When the first edition of this book was released in 2005 I immediately purchased it for use with my music therapy interns. Over the years I have found the material within the book to be an invaluable resource containing clear explanations of key clinical concepts, practical examples, and thought-provoking assignments. Now in its second edition, Clinical Training Guide for the Student Music Therapist offers one complete new chapter, up to date references, internet based resources, and a reformatting of the application questions and assignments at the end of each chapter. Drawing on their extensive and diverse backgrounds as clinicians and educators, the authors have designed this book for music therapy students at all levels of training. The content has been organized in such a way to encourage the scaffolding of knowledge and skills as the student music therapist advances through the typical levels of clinical education including observation, assisting, planning, co-leading, and finally leading the session. The first four chapters of the second edition lay the foundation for all the material that follows. Chapter 1 provides a context for our work with an initial focus on the philosophical underpinnings of therapy in general and music therapy in particular - as well as a brief overview of various music therapy theories. Suggestions regarding how student music therapists can make the most of their clinical experiences as they engage in observation, participation and assisting, planning and co-leading and finally, leading the session is the subject of Chapter 2. The addition of a brand new chapter, “Essential Aspects of Becoming a Music Therapist: Education, Clinical Training, and Related Areas,” can be viewed as having three distinct sections. The first section concentrates on the important and ever-evolving role of our professional membership organization the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) as it relates to the policies and standards that govern the education and training of music therapists. The next section emphasizes the necessity for ethical and professional behavior and stresses the importance of being an active participant, not just a recipient, in supervision. The conclusion of Chapter 3 provides internet addresses for important documents that can be downloaded from both AMTA and the Certification Board for Music Therapists, Inc., our national certifying body. Finally, Chapter 4 focuses on exploring one’s own beliefs and values as they relate to developing a personal theory of helping. Reflection questions presented in this chapter center on understanding the client’s perspective, examining our own personal feelings regarding persons with disabilities, and exploring our relationship with music itself. Following the sequence provided in the AMTA Standards of Clinical Practice, Chapters 5 through 7 cover client assessment, goals and objectives, and planning/implementing music therapy strategies. Chapter 5, the longest chapter in the book at 29 pages, offers a thorough treatment of music therapy assessment. Divided into two distinct sections, the first section of the chapter covers the assessment process from referral to final report. The authors discuss the purpose, process, and domains of assessment and examples of typical musical experiences used to assess clients are included. Methods of gathering data are suggested and perspectives are offered on how to handle the situation when music therapy is not recommended. The first section ends with an examination of “current issues in music therapy assessment” including quantitative and qualitative approaches and the importance of reliability and validity. The second section offers examples of music therapy assessments for a variety of client populations including special needs children, severely emotionally disturbed children, adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities, adults with psychiatric disorders, older adults with age-related needs, and people in medical settings. Many student music therapists will find this chapter, originally authored in the first edition by Anthony Meadows, to be extremely helpful as they learn to assess music therapy clients. Chapter 6 outlines basic information about the importance of having “a focus or intent” while providing music therapy. This focus is most often articulated through the determination of specific, measurable, realistic goals and objectives. Definitions and samples of both goals and objectives are given. In addition, this chapter provides detailed examples taken from two settings: long-term care and a preschool group. The concluding section addresses the reality of the need for different formats for different settings including client-driven music therapy. Music therapists may be particularly drawn to Chapter 7 “Planning and Implementing Music Therapy Strategies”, for this is where all the previous content is coalesced into developing music therapy strategies and learning to plan a session. Task analysis, skill analysis, and level of development are discussed as key components for constructing appropriate strategies for clients. Practical information regarding the environment, room arrangement, and a comprehensive list of instruments/equipment is provided as well as the use of additional materials such as song sheets and charts. In my experience of using this chapter with interns, I have found the two tables “Strategy/Activity Form” and “Guidelines for Activity Planning”, both developed by Kenneth Bruscia, to be indispensable and thought provoking. Chapters 8 through 11 focus on typical types of music therapy experiences such as improvising, re-creative, compositional, and receptive experiences. Each of these chapters first describes the use of these experiences with the five client populations identified in Chapter 5 and follows up with a summary of examples taken from music therapy literature. In addition, each chapter concludes with practical information organized under the headings of “Considerations,” “Materials,” and “Tips for Using”. There is a wealth of clinical strategies presented in these four chapters that student music therapists will find to be invaluable. The final seven chapters address a variety of topics including the consideration of different theoretical frameworks, techniques for eliciting client responses, the importance of clinical musicianship, factors to consider when deciding whether a client should receive individual and/or group therapy, documentation, and self-assessment. If any limitations needed to be pointed out it would be the lack of reference to the expanding number of apps and Internet-based sites that can be used for composition strategies as well as the omission of behavioral techniques to facilitate client responses that were included in the first edition. This book should be in the library of every student music therapist as its comprehensive content is suitable for all levels - from beginner to intern and beyond. It is easily adaptable for use by faculty, clinical practicum supervisors, and internship directors. As noted earlier, each chapter concludes with an “Assignments” section which is particularly helpful and can be used in conjunction with students’ clinical placements. The assignments include ideas for journaling, listening, checklists, discussion ideas, self-assessment, and more. In addition, the 20-page reference section offers students a comprehensive list of books, journal articles, websites, and published music to enhance their learning. © American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Music Therapy Perspectives – Oxford University Press
Published: Nov 13, 2017
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