Abstract Prior studies have theorized that low chlamydial genetic diversity following mass azithromycin treatments for trachoma may create a population bottleneck that prevents the return of infection, but little empiric evidence exists to support this hypothesis. In this study, a single mass azithromycin distribution was administered to 21 communities in the Gurage Zone of Ethiopia in 2003. All children aged 1–5 years had conjunctival swabs performed before treatment, and at 2 and 6 months following treatment. All swabs positive for Chlamydia trachomatis at 2 months underwent ompA typing, as did the same number of swabs per community from the pre-treatment and 6-month visits. ompA diversity, expressed as the reciprocal of Simpson's index, was calculated for each community. In total, 15 ompA types belonging to the A and B genovars were identified. The mean diversity was 2.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.79, 2.43) before treatment and 2.16 (95% confidence interval: 1.76, 2.55) two months after treatment (P = 0.78, paired t-test). ompA diversity was not associated with the prevalence of ocular chlamydia (P = 0.76), and did not predict subsequent changes in the prevalence of ocular chlamydia (P = 0.32). This study found no evidence to support the theory that ompA diversity is associated with transmission of ocular chlamydia. antibiotic, azithromycin, bacterial outer membrane proteins, Chlamydia trachomatis, genetic diversity, genotype, trachoma © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)
American Journal of Epidemiology – Oxford University Press
Published: Apr 3, 2018
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