The Chester Step Test (CST) is a submaximal, multistage aerobic capacity test. The test requires a low step, heart rate monitor, instructional CD with stepping beat rhythms, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) chart and CST software calculator. The accompanying manual includes graphical datasheets and fitness rating norms geared to age and gender. Providing there are no medical contraindications to moderately vigorous exercise or stair-stepping, the subject is required to step onto and off a low step at a rate set by the beat on the accompanying CD. Every 2 min an instruction is given asking the tester to record the subject’s exercise heart rate and RPE—and the stepping rate is then increased slightly. The test continues in this progressive manner until the subject reaches 80% of their maximum heart rate (HRMax) and/or reports a moderately vigorous level of exertion (RPE = 14). Aerobic capacity (or VO2Max) is then calculated by entering the exercise heart rates into the bespoke CST software (or by using the appropriate CST graphical datasheet). The test lasts for a maximum of 10 min. On a technical note, CST utilizes the well-established linear relationship between oxygen cost, heart rate and workload together with the American College of Sports Medicine’s (ACSM’s) metabolic cost of stepping equation, thus enabling aerobic capacity to be predicted from a statistical line of best fit [1–3]. View large Download slide View large Download slide Images supplied by https://www.cartwrightfitness.co.uk View large Download slide View large Download slide Images supplied by https://www.cartwrightfitness.co.uk What should you use it for? Many workplaces now have recommended aerobic capacity standards for certain groups of workers and CST is a highly suitable assessment tool for ‘fitness to work’ examinations. Whilst a number of industries test all subjects on a standard step height (e.g. 30 cm for UK fire services  and commercial divers ), CST can also be administered using different step heights (15, 20, 25 and 30 cm), thereby accommodating a wide range of ages and abilities with no gender bias. Guidelines for selecting step height are given in the CST manual. It is also a useful tool in a variety of clinical and rehabilitation settings to monitor patient aerobic fitness, recovery and exercise tolerance. Relevance to occupational health practitioners CST has been used globally for over two decades in a wide variety of workplace settings including the fire, police, prison, ambulance and military services, oil, gas and offshore wind farm industries and other scenarios where an aerobic capacity assessment is required. For example, the CST is widely used within the UK fire service where an aerobic capacity of 42.3 mlO2/kg/min is required for operational duties. Ease of use CST is straightforward to use. It is inexpensive, highly portable, easy to standardize and is a safely controlled submaximal test where heart rates and perceived exertion are monitored throughout. It is also highly repeatable, therefore ideal for test–retest scenarios. Time to master CST is uncomplicated to setup and conduct. Nevertheless, as with any test with which the practitioner is unfamiliar, time should be taken to rehearse, fully understand the physiological principles of the prediction of aerobic capacity from submaximal heart rates and practice the test to achieve best and meaningful interpretation of results. The CST manual is therefore a highly recommended reference read. For organizations who request in-house staff training, a 1-day professional development seminar delivered by Professor Sykes is available. This ensures that all test administrators are fully confident and consistent in their approach, understanding and interpretation of results. Further details from: email@example.com. Pros and cons CST is a simple, inexpensive test designed to assess aerobic capacity and overall fitness rating. However, as with all other submaximal fitness tests based on heart rate responses, the error margin is around 10–15%. Sources of error include: variability in predicted HRMax, nerves and anxiety elevating exercise heart rates and inability to maintain correct stepping rhythm. CST is therefore best used in situations where a good estimate of aerobic capacity is required. However, it is not suited to scenarios where a precise measurement is essential. As the CST is highly reliable on a test–retest basis, it is well suited to monitoring changes. Cost and where it can be obtained Cartwright Fitness (www.cartwrightfitness.co.uk/chester-step-test) is the official suppliers of CST equipment, software and resources: Items can be purchased separately or the full CST kit from £156 (inc. tax). Bespoke software is now also available for UK firefighter assessments. A CST 5th Edition is due for release in February 2018. References 1. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription . 7th edn. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 2008. 2. Latin RW, Berg K, Kissinger K, Sinnett A, Parks L. The accuracy of the ACSM stair-stepping equation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33: 1785– 1788. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed 3. Sykes K, Roberts A. The Chester Step Test—a simple yet effective tool for the prediction of aerobic capacity. Physiotherapy 2004; 90: 183– 188. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS 4. Chief Fire Officers Association. Physical Fitness Tests . CFOA Pubs, 2017. http://www.cfoa.org.uk/11714. 5. Health and Safety Executive. The Medical Examination and Assessment of Commercial Divers (MA1) . Norwich, UK: HSE Books, 2015. https://books.hse.gov.uk/. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Occupational Medicine – Oxford University Press
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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