabb AL. Nashville: Personality of a City . 1st ed . Indianapolis : Bobbs-Merrill ; 1960 . 4. Wood W . Vanderbilt Medical School celebrates 125th anniversary . Reporter . 2010 . Available at: http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu:8080/reporter/index.html?ID=1251. Accessed February 4, 2015 . 5. Scott HW. History of Surgery at Vanderbilt University: Vanderbilt University Medical Center ; 1996 . 6. Kampmeier RH. Vanderbilt University School of Medicine: the Story in Pictures From its Beginning to 1963 . Nashville, TN : Vanderbilt University Medical Center ; 1990 . 7. Bulletin of Vanderbilt University, Catalogue of the School of Medicine, Announcement for 1925-1926 . Nashville, TN : Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections, Vanderbilt University Medical Center ; 2016. 8. Jacobson TC. Making Medical Doctors: Science and Medicine at Vanderbilt Since Flexner . Vol 45879 . Tuscaloosa : University Alabama Press ; 1987 . 9. Flexner A. The Flexner Report on Medical Education in the United States and Canada 1910 . New York : Carnegie Foundation . 1910 ; 58 . 10. Green BE Jr . Doctor Barney Brooks, 1884–1952 . Am J Surg . 1959 ; 98 ( 5 ): 706 - 712 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 11. Operating Room Logbooks . Nashville, TN : Department of Surgery , Vanderbilt University; 2015 . PubMed PubMed 12. Butts HM . Something the lord made . J Natl Med Assoc . 2006 ; 98 ( 3 ): 458 - 459 . 13. Bulletin of Vanderbilt University, Catalogue of the School of Medicine, Announcement for 1934-1935 . Nashville, TN : Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections, Vanderbilt University Medical Center ; 2016. 14. Pilcher C . Subcortical hematoma: surgical treatment, with report of eight cases . Arch Neurol Psychiatry . 1941 ; 46 ( 3 ): 416 - 430 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS 15. Pilcher Cobb (1904-1949). Nashville, TN : Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections, Vanderbilt University Medical Center ; 2015 . 16. Rish BL . Historical Vignette: The Vanderbilt University neurosurgical heritage . J Neurosurg . 1993 ; 79 ( 3 ): 464 - 466 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 17. Meacham WF , Riley HD Jr . Cobb Pilcher: a model neurosurgeon . Surg Neurol . 1991 ; 35 ( 3 ): 175 - 176 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS 18. Meacham William F. , MD interviewed by Cobb Cully A. Jr., MD : American Association of Neurological Surgeons ; 2011 . 19. Riley H Jr , Meacham W . Cobb Pilcher, MD: a remarkable neurologic surgeon . South Med J . 1991 ; 84 ( 1 ): 77 - 86 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 20. Pilcher C . Neurosurgery comes of age . J Neurosurg . 1948 ; 5 ( 6 ): 507 - 513 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 21. Memoire of Dr. William F. Meacham (1913 - 1999) . Virginia and Kentucky Meachams; Arkansas Mathews William Feland Meacham . Available at: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/∼wmeacham/memoire.htm. Accessed February 10, 2015 . 22. French LA . Dr. William F. Meacham . Surg Neurol . 1984 ; 22 ( 4 ): 327 - 328 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 23. Bulletin of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, School of Medicine, Register of Students for 1947-1948, Courses, Faculty, and Announcements for 1948-1949 . Nashville, TN : Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections, Vanderbilt University Medical Center ; 2015 . 24. Meacham, William Feland (1913-1999) . Nashville, TN: Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections, Vanderbilt University Medical Center . 25. 1950-51 Catalogue , Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine. Nashville, TN: Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections, Vanderbilt University Medical Center . 26. Vanderbilt University . Neurosurgery . 1979 ; 5 ( 1 ): 168 . CrossRef Search ADS 27. Allen George S . Nashville, TN: Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections, Vanderbilt University Medical Center . 28. AANS . AANS Past Presidents. [Webpage] . 2016 . Available at: http://www.aans.org/About%20AANS/Get%20Involved/Past%20Presidents.aspx. Accessed August 29, 2017 . 29. Allen GS , Ahn HS , Preziosi TJ et al. Cerebral arterial spasm–a controlled trial of nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage . N Engl J Med . 1983 ; 308 ( 11 ): 619 - 624 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 30. Doctor is Accused of Trying to Murder Ex-Boss. New York Times. September 3rd , 1995 . 31. van Die B. Edward Hudson Oldfield, MD, Named 2009 AANS Cushing Medalist. San Diego, CA: American Association of Neurological Surgeons ; 2009 . 32. Edward H , Oldfield MD , FAANS. [Webpage] . 2014 . Available at: https://www.societyns.org/society/bio.aspx?MemberID=50134. Accessed August 29, 2017 . 33. Lonser RR . Obituary. Edward H. Oldfield, MD, 1947–2017: American Association of Neurological Surgeons ; 2017 . 34. Bartoo C . Allen to step down as Neurological Surgery leader . Reporter . 2009 . Accessed March 15, 2015 . 35. Echegaray C . VUMC mourns loss of Pediatric Neurosurgery pioneer Tulipan . Reporter . 2015 . Accessed November 29, 2015 . 36. NeuroPoint Alliance . [Webpage] . 2017 . Available at: http://www.neuropoint.org/. Accessed November 5, 2017 . 37. Wilemon T . NFL names Sills as league's first-ever chief medical officer . Reporter . 2017 . Accessed July 2, 2017 . 38. Young A. Byron , MD, FAANS(L) . [Webpage] . 2014 . Accessed August 29, 2017 . 39. Maciunas Robert J. , MD . [Webpage] . 2014 . Available at: https://www.societyns.org/society/bio.aspx?MemberID=90146. Accessed August 29, 2017 . 40. Kimmell KT , Petraglia AL , Bakos R , Rodenhouse T , Maurer PK , Pilcher WH . The history of neurosurgery at the University of Rochester: historical vignette . J Neurosurg . 2014 ; 121 ( 4 ): 989 - 994 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 41. Department of Neurological Surgery . 2014 . Available at: http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/root/vumc.php?site=neurosurgery. Accessed March 17, 2015 . Acknowledgments The authors thank James J. Thweatt and Christopher R. Ryland for their assistance in collecting historical records and references. Copyright © 2018 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Neurosurgery Oxford University Press

Commentary: Neurological Surgery at Vanderbilt University: 1873 to Present

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Abstract

ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATIONS AANS American Association of Neurological Surgeons V-SCoRe Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Research EARLY NASHVILLE AND VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY James Robertson—a Scotch–Irish settler, considered the founder of Nashville in 1779—performed what could be considered the first neurosurgical procedure in the region. Using an awl, he bored multiple holes through the outer cortical bone of a scalping victim to encourage re-epithelialization.1-3 There was no formal medical training program in the city until the College of Medicine at the University of Nashville was established in 1851.4,5 Following a generous grant of $500 000 from railroad and shipping magnate Cornelius “the Commodore” Vanderbilt on March 27, 1873, a charter was issued for the establishment of Vanderbilt University (Table 1).4,6,7 Construction of the first building began on September 15, 1873, and the first students were admitted on October 3, 1875.6 SCHOOL OF MEDICINE The University of Nashville and Vanderbilt University struck an agreement on April 21, 1874 to merge their medical programs.6 This agreement lasted until 1895 when 2 other programs in Nashville had come into existence: the University of Tennessee and Meharry Medical College.6,8 This herd of medical schools thinned considerably following Abraham Flexner's landmark 1910 report on the state of medical education. In it, Flexner noted the following about medical education in Tennessee: The institution to which the responsibility for medical education in Tennessee should just now be left is Vanderbilt University; for it is the only institution in position at this juncture to deal with the subject effectively.9 As a consequence of this favorable review, Vanderbilt benefited from a significant influx of $5M of funding. Chancellor James H. Kirkland used these new funds to hire G. Canby Robinson as the dean of the School of Medicine, build a new Hospital and School, and establish a full-time faculty.6 DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY (1925-1952) The original Vanderbilt Hospital on Fifth Avenue and Elm Street was closed on September 15, 1925 as the 21st Street location opened its doors (Figures 1 and 2).6 That same year, Robinson hired Barney Brooks (Figure 3), a preeminent surgeon from Barnes Hospital at Washington University in St. Louis, to lead the Department of Surgery. FIGURE 1. View largeDownload slide Entrance to the Vanderbilt Medical School c. 1925. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 1. View largeDownload slide Entrance to the Vanderbilt Medical School c. 1925. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 2. View largeDownload slide Operating Room in the new Vanderbilt University Hospital c. 1928. The door on the left leads to an anesthesia room; on the right, to the scrub room. This site would later house the Neurosurgery Departmental offices and research space following the expansion of the medical center campus (see Figure 7). Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 2. View largeDownload slide Operating Room in the new Vanderbilt University Hospital c. 1928. The door on the left leads to an anesthesia room; on the right, to the scrub room. This site would later house the Neurosurgery Departmental offices and research space following the expansion of the medical center campus (see Figure 7). Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 3. View largeDownload slide Barney Brooks c. 1935. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 3. View largeDownload slide Barney Brooks c. 1935. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. Brooks came from humble origins in Jack County, Texas, and made his way to the University of Texas in Austin for his premedical studies. Graduating with a Bachelor's of Science degree, Brooks found himself without the funds to pursue medical training. He spent 2 yr working as a high school science teacher until he scraped together enough money to begin medical school at Johns Hopkins. He completed a surgical internship under Sir William Halsted, and subsequently a residency at Barnes Hospital at Washington University in St. Louis. By 1925, Brooks was married with 2 children, had earned a position as a surgical teacher at Barnes Hospital, and gained notoriety throughout the country as a gifted surgeon, researcher, and teacher.5,10 After Brooks accepted the position of Chief of Surgery at Vanderbilt, his 7-yr-old son Jimmy was stricken with Scarlet Fever and died of meningitis; despite this tragedy, Brooks and his family moved to Nashville that spring. Some have speculated that his paternal attitude towards his residents originated from the loss of his own son.10 TABLE 1. Important Dates in the Development of the Department of Neurosurgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center Year Event 1873 Vanderbilt University is founded 1874 Vanderbilt acquires the School of Medicine from the University of Nashville 1910 Flexner's report on the State of Medical Education is published by the Carnegie Foundation 1925 The new Vanderbilt Hospital is opened First neurosurgical procedure is performed at Vanderbilt (“cerebellar exploration”) 1933 Thomas D. McKinney is designated the first faculty neurological surgeon 1947 Cobb Pilcher elected 15th President of the AANS 1949 Cobb Pilcher dies unexpectedly at age 45 1950 The Cobb Pilcher Memorial Lecture is established and Dr Percival Bailey of University of Illinois, Chicago gives the inaugural presentation 1953 William F. Meacham assumes leadership of the Division of Neurosurgery 1971 William F. Meacham elected President of the Society of Neurological Surgeons 1972 William F. Meacham elected 40th President of the AANS 1974 The Division of Neurosurgery earns Departmental status 1978 Vanderbilt graduate A. Byron Young named Chair of the Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Kentucky 1984 Vanderbilt acquires the first nuclear magnetic resonance imaging device in the Southeastern United States Edward H. Oldfield chosen Chief of the Clinical Neurosurgery Section, Surgical Neurology Branch at the National Institutes of Health 1987 William F. Meacham receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 1988 Neurological Intensive Care Unit opens; Vanderbilt is designated a Level I Trauma Center 1990 The first photon knife procedure in Tennessee is performed at Vanderbilt University by Dr Maciunas 1993 The inaugural Cully Cobb Lecture is given by Dr Mark Hopkins 1995 Sidney Tolchin elected 63rd President of the AANS 1999 William F. Meacham passes away in January Robert Maciunas appointed Chair of Department of Neurosurgery at University of Rochester 2008 Edward H. Oldfield elected President of the SNS 2009 Reid C. Thompson selected as the Department Chairman Edward H. Oldfield receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 2011 Residency program approved for three positions per year 2015 Noel B. Tulipan passes away in November 2017 Allen K. Sills named Chief Medical Officer of National Football League Edward H. Oldfield passes away in September Year Event 1873 Vanderbilt University is founded 1874 Vanderbilt acquires the School of Medicine from the University of Nashville 1910 Flexner's report on the State of Medical Education is published by the Carnegie Foundation 1925 The new Vanderbilt Hospital is opened First neurosurgical procedure is performed at Vanderbilt (“cerebellar exploration”) 1933 Thomas D. McKinney is designated the first faculty neurological surgeon 1947 Cobb Pilcher elected 15th President of the AANS 1949 Cobb Pilcher dies unexpectedly at age 45 1950 The Cobb Pilcher Memorial Lecture is established and Dr Percival Bailey of University of Illinois, Chicago gives the inaugural presentation 1953 William F. Meacham assumes leadership of the Division of Neurosurgery 1971 William F. Meacham elected President of the Society of Neurological Surgeons 1972 William F. Meacham elected 40th President of the AANS 1974 The Division of Neurosurgery earns Departmental status 1978 Vanderbilt graduate A. Byron Young named Chair of the Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Kentucky 1984 Vanderbilt acquires the first nuclear magnetic resonance imaging device in the Southeastern United States Edward H. Oldfield chosen Chief of the Clinical Neurosurgery Section, Surgical Neurology Branch at the National Institutes of Health 1987 William F. Meacham receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 1988 Neurological Intensive Care Unit opens; Vanderbilt is designated a Level I Trauma Center 1990 The first photon knife procedure in Tennessee is performed at Vanderbilt University by Dr Maciunas 1993 The inaugural Cully Cobb Lecture is given by Dr Mark Hopkins 1995 Sidney Tolchin elected 63rd President of the AANS 1999 William F. Meacham passes away in January Robert Maciunas appointed Chair of Department of Neurosurgery at University of Rochester 2008 Edward H. Oldfield elected President of the SNS 2009 Reid C. Thompson selected as the Department Chairman Edward H. Oldfield receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 2011 Residency program approved for three positions per year 2015 Noel B. Tulipan passes away in November 2017 Allen K. Sills named Chief Medical Officer of National Football League Edward H. Oldfield passes away in September View Large TABLE 1. Important Dates in the Development of the Department of Neurosurgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center Year Event 1873 Vanderbilt University is founded 1874 Vanderbilt acquires the School of Medicine from the University of Nashville 1910 Flexner's report on the State of Medical Education is published by the Carnegie Foundation 1925 The new Vanderbilt Hospital is opened First neurosurgical procedure is performed at Vanderbilt (“cerebellar exploration”) 1933 Thomas D. McKinney is designated the first faculty neurological surgeon 1947 Cobb Pilcher elected 15th President of the AANS 1949 Cobb Pilcher dies unexpectedly at age 45 1950 The Cobb Pilcher Memorial Lecture is established and Dr Percival Bailey of University of Illinois, Chicago gives the inaugural presentation 1953 William F. Meacham assumes leadership of the Division of Neurosurgery 1971 William F. Meacham elected President of the Society of Neurological Surgeons 1972 William F. Meacham elected 40th President of the AANS 1974 The Division of Neurosurgery earns Departmental status 1978 Vanderbilt graduate A. Byron Young named Chair of the Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Kentucky 1984 Vanderbilt acquires the first nuclear magnetic resonance imaging device in the Southeastern United States Edward H. Oldfield chosen Chief of the Clinical Neurosurgery Section, Surgical Neurology Branch at the National Institutes of Health 1987 William F. Meacham receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 1988 Neurological Intensive Care Unit opens; Vanderbilt is designated a Level I Trauma Center 1990 The first photon knife procedure in Tennessee is performed at Vanderbilt University by Dr Maciunas 1993 The inaugural Cully Cobb Lecture is given by Dr Mark Hopkins 1995 Sidney Tolchin elected 63rd President of the AANS 1999 William F. Meacham passes away in January Robert Maciunas appointed Chair of Department of Neurosurgery at University of Rochester 2008 Edward H. Oldfield elected President of the SNS 2009 Reid C. Thompson selected as the Department Chairman Edward H. Oldfield receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 2011 Residency program approved for three positions per year 2015 Noel B. Tulipan passes away in November 2017 Allen K. Sills named Chief Medical Officer of National Football League Edward H. Oldfield passes away in September Year Event 1873 Vanderbilt University is founded 1874 Vanderbilt acquires the School of Medicine from the University of Nashville 1910 Flexner's report on the State of Medical Education is published by the Carnegie Foundation 1925 The new Vanderbilt Hospital is opened First neurosurgical procedure is performed at Vanderbilt (“cerebellar exploration”) 1933 Thomas D. McKinney is designated the first faculty neurological surgeon 1947 Cobb Pilcher elected 15th President of the AANS 1949 Cobb Pilcher dies unexpectedly at age 45 1950 The Cobb Pilcher Memorial Lecture is established and Dr Percival Bailey of University of Illinois, Chicago gives the inaugural presentation 1953 William F. Meacham assumes leadership of the Division of Neurosurgery 1971 William F. Meacham elected President of the Society of Neurological Surgeons 1972 William F. Meacham elected 40th President of the AANS 1974 The Division of Neurosurgery earns Departmental status 1978 Vanderbilt graduate A. Byron Young named Chair of the Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Kentucky 1984 Vanderbilt acquires the first nuclear magnetic resonance imaging device in the Southeastern United States Edward H. Oldfield chosen Chief of the Clinical Neurosurgery Section, Surgical Neurology Branch at the National Institutes of Health 1987 William F. Meacham receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 1988 Neurological Intensive Care Unit opens; Vanderbilt is designated a Level I Trauma Center 1990 The first photon knife procedure in Tennessee is performed at Vanderbilt University by Dr Maciunas 1993 The inaugural Cully Cobb Lecture is given by Dr Mark Hopkins 1995 Sidney Tolchin elected 63rd President of the AANS 1999 William F. Meacham passes away in January Robert Maciunas appointed Chair of Department of Neurosurgery at University of Rochester 2008 Edward H. Oldfield elected President of the SNS 2009 Reid C. Thompson selected as the Department Chairman Edward H. Oldfield receives the Harvey Cushing Medal 2011 Residency program approved for three positions per year 2015 Noel B. Tulipan passes away in November 2017 Allen K. Sills named Chief Medical Officer of National Football League Edward H. Oldfield passes away in September View Large Under new leadership, the surgical enterprise at Vanderbilt wasted no time getting started. The first neurosurgical procedure at Vanderbilt was a “cerebellar exploration” performed by Drs Thomas McKinney and Alfred Blalock on October 5, 1925. Blalock would later gain notoriety for his eponymous vascular shunt procedure used in the treatment of Tetralogy of Fallot, developed in large part by Vivien Thomas, Blalock's African American surgical technician.11 Thomas and Blalock's partnership was immortalized in the PBS documentary “Partners of the Heart” in 1990 and in the Emmy award-winning film “Something the Lord Made” in 2004.12 McKinney would later become the first dedicated neurosurgery faculty member at Vanderbilt in 1933.13 In the 1920s and early ‘30s, neurosurgical cases were performed regularly by a host of general surgery faculty.11,14 During the first year at the new hospital, an industrious medical student by the name of Cobb Pilcher (Figure 4) first met Barney Brooks while completing his surgery clerkship. Born and raised in Nashville, Pilcher was a student of Vanderbilt University from age 12 to 22, when he earned his MD.8,15 He was trained for 2 yr under Harvey Cushing at Harvard, returning to Vanderbilt in 1928 to complete his training with Brooks.5 Pilcher, then, can be considered the first neurosurgeon trained at Vanderbilt (Table 2). FIGURE 4. View largeDownload slide Cobb Pilcher. Pilcher was the first specialty-trained neurosurgeon at Vanderbilt University. He earned his MD from Vanderbilt in 1927, and trained under Harvey Cushing from 1927 to 1928. He declined an offer from Cushing to continue training, instead returned to Vanderbilt to complete a surgical residency under Barney Brooks from 1928 to 1932. He studied neuropathology under Percival Baily at University of Chicago in 1932, and received additional neurosurgical fellowship training with Ernest Sachs at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis until returning to Vanderbilt in 1933 as assistant professor. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 4. View largeDownload slide Cobb Pilcher. Pilcher was the first specialty-trained neurosurgeon at Vanderbilt University. He earned his MD from Vanderbilt in 1927, and trained under Harvey Cushing from 1927 to 1928. He declined an offer from Cushing to continue training, instead returned to Vanderbilt to complete a surgical residency under Barney Brooks from 1928 to 1932. He studied neuropathology under Percival Baily at University of Chicago in 1932, and received additional neurosurgical fellowship training with Ernest Sachs at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis until returning to Vanderbilt in 1933 as assistant professor. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. After completing his training in 1933, Pilcher received a faculty appointment in Neurosurgery.16,17 He was a gifted surgeon and regularly took on cases of seemingly perilous complexity including large arteriovenous malformations, intracranial aneurysms, and “inoperable” tumors—with only electroencephalography and air studies in his diagnostic armamentarium.17,18 Pilcher also emphasized the importance of research. His early experimental research avenues included physiologic effects of hypo- and hypertonic solutions on cerebral blood flow, pathophysiology of cerebral trauma, and treatment of intracranial infections, and he oversaw the John B. Howe and Jack Fies Memorial Research Funds, both earmarked for neurosurgery.17,19 He published 85 articles and co-authored Surgical Treatment of the Nervous System over the course of only 16 yr.19 Apart from his active clinical practice and prolific research interests, Cobb Pilcher served as the de facto residency director during his tenure. He had high expectations for what proper neurosurgical training should look like, as outlined in his Presidential address for the Harvey Cushing Society.20 Among Pilcher's numerous lifetime trainees was William F. Meacham (Figure 5), who would later assume leadership of the Department. FIGURE 5. View largeDownload slide William F. Meacham, Chairman, Department of Neurosurgery 1953 to 1983. In the course of his career he served as the President for each of the Tennessee Neurosurgical Society, the Neurosurgical Society of America (1952), the Southern Neurosurgical Society (1957), the Society for Neurological Surgeons (1971), and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (1972).22 In 1973 a group of his previous trainees dating back to 1953 assembled at the Meacham Neurosurgical Society in Los Angeles. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. FIGURE 5. View largeDownload slide William F. Meacham, Chairman, Department of Neurosurgery 1953 to 1983. In the course of his career he served as the President for each of the Tennessee Neurosurgical Society, the Neurosurgical Society of America (1952), the Southern Neurosurgical Society (1957), the Society for Neurological Surgeons (1971), and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (1972).22 In 1973 a group of his previous trainees dating back to 1953 assembled at the Meacham Neurosurgical Society in Los Angeles. Obtained from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Public Domain. TABLE 2. Residents Trained at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1932 to 2017 Year Names Year Names Year Names 1932 Cobb Pilcher 1979 Arnulfo R. Garza-Vale 1999 Paul D. Boone 1942 Ralph J. Angelucci 1980 Edward H. Oldfield Michael J. Drewek 1943 Robert Raskind Timothy C. Wirt 2000 John A. Clough 1947 William F. Meacham 1981 Charles H. Clark III Gary Paul Cram, Jr 1948 Thomas J. Holbrook Robert E. Finelli 2001 Robert E. Isaacs 1949 Cully Cobb 1982 Frederick E. Finger III 2002 Melissa R. Chambers 1951 Duane Forman Paul R. McCombs III Kyle J. Mangels 1953 Clinton R. Harrison 1983 Rex E. H. Arendall II Matthew M. Pearson 1954 Arnold Meirowsky John W. Neblett 2003 Adam M. Kremer 1956 Joseph M. Capps 1984 Allan S. Fielding John K. Song C.C. McClure 1985 Timothy P. Schoettle 2004 Oran S. Aaronson 1957 Guy Owens 1986 Robert J. Plunkett Anthony J.G. Alastra Gray E.B. Stahlman Karen S. Woncik 2005 Jeffrey R. Albea 1958 Edwin F. Chobot, Jr 1987 Donn S. Fishbein Eric Eskioglu 1963 Hossein Sakhai Thomas J. Holbrook, Jr 2006 Karl A. Sillay 1964 Arthur G. Bond, III Thomas W. Rigsby 2007 John Robert Floyd II 1965 James W. Hayes 1989 Lucien Sidney Miranne, Jr Vicko Gluncic William R. Jouett Manuel Robert Weiss II Daniel M. Oberer Sidney Jolchin 1990 Patrick A. Juneau III 2008 John Spooner 1966 Richard H. Ashby Michael A. King Charles B. Stevenson Karl A. Jacob, Jr Lenwood P. Smith, Jr 2009 Tom Lou Yao 1967 Berkley L. Rish 1991 Gregory B. Lanford Hong Yu 1969 Ray W. Hester George H. Lien 2010 Scott Douglas Simon Warren D. Long, Jr 1992 Steven R. Abram David A. Sun 1970 Robert D. Dickins, Jr Richard Cody 2011 Richard Lindsey Lebow Suresh Ramnath Joel D. Pickett Adhikari Varaprasad Reddy 1971 Willard A. Emch 1993 Richard A. Berkman 2012 Lola B. Chambless A. Byron Young 1994 Craig M. Kemper Adam S. Reig 1972 Warren F. McPherson Christopher L. Sneed 2013 Jonathan Andrew Forbes 1973 Alan H. Fruin 1995 William K. Brennan Luke Tomycz Jerry O. Penix 1996 Michael L. Copeland 2014 Mahan Ghiassi 1974 James S. Warson Scott C. Standard Mayshan Ghiassi 1975 Everette I. Howell, Jr 1997 Laura Horky 2015 Moneeb Ehtesham Anthony G. Hucks-Follies Dale S. Horne Cyrus C. Wong 1976 Robert H. Legrand, Jr Peter E. Konrad 2016 Heather Kitska Sella R. Littlepage, II Douglas C. Mathews 2017 Thomas O’Lynnger 1977 James D. Dillon, Jr 1998 John Robert Pace Brandon J. Davis 1978 Vaughan A. Allen Robert J. Singer Scott L. Parker Verne E. Allen Year Names Year Names Year Names 1932 Cobb Pilcher 1979 Arnulfo R. Garza-Vale 1999 Paul D. Boone 1942 Ralph J. Angelucci 1980 Edward H. Oldfield Michael J. Drewek 1943 Robert Raskind Timothy C. Wirt 2000 John A. Clough 1947 William F. Meacham 1981 Charles H. Clark III Gary Paul Cram, Jr 1948 Thomas J. Holbrook Robert E. Finelli 2001 Robert E. Isaacs 1949 Cully Cobb 1982 Frederick E. Finger III 2002 Melissa R. Chambers 1951 Duane Forman Paul R. McCombs III Kyle J. Mangels 1953 Clinton R. Harrison 1983 Rex E. H. Arendall II Matthew M. Pearson 1954 Arnold Meirowsky John W. Neblett 2003 Adam M. Kremer 1956 Joseph M. Capps 1984 Allan S. Fielding John K. Song C.C. McClure 1985 Timothy P. Schoettle 2004 Oran S. Aaronson 1957 Guy Owens 1986 Robert J. Plunkett Anthony J.G. Alastra Gray E.B. Stahlman Karen S. Woncik 2005 Jeffrey R. Albea 1958 Edwin F. Chobot, Jr 1987 Donn S. Fishbein Eric Eskioglu 1963 Hossein Sakhai Thomas J. Holbrook, Jr 2006 Karl A. Sillay 1964 Arthur G. Bond, III Thomas W. Rigsby 2007 John Robert Floyd II 1965 James W. Hayes 1989 Lucien Sidney Miranne, Jr Vicko Gluncic William R. Jouett Manuel Robert Weiss II Daniel M. Oberer Sidney Jolchin 1990 Patrick A. Juneau III 2008 John Spooner 1966 Richard H. Ashby Michael A. King Charles B. Stevenson Karl A. Jacob, Jr Lenwood P. Smith, Jr 2009 Tom Lou Yao 1967 Berkley L. Rish 1991 Gregory B. Lanford Hong Yu 1969 Ray W. Hester George H. Lien 2010 Scott Douglas Simon Warren D. Long, Jr 1992 Steven R. Abram David A. Sun 1970 Robert D. Dickins, Jr Richard Cody 2011 Richard Lindsey Lebow Suresh Ramnath Joel D. Pickett Adhikari Varaprasad Reddy 1971 Willard A. Emch 1993 Richard A. Berkman 2012 Lola B. Chambless A. Byron Young 1994 Craig M. Kemper Adam S. Reig 1972 Warren F. McPherson Christopher L. Sneed 2013 Jonathan Andrew Forbes 1973 Alan H. Fruin 1995 William K. Brennan Luke Tomycz Jerry O. Penix 1996 Michael L. Copeland 2014 Mahan Ghiassi 1974 James S. Warson Scott C. Standard Mayshan Ghiassi 1975 Everette I. Howell, Jr 1997 Laura Horky 2015 Moneeb Ehtesham Anthony G. Hucks-Follies Dale S. Horne Cyrus C. Wong 1976 Robert H. Legrand, Jr Peter E. Konrad 2016 Heather Kitska Sella R. Littlepage, II Douglas C. Mathews 2017 Thomas O’Lynnger 1977 James D. Dillon, Jr 1998 John Robert Pace Brandon J. Davis 1978 Vaughan A. Allen Robert J. Singer Scott L. Parker Verne E. Allen View Large TABLE 2. Residents Trained at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1932 to 2017 Year Names Year Names Year Names 1932 Cobb Pilcher 1979 Arnulfo R. Garza-Vale 1999 Paul D. Boone 1942 Ralph J. Angelucci 1980 Edward H. Oldfield Michael J. Drewek 1943 Robert Raskind Timothy C. Wirt 2000 John A. Clough 1947 William F. Meacham 1981 Charles H. Clark III Gary Paul Cram, Jr 1948 Thomas J. Holbrook Robert E. Finelli 2001 Robert E. Isaacs 1949 Cully Cobb 1982 Frederick E. Finger III 2002 Melissa R. Chambers 1951 Duane Forman Paul R. McCombs III Kyle J. Mangels 1953 Clinton R. Harrison 1983 Rex E. H. Arendall II Matthew M. Pearson 1954 Arnold Meirowsky John W. Neblett 2003 Adam M. Kremer 1956 Joseph M. Capps 1984 Allan S. Fielding John K. Song C.C. McClure 1985 Timothy P. Schoettle 2004 Oran S. Aaronson 1957 Guy Owens 1986 Robert J. Plunkett Anthony J.G. Alastra Gray E.B. Stahlman Karen S. Woncik 2005 Jeffrey R. Albea 1958 Edwin F. Chobot, Jr 1987 Donn S. Fishbein Eric Eskioglu 1963 Hossein Sakhai Thomas J. Holbrook, Jr 2006 Karl A. Sillay 1964 Arthur G. Bond, III Thomas W. Rigsby 2007 John Robert Floyd II 1965 James W. Hayes 1989 Lucien Sidney Miranne, Jr Vicko Gluncic William R. Jouett Manuel Robert Weiss II Daniel M. Oberer Sidney Jolchin 1990 Patrick A. Juneau III 2008 John Spooner 1966 Richard H. Ashby Michael A. King Charles B. Stevenson Karl A. Jacob, Jr Lenwood P. Smith, Jr 2009 Tom Lou Yao 1967 Berkley L. Rish 1991 Gregory B. Lanford Hong Yu 1969 Ray W. Hester George H. Lien 2010 Scott Douglas Simon Warren D. Long, Jr 1992 Steven R. Abram David A. Sun 1970 Robert D. Dickins, Jr Richard Cody 2011 Richard Lindsey Lebow Suresh Ramnath Joel D. Pickett Adhikari Varaprasad Reddy 1971 Willard A. Emch 1993 Richard A. Berkman 2012 Lola B. Chambless A. Byron Young 1994 Craig M. Kemper Adam S. Reig 1972 Warren F. McPherson Christopher L. Sneed 2013 Jonathan Andrew Forbes 1973 Alan H. Fruin 1995 William K. Brennan Luke Tomycz Jerry O. Penix 1996 Michael L. Copeland 2014 Mahan Ghiassi 1974 James S. Warson Scott C. Standard Mayshan Ghiassi 1975 Everette I. Howell, Jr 1997 Laura Horky 2015 Moneeb Ehtesham Anthony G. Hucks-Follies Dale S. Horne Cyrus C. Wong 1976 Robert H. Legrand, Jr Peter E. Konrad 2016 Heather Kitska Sella R. Littlepage, II Douglas C. Mathews 2017 Thomas O’Lynnger 1977 James D. Dillon, Jr 1998 John Robert Pace Brandon J. Davis 1978 Vaughan A. Allen Robert J. Singer Scott L. Parker Verne E. Allen Year Names Year Names Year Names 1932 Cobb Pilcher 1979 Arnulfo R. Garza-Vale 1999 Paul D. Boone 1942 Ralph J. Angelucci 1980 Edward H. Oldfield Michael J. Drewek 1943 Robert Raskind Timothy C. Wirt 2000 John A. Clough 1947 William F. Meacham 1981 Charles H. Clark III Gary Paul Cram, Jr 1948 Thomas J. Holbrook Robert E. Finelli 2001 Robert E. Isaacs 1949 Cully Cobb 1982 Frederick E. Finger III 2002 Melissa R. Chambers 1951 Duane Forman Paul R. McCombs III Kyle J. Mangels 1953 Clinton R. Harrison 1983 Rex E. H. Arendall II Matthew M. Pearson 1954 Arnold Meirowsky John W. Neblett 2003 Adam M. Kremer 1956 Joseph M. Capps 1984 Allan S. Fielding John K. Song C.C. McClure 1985 Timothy P. Schoettle 2004 Oran S. Aaronson 1957 Guy Owens 1986 Robert J. Plunkett Anthony J.G. Alastra Gray E.B. Stahlman Karen S. Woncik 2005 Jeffrey R. Albea 1958 Edwin F. Chobot, Jr 1987 Donn S. Fishbein Eric Eskioglu 1963 Hossein Sakhai Thomas J. Holbrook, Jr 2006 Karl A. Sillay 1964 Arthur G. Bond, III Thomas W. Rigsby 2007 John Robert Floyd II 1965 James W. Hayes 1989 Lucien Sidney Miranne, Jr Vicko Gluncic William R. Jouett Manuel Robert Weiss II Daniel M. Oberer Sidney Jolchin 1990 Patrick A. Juneau III 2008 John Spooner 1966 Richard H. Ashby Michael A. King Charles B. Stevenson Karl A. Jacob, Jr Lenwood P. Smith, Jr 2009 Tom Lou Yao 1967 Berkley L. Rish 1991 Gregory B. Lanford Hong Yu 1969 Ray W. Hester George H. Lien 2010 Scott Douglas Simon Warren D. Long, Jr 1992 Steven R. Abram David A. Sun 1970 Robert D. Dickins, Jr Richard Cody 2011 Richard Lindsey Lebow Suresh Ramnath Joel D. Pickett Adhikari Varaprasad Reddy 1971 Willard A. Emch 1993 Richard A. Berkman 2012 Lola B. Chambless A. Byron Young 1994 Craig M. Kemper Adam S. Reig 1972 Warren F. McPherson Christopher L. Sneed 2013 Jonathan Andrew Forbes 1973 Alan H. Fruin 1995 William K. Brennan Luke Tomycz Jerry O. Penix 1996 Michael L. Copeland 2014 Mahan Ghiassi 1974 James S. Warson Scott C. Standard Mayshan Ghiassi 1975 Everette I. Howell, Jr 1997 Laura Horky 2015 Moneeb Ehtesham Anthony G. Hucks-Follies Dale S. Horne Cyrus C. Wong 1976 Robert H. Legrand, Jr Peter E. Konrad 2016 Heather Kitska Sella R. Littlepage, II Douglas C. Mathews 2017 Thomas O’Lynnger 1977 James D. Dillon, Jr 1998 John Robert Pace Brandon J. Davis 1978 Vaughan A. Allen Robert J. Singer Scott L. Parker Verne E. Allen View Large Meacham was born in 1913 and raised by his grandparents in Hopkinsville, Kentucky. While on bed rest for presumed tuberculosis as a teenager, he was inspired by the town doctor to pursue a career in medicine. He paid his way through Western Kentucky University and Vanderbilt Medical School as a big band saxophonist and part-time manual laborer. He stayed on at Vanderbilt to complete his surgery residency under Barney Brooks.21,22 Meacham had the good fortune to train under both Barney Brooks and Cobb Pilcher. During the Second World War, Brooks designated Pilcher as an “essential teacher” to keep the University Hospital running while others were sent into service (interestingly, Brooks had been given the same designation at Barnes Hospital during the First World War).10,17 The government had a keen interest in Pilcher's research on the treatment of intracranial infections, however, and had him travel often to present his findings. The result was that Meacham—as chief resident—was often charged with the care of the neurosurgical patients. His interest in the field of neurosurgery grew, and when Pilcher established the William Henry Howe Fellowship in neurosurgery in December of 1945 (in honor of his brother-in-law who died in the war); Meacham was its inaugural recipient.19,23,24 Sadly, Cobb Pilcher died unexpectedly in September of 1949 at the age of 45. That year, the department's fellowship was renamed the “Cobb Pilcher—William Henry Howe Fellowship in Neurosurgery” in his honor.25 Additionally, the Cobb Pilcher Memorial Lecture was created in 1950 to commemorate his illustrious but all-too brief career as an academic neurosurgeon.25 DIVISION OF NEUROLOGICAL SURGERY (1953-1974) The neurosurgical service was maintained in the following years by Meacham and Cully A. Cobb.18 Due to the increasing number of surgical subspecialties and rapid growth of faculty, the Department of Surgery was separated into divisions in 1953.5 William F. Meacham had recently been made a full professor and was the natural choice to head the division; under his leadership the division would create a proper residency training program and become the busiest clinical service in the hospital.5 The 1960s marked the origins of Vanderbilt's strength as a functional neurosurgical center; Dr Meacham and his colleagues began performing stereotactic basal ganglia lesioning for treatment of extrapyramidal disorders.5 Under Meacham's leadership, the department thrived clinically and developed a nationally respected residency program. Scientific research became less of a priority during these years, although Meacham alone published 50 articles between 1950 and 1962.18,24 Apart from his leadership role at Vanderbilt, Meacham was extremely active at the national level during the 1960s and ‘70s, and would eventually serve as president of the Society of Neurological Surgeons, the Southern Neurosurgical Society, and American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS). DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGICAL SURGERY (1974-2009) In 1974, several divisions within the Department of Surgery were spun off into individual departments, including neurosurgery. The Department enjoyed a prosperous clinical practice during the following years—between the University hospital and its 3 affiliates (Thayer Veterans, Nashville Metropolitan, and St. Thomas Hospitals) the department maintained an average daily census of 168 patients and performed 1191 operations during 1978 alone.26 Meacham announced his plan to retire as Department Chairman in 1983 once a successor was found; George S. Allen (Figure 6) was hired the following year and Meacham earned Emeritus status.5,24 Allen is a graduate of Wesleyan University and attended medical school at Washington University in St. Louis. He completed his internship at Duke. He then spent 2 yr at the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke from 1968 to 1970. He completed his neurosurgical residency training and PhD at the University of Minnesota before taking a faculty position at Johns Hopkins.27 FIGURE 6. View largeDownload slide George S. Allen. Dr Allen served as Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery from 1984 to 2009. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. FIGURE 6. View largeDownload slide George S. Allen. Dr Allen served as Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery from 1984 to 2009. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. Departmental offices and research space were set aside for the Department of Neurosurgery in the original medical center building; coincidentally, this was the same location as the operating rooms of the original hospital prior to construction of the new hospital in 1980 (Figures 7 and 8).5 Within the new hospital facility, a dedicated Neurological Intensive Care Unit opened in 1988, and Vanderbilt earned Level I trauma center designation.5 FIGURE 7. View largeDownload slide Construction of the new Vanderbilt University Hospital, April 20, 1979. The original hospital (and future site of the neurosurgery department) can be seen in the background. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. FIGURE 7. View largeDownload slide Construction of the new Vanderbilt University Hospital, April 20, 1979. The original hospital (and future site of the neurosurgery department) can be seen in the background. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. FIGURE 8. View largeDownload slide Current neurosurgery departmental offices, housed in the same location as the original hospital's operating rooms (see Figure 2). FIGURE 8. View largeDownload slide Current neurosurgery departmental offices, housed in the same location as the original hospital's operating rooms (see Figure 2). The 1980s and early 1990s saw a number of firsts for the Department. Vanderbilt received the first magnetic resonance imaging machine in the Southeastern United States in 1984 (Figure 9), and in 1990 Dr Robert Maciunas performed the first radiosurgery procedure in Tennessee at Vanderbilt (Figure 10). Maciunas and Robert Galloway, a professor of Biomedical Engineering at Vanderbilt, together were pioneers in image guidance in neurosurgery. Dr Allen began performing adrenal-brain transplants in 1987.5 In 1995, Sidney Tolchin—a graduate of the Vanderbilt residency program—was elected as the 63rd President of the AANS.28 FIGURE 9. View largeDownload slide Installation of superconducting magnet for the Siemens Magnetom in Medical Center North Building, c. 1984. This machine cost approximately $2M USD and—when fully installed—weighed nearly 100 000 lbs. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. FIGURE 9. View largeDownload slide Installation of superconducting magnet for the Siemens Magnetom in Medical Center North Building, c. 1984. This machine cost approximately $2M USD and—when fully installed—weighed nearly 100 000 lbs. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. FIGURE 10. View largeDownload slide Dr Maciunas and Vanderbilt's photon knife device, c. 1990. Dr Maciunas later served as the Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Rochester. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. FIGURE 10. View largeDownload slide Dr Maciunas and Vanderbilt's photon knife device, c. 1990. Dr Maciunas later served as the Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Rochester. Published with permission from the Eskind Biomedical Library Historical Records, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. By this time, George Allen was a well-known figure in the world of neurosurgery in part due to his seminal work on the role of nimodipine in treating patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.29 He even gained brief notoriety in the lay public after an attempt was made on his life in April of 1995. Allen had declined a request from Dr Ray Mettetal to write a letter of recommendation for neurosurgery residency, and after several years of failed attempts to earn a residency position, Mettetal returned to Nashville to seek revenge. He was apprehended near Dr Allen's parking spot carrying a syringe of boric acid and Dr Allen was unharmed.30 In 1987, William Meacham was the recipient of the prestigious Harvey Cushing Medal from the AANS.5 The Meacham Society raised $1.25M in 1993 to endorse the William F. Meacham Chair in Neurosurgery at Vanderbilt. Sadly, Dr Meacham passed away on January 20, 1999.24 RECENT HISTORY The first decade of the 21st century saw increased emphasis on research endeavors under Allen's leadership. Pediatric neurosurgery continued to thrive in the free-standing children's hospital that was constructed in 2004; Vanderbilt was a pioneer of fetal neurosurgery under the direction of Dr Noel Tulipan, and served as one of the primary sites for the Management of Myelomeningocele Study trial. Meanwhile, several multidisciplinary glioma research partnerships were established and Dr Peter Konrad began his innovative work on deep brain stimulation. In 2009, Dr Edward Oldfield—a graduate of the Vanderbilt neurosurgery residency and trainee of Meacham—was awarded the Cushing Medal for his outstanding contributions to the field of neurosurgery (Figure 11).31 Dr Oldfield had an illustrious scientific and clinical career, authoring over 400 articles, becoming the Chief of the Clinical Neurosurgery Section of the National Institutes of Health, and subsequently serving as the President of the Society of Neurological Surgeons in 2008.32 Dr Oldfield passed away in September of 2017.33 FIGURE 11. View largeDownload slide Dr Edward H. Oldfield, recipient of the 2009 AANS Cushing Medal. Dr Oldfield is the author of over 400 scientific and clinical articles, and served as President of both the SNS and AANS. Printed with permission from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. FIGURE 11. View largeDownload slide Dr Edward H. Oldfield, recipient of the 2009 AANS Cushing Medal. Dr Oldfield is the author of over 400 scientific and clinical articles, and served as President of both the SNS and AANS. Printed with permission from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Reid C. Thompsonwho completed his MD and Neurosurgical residency at Johns Hopkins (Figure 12) assumed the chairmanship of the Department effective from January 1, 2010.34 Under his leadership, the department has grown to include 17 Neurosurgeons (Table 3). FIGURE 12. View largeDownload slide Dr Reid C. Thompson.41 Dr Thompson has served as the William F. Meacham Chair in Neurosurgery since 2009. Printed with permission from Vanderbilt University Section of Surgical Sciences. FIGURE 12. View largeDownload slide Dr Reid C. Thompson.41 Dr Thompson has served as the William F. Meacham Chair in Neurosurgery since 2009. Printed with permission from Vanderbilt University Section of Surgical Sciences. TABLE 3. Current Clinical Faculty in the Department of Neurosurgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center Name, Title Employed Since Residency Institution Fellowship Institution(s) Subspecialty Reid C. Thompson, MD 2002 Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Tumor, Vascular Chairman, Department of Neurological Surgery Cerebrovascular William F Meacham Professor of Neurological Surgery Director of Neurosurgical Oncology Professor of Otolaryngology Richard A. Berkman, MD 2016 Vanderbilt University Emory University Spine Assistant Professor Spine Christopher M. Bonfield, MD 2015 University of Pittsburgh University of Pittsburgh Pediatrics, Spine Assistant Professor Pediatrics Lola B. Chambless, MDAssistant ProfessorAssociate Program Director 2012 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt UniversityNeurosurgical OncologyCenter for Minimally Invasive NeurosurgerySkull Base Surgery Tumor, Skull Base, Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery Rohan V. Chitale, MDAssistant ProfessorAssistant Program Director 2015 Thomas Jefferson Medical College Thomas JeffersonEndovascular Vascular Mark A. Cobb, MD, FAANSAssistant Professor 1997 University of Arkansas YaleEpilepsy General Dario J. Englot, MD, PhDAssistant Professor 2017 University of California, San Francisco Vanderbilt UniversityFunctional Functional Matthew R. Fusco, MDAssistant Professor 2015 University of Alabama Birmingham Beth Israel Deaconess/Massachusetts General HospitalCerebrovascular, Endovascular Vascular Peter E. Konrad, MD, PhDProfessorVice Chairman for Research and InnovationDirector of Functional Neurosurgery 1998 Vanderbilt University Functional Robert P. Naftel, MDAssistant Professor 2013 University of Alabama Birmingham University of PittsburghPediatric Neurosurgery Pediatrics Scott L. Parker, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Vanderbilt University Spine Jacob P. Schwarz, MDAssistant Professor 2016 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology, Complex Spine Spine Hamid M. Shah, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Medical College of Georgia University of Tennessee, MemphisMinimally Invasive Spine General, Spine Allen K. Sills, MDAssociate Professor 2009 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology Tumor Kyle D. Weaver, MDAssistant Professor 2004 University of North Carolina Johns Hopkins UniversityNeuro-oncology Tumor John “Jay” Wellons, III, MD, MSPHProfessorVice Chairman for Academic and Faculty AffairsChief of Pediatric NeurosurgeryResidency Program Director 2012 Duke University University of Alabama BirminghamPediatrics Pediatrics Hong Yu, MDAssistant Professor 2010 Vanderbilt University Stanford UniversityFunctional Neurosurgery Functional Name, Title Employed Since Residency Institution Fellowship Institution(s) Subspecialty Reid C. Thompson, MD 2002 Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Tumor, Vascular Chairman, Department of Neurological Surgery Cerebrovascular William F Meacham Professor of Neurological Surgery Director of Neurosurgical Oncology Professor of Otolaryngology Richard A. Berkman, MD 2016 Vanderbilt University Emory University Spine Assistant Professor Spine Christopher M. Bonfield, MD 2015 University of Pittsburgh University of Pittsburgh Pediatrics, Spine Assistant Professor Pediatrics Lola B. Chambless, MDAssistant ProfessorAssociate Program Director 2012 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt UniversityNeurosurgical OncologyCenter for Minimally Invasive NeurosurgerySkull Base Surgery Tumor, Skull Base, Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery Rohan V. Chitale, MDAssistant ProfessorAssistant Program Director 2015 Thomas Jefferson Medical College Thomas JeffersonEndovascular Vascular Mark A. Cobb, MD, FAANSAssistant Professor 1997 University of Arkansas YaleEpilepsy General Dario J. Englot, MD, PhDAssistant Professor 2017 University of California, San Francisco Vanderbilt UniversityFunctional Functional Matthew R. Fusco, MDAssistant Professor 2015 University of Alabama Birmingham Beth Israel Deaconess/Massachusetts General HospitalCerebrovascular, Endovascular Vascular Peter E. Konrad, MD, PhDProfessorVice Chairman for Research and InnovationDirector of Functional Neurosurgery 1998 Vanderbilt University Functional Robert P. Naftel, MDAssistant Professor 2013 University of Alabama Birmingham University of PittsburghPediatric Neurosurgery Pediatrics Scott L. Parker, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Vanderbilt University Spine Jacob P. Schwarz, MDAssistant Professor 2016 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology, Complex Spine Spine Hamid M. Shah, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Medical College of Georgia University of Tennessee, MemphisMinimally Invasive Spine General, Spine Allen K. Sills, MDAssociate Professor 2009 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology Tumor Kyle D. Weaver, MDAssistant Professor 2004 University of North Carolina Johns Hopkins UniversityNeuro-oncology Tumor John “Jay” Wellons, III, MD, MSPHProfessorVice Chairman for Academic and Faculty AffairsChief of Pediatric NeurosurgeryResidency Program Director 2012 Duke University University of Alabama BirminghamPediatrics Pediatrics Hong Yu, MDAssistant Professor 2010 Vanderbilt University Stanford UniversityFunctional Neurosurgery Functional View Large TABLE 3. Current Clinical Faculty in the Department of Neurosurgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center Name, Title Employed Since Residency Institution Fellowship Institution(s) Subspecialty Reid C. Thompson, MD 2002 Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Tumor, Vascular Chairman, Department of Neurological Surgery Cerebrovascular William F Meacham Professor of Neurological Surgery Director of Neurosurgical Oncology Professor of Otolaryngology Richard A. Berkman, MD 2016 Vanderbilt University Emory University Spine Assistant Professor Spine Christopher M. Bonfield, MD 2015 University of Pittsburgh University of Pittsburgh Pediatrics, Spine Assistant Professor Pediatrics Lola B. Chambless, MDAssistant ProfessorAssociate Program Director 2012 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt UniversityNeurosurgical OncologyCenter for Minimally Invasive NeurosurgerySkull Base Surgery Tumor, Skull Base, Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery Rohan V. Chitale, MDAssistant ProfessorAssistant Program Director 2015 Thomas Jefferson Medical College Thomas JeffersonEndovascular Vascular Mark A. Cobb, MD, FAANSAssistant Professor 1997 University of Arkansas YaleEpilepsy General Dario J. Englot, MD, PhDAssistant Professor 2017 University of California, San Francisco Vanderbilt UniversityFunctional Functional Matthew R. Fusco, MDAssistant Professor 2015 University of Alabama Birmingham Beth Israel Deaconess/Massachusetts General HospitalCerebrovascular, Endovascular Vascular Peter E. Konrad, MD, PhDProfessorVice Chairman for Research and InnovationDirector of Functional Neurosurgery 1998 Vanderbilt University Functional Robert P. Naftel, MDAssistant Professor 2013 University of Alabama Birmingham University of PittsburghPediatric Neurosurgery Pediatrics Scott L. Parker, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Vanderbilt University Spine Jacob P. Schwarz, MDAssistant Professor 2016 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology, Complex Spine Spine Hamid M. Shah, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Medical College of Georgia University of Tennessee, MemphisMinimally Invasive Spine General, Spine Allen K. Sills, MDAssociate Professor 2009 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology Tumor Kyle D. Weaver, MDAssistant Professor 2004 University of North Carolina Johns Hopkins UniversityNeuro-oncology Tumor John “Jay” Wellons, III, MD, MSPHProfessorVice Chairman for Academic and Faculty AffairsChief of Pediatric NeurosurgeryResidency Program Director 2012 Duke University University of Alabama BirminghamPediatrics Pediatrics Hong Yu, MDAssistant Professor 2010 Vanderbilt University Stanford UniversityFunctional Neurosurgery Functional Name, Title Employed Since Residency Institution Fellowship Institution(s) Subspecialty Reid C. Thompson, MD 2002 Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Tumor, Vascular Chairman, Department of Neurological Surgery Cerebrovascular William F Meacham Professor of Neurological Surgery Director of Neurosurgical Oncology Professor of Otolaryngology Richard A. Berkman, MD 2016 Vanderbilt University Emory University Spine Assistant Professor Spine Christopher M. Bonfield, MD 2015 University of Pittsburgh University of Pittsburgh Pediatrics, Spine Assistant Professor Pediatrics Lola B. Chambless, MDAssistant ProfessorAssociate Program Director 2012 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt UniversityNeurosurgical OncologyCenter for Minimally Invasive NeurosurgerySkull Base Surgery Tumor, Skull Base, Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery Rohan V. Chitale, MDAssistant ProfessorAssistant Program Director 2015 Thomas Jefferson Medical College Thomas JeffersonEndovascular Vascular Mark A. Cobb, MD, FAANSAssistant Professor 1997 University of Arkansas YaleEpilepsy General Dario J. Englot, MD, PhDAssistant Professor 2017 University of California, San Francisco Vanderbilt UniversityFunctional Functional Matthew R. Fusco, MDAssistant Professor 2015 University of Alabama Birmingham Beth Israel Deaconess/Massachusetts General HospitalCerebrovascular, Endovascular Vascular Peter E. Konrad, MD, PhDProfessorVice Chairman for Research and InnovationDirector of Functional Neurosurgery 1998 Vanderbilt University Functional Robert P. Naftel, MDAssistant Professor 2013 University of Alabama Birmingham University of PittsburghPediatric Neurosurgery Pediatrics Scott L. Parker, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Vanderbilt University Spine Jacob P. Schwarz, MDAssistant Professor 2016 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology, Complex Spine Spine Hamid M. Shah, MDAssistant Professor 2017 Medical College of Georgia University of Tennessee, MemphisMinimally Invasive Spine General, Spine Allen K. Sills, MDAssociate Professor 2009 Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins U.Neuro-oncology Tumor Kyle D. Weaver, MDAssistant Professor 2004 University of North Carolina Johns Hopkins UniversityNeuro-oncology Tumor John “Jay” Wellons, III, MD, MSPHProfessorVice Chairman for Academic and Faculty AffairsChief of Pediatric NeurosurgeryResidency Program Director 2012 Duke University University of Alabama BirminghamPediatrics Pediatrics Hong Yu, MDAssistant Professor 2010 Vanderbilt University Stanford UniversityFunctional Neurosurgery Functional View Large In the subsequent 5 yr, the hospital has constructed 2 dedicated hybrid neurointerventional suites (Figure 13), the department has increased its daily operating room utilization to 7 concurrent rooms, and the division of pediatric neurosurgery has grown in both size and clinical volume. Dr Tulipan was made professor emeritus in 2015; sadly, he passed away in November of that year, leaving behind a legacy of outstanding research, surgical expertise, and excellent patient care.35 FIGURE 13. View largeDownload slide Neurointerventional radiology and endovascular suite, Vanderbilt University. Printed with permission from Vanderbilt University Section of Surgical Sciences. FIGURE 13. View largeDownload slide Neurointerventional radiology and endovascular suite, Vanderbilt University. Printed with permission from Vanderbilt University Section of Surgical Sciences. Outcomes-based research programs are exceptionally strong at Vanderbilt Neurosurgery. The NeuroPoint Alliance Quality and Outcomes is housed at our institution, and the spine outcomes group has netted over 100 publications in the last 5 yr alone.36 Meanwhile, a prolific research group—Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Research (V-SCoRe)—has published 35 papers within 3 yr. Dr Allen Sills, co-director of V-SCoRe, was chosen as the first Chief Medical Officer of the National Football League in 2017.37 The pediatric neurosurgery division has a flourishing research program known as the Surgical Outcomes Center for Kids and is a member of the National Institutes of Health- and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network. Basic science collaborations with the University's neuroscience and neurophysiology groups span a range of topics from cell membrane receptors and signal transduction to glioma stem cells and epigenetic therapies. Additionally, Dr Thompson helped to establish the Vanderbilt Institute in Surgery and Engineering to foster research collaborations on topics such as intraoperative brain tissue deformation/relaxation, automated radiographic imaging analysis, and neurosurgical robotics. CONCLUSION The Vanderbilt Department of Neurosurgery has benefited from a long history of esteemed faculty and talented residents (Figures 14-16). Albeit a young department, Vanderbilt has produced 3 Department Chairmen and 2 each of AANS presidents, SNS presidents, and Cushing Medalists.28,31,38-40 In the coming years, the Department aims to continue its tradition of mentorship while ushering in a new phase of the residency training program, fostering new avenues for research, and expanding its clinical enterprise. FIGURE 14. View largeDownload slide Vanderbilt Neurosurgery Softball team, after placing first at the 2017 Annual Neurosurgery Charity Softball Tournament. FIGURE 14. View largeDownload slide Vanderbilt Neurosurgery Softball team, after placing first at the 2017 Annual Neurosurgery Charity Softball Tournament. FIGURE 15. View largeDownload slide The Vanderbilt University Medical Center Department of Neurosurgery. This photograph was taken at the annual Department dinner in celebration of the chief residents’ graduation in 2016. FIGURE 15. View largeDownload slide The Vanderbilt University Medical Center Department of Neurosurgery. This photograph was taken at the annual Department dinner in celebration of the chief residents’ graduation in 2016. FIGURE 16. View largeDownload slide Commemorative poster for 1987 graduating class. Depicted along the timeline are major characters in the history of neurosurgery both at-large and at Vanderbilt University. From the collection of Timothy P. Schoettle; used with permission. FIGURE 16. View largeDownload slide Commemorative poster for 1987 graduating class. Depicted along the timeline are major characters in the history of neurosurgery both at-large and at Vanderbilt University. From the collection of Timothy P. Schoettle; used with permission. Disclosure The authors have no personal, financial, or institutional interest in any of the drugs, materials, or devices described in this article. REFERENCES 1. Testerman GM , Sheffey JE . A novel frontier method of treating scalping injuries . Am Surg . 2011 ; 77 ( 8 ): 1106 - 1107 . Google Scholar PubMed 2. Goodpasture AV . Indian wars and warriors of the old southwest, 1730-1807 . Tenn Hist Mag . 1918 ; 4 ( 1 ): 3 - 49 . 3. Crabb AL. Nashville: Personality of a City . 1st ed . Indianapolis : Bobbs-Merrill ; 1960 . 4. Wood W . Vanderbilt Medical School celebrates 125th anniversary . Reporter . 2010 . Available at: http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu:8080/reporter/index.html?ID=1251. Accessed February 4, 2015 . 5. Scott HW. History of Surgery at Vanderbilt University: Vanderbilt University Medical Center ; 1996 . 6. Kampmeier RH. Vanderbilt University School of Medicine: the Story in Pictures From its Beginning to 1963 . Nashville, TN : Vanderbilt University Medical Center ; 1990 . 7. Bulletin of Vanderbilt University, Catalogue of the School of Medicine, Announcement for 1925-1926 . Nashville, TN : Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections, Vanderbilt University Medical Center ; 2016. 8. Jacobson TC. Making Medical Doctors: Science and Medicine at Vanderbilt Since Flexner . Vol 45879 . Tuscaloosa : University Alabama Press ; 1987 . 9. Flexner A. The Flexner Report on Medical Education in the United States and Canada 1910 . New York : Carnegie Foundation . 1910 ; 58 . 10. Green BE Jr . Doctor Barney Brooks, 1884–1952 . Am J Surg . 1959 ; 98 ( 5 ): 706 - 712 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 11. Operating Room Logbooks . Nashville, TN : Department of Surgery , Vanderbilt University; 2015 . PubMed PubMed 12. Butts HM . Something the lord made . J Natl Med Assoc . 2006 ; 98 ( 3 ): 458 - 459 . 13. Bulletin of Vanderbilt University, Catalogue of the School of Medicine, Announcement for 1934-1935 . 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Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 20. Pilcher C . Neurosurgery comes of age . J Neurosurg . 1948 ; 5 ( 6 ): 507 - 513 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 21. Memoire of Dr. William F. Meacham (1913 - 1999) . Virginia and Kentucky Meachams; Arkansas Mathews William Feland Meacham . Available at: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/∼wmeacham/memoire.htm. Accessed February 10, 2015 . 22. French LA . Dr. William F. Meacham . Surg Neurol . 1984 ; 22 ( 4 ): 327 - 328 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 23. Bulletin of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, School of Medicine, Register of Students for 1947-1948, Courses, Faculty, and Announcements for 1948-1949 . Nashville, TN : Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections, Vanderbilt University Medical Center ; 2015 . 24. Meacham, William Feland (1913-1999) . Nashville, TN: Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections, Vanderbilt University Medical Center . 25. 1950-51 Catalogue , Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine. Nashville, TN: Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections, Vanderbilt University Medical Center . 26. Vanderbilt University . Neurosurgery . 1979 ; 5 ( 1 ): 168 . CrossRef Search ADS 27. Allen George S . Nashville, TN: Eskind Biomedical Library Special Collections, Vanderbilt University Medical Center . 28. AANS . AANS Past Presidents. [Webpage] . 2016 . Available at: http://www.aans.org/About%20AANS/Get%20Involved/Past%20Presidents.aspx. Accessed August 29, 2017 . 29. Allen GS , Ahn HS , Preziosi TJ et al. Cerebral arterial spasm–a controlled trial of nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage . N Engl J Med . 1983 ; 308 ( 11 ): 619 - 624 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 30. Doctor is Accused of Trying to Murder Ex-Boss. New York Times. September 3rd , 1995 . 31. van Die B. Edward Hudson Oldfield, MD, Named 2009 AANS Cushing Medalist. San Diego, CA: American Association of Neurological Surgeons ; 2009 . 32. Edward H , Oldfield MD , FAANS. [Webpage] . 2014 . Available at: https://www.societyns.org/society/bio.aspx?MemberID=50134. Accessed August 29, 2017 . 33. Lonser RR . Obituary. Edward H. Oldfield, MD, 1947–2017: American Association of Neurological Surgeons ; 2017 . 34. Bartoo C . Allen to step down as Neurological Surgery leader . Reporter . 2009 . Accessed March 15, 2015 . 35. Echegaray C . VUMC mourns loss of Pediatric Neurosurgery pioneer Tulipan . Reporter . 2015 . Accessed November 29, 2015 . 36. NeuroPoint Alliance . [Webpage] . 2017 . Available at: http://www.neuropoint.org/. Accessed November 5, 2017 . 37. Wilemon T . NFL names Sills as league's first-ever chief medical officer . Reporter . 2017 . Accessed July 2, 2017 . 38. Young A. Byron , MD, FAANS(L) . [Webpage] . 2014 . Accessed August 29, 2017 . 39. Maciunas Robert J. , MD . [Webpage] . 2014 . Available at: https://www.societyns.org/society/bio.aspx?MemberID=90146. Accessed August 29, 2017 . 40. Kimmell KT , Petraglia AL , Bakos R , Rodenhouse T , Maurer PK , Pilcher WH . The history of neurosurgery at the University of Rochester: historical vignette . J Neurosurg . 2014 ; 121 ( 4 ): 989 - 994 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 41. Department of Neurological Surgery . 2014 . Available at: http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/root/vumc.php?site=neurosurgery. Accessed March 17, 2015 . Acknowledgments The authors thank James J. Thweatt and Christopher R. Ryland for their assistance in collecting historical records and references. Copyright © 2018 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

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NeurosurgeryOxford University Press

Published: May 12, 2018

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