Carthaginian pottery in the collection of Izabela Działyńska, née Czartoryska

Carthaginian pottery in the collection of Izabela Działyńska, née Czartoryska Abstract At the end of the nineteenth century Princess Izabela Działyńska (1830–1899), owner of Gołuchów Castle (Poland) and possessor of a huge collection of art, bought in Paris a small assemblage of ancient artefacts which included two jugs of clearly oriental origin. Today they stand in the National Museum in Poznań, Gołuchów branch, as hitherto unrecognized items. This paper attempts to outline the context of their acquisition and to raise the issue of the archaeological excavations undertaken at Carthage by the French missionary Alfred Louis Delattre. The jugs remain unique in Poland and are rare in other European collections. Through archival, archaeometrical and typological studies it proves possible not only to determine the specific geographical and chronological origins of the vessels but also to reconstruct a large part of their cultural biographies. At Gołuchów Castle Museum, a branch of the Polish National Museum in Poznań, can be found two ancient jugs of clearly oriental origin, characterized by a mushroom-lipped outline and a trefoil rim respectively (see below, Figs 3–4). These shapes are common in the Phoenician repertoire, although they remain rare in the museums of Central Europe. The jugs belong to the Gołuchów collection, created by Princess Izabela Działyńska (1830–1899), born Izabela Czartoryska; the collection takes its name from the place where it was formed, namely the castle of Gołuchów (Fig. 1), a village near Poznań in Poland. Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide The castle in Gołuchów. Photo: Sławomir Obst. Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide The castle in Gołuchów. Photo: Sławomir Obst. The presence of these pieces has been widely known since the collection was formed. The earliest catalogue in which they are mentioned describes them as pottery from Carthage; in later literature they are described more specifically as Punic pottery or Phoenician–Punic pottery. This does not mean that they came from the Levantine coast, although typologically their features are characteristic of production in the Near East during the eighth century bc.1 A north-central African provenance may be suggested as more credible for our jugs, although this does not exclude a Phoenician affiliation: Carthage was at that time a Phoenician colony that had started to undergo its own colonial expansion from the seventh century bc onwards. For this reason the term ‘Phoenician’ may justifiably be used to describe the relationship of the jugs in question with the more widely known Phoenician koine. The ancient art collection of Izabela Działyńska The collection of Princess Izabela Działyńska, part of which survives in the museum at Gołuchów, comprised not only masterpieces of European art but also a huge collection of ancient artefacts (Fig. 2). Izabela was born in Warsaw on 14 December 1830, the daughter of Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski and Princess Anna née Sapieha. At the age of three she and her family moved to Paris, where the Czartoryski family settled after the Polish Insurrection of 1830–31. The young princess showed an interest in the history of art and in painting and drawing from an early age. She agreed to fulfil her parents’ wish – more political than sentimental – that she should marry Count Jan Działyński. The marriage took place in February 1857, but Działyński was unable to show any warmth of feeling towards his wife and their life was one of frigidity and quarrels. This was upsetting for both families, for each had hoped that Jan and Izabela would establish at Gołuchów, the castle and estate that had been bought for Jan by his father Tytus Działyński, a new family line that would unite the two families and would reinforce the national spirit among Polish noblemen. Jan Działyński borrowed vast sums of money from the Czartoryskis, mainly from his wife Izabela, in order to support military and subversive activities in the Wielkopolska region. At the fall of the uprising against the Russians in 1863 he was forced, under sentence of death, into exile in Paris and Italy. During his exile he developed an interest in collecting ancient art, an area of interest that brought the unfortunate couple a degree of shared interest and which led to their consulting each before making purchases. In 1868 Działyński’s properties were returned to him and the death sentence was revoked; in 1869 and in 1872, in payment of his debts, he passed ownership to his wife of both Gołuchów and the collection of ancient vases. Izabela became increasingly attached to the estate and, around 1872, she decided that the restored castle of Gołuchów would not only become her main residence but would also house the entire collection she had gathered to that point and would continue to expand in the future. The restoration and construction was not completed until c.1886. The idea of transforming the castle (or at least part of the residence) into a museum was born in the course of this construction work and was pursued thereafter. In 1893, in order to secure its existence and to provide financial resources for the resulting Czartoryskis Museum, a special entail was elaborated, termed an Ordynacja in Polish and a Majorat in Prussian law. This arrangement remained in force until World War ii when, facing the imminent threat of the Nazi invasion, the most valuable part of the collection was taken for safety to Krakow and Warsaw by Countess Maria Ludwika Czartoryska, mother of the last holder of the Gołuchów entail. During the war, most of the collection was looted, first by the Nazis and later by the Red Army. In the post-war period a large part of the collection was returned to the National Museum in Warsaw, and some part of it was exhibited at the Gołuchów Castle Museum and at the National Museum in Poznań; some pieces also went to the Czartoryskis Museum branch of the National Museum in Krakow. Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide Hall of the Greek Pottery in Gołuchów Castle. Photo: Antoni Pawlikowski, 1905. Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide Hall of the Greek Pottery in Gołuchów Castle. Photo: Antoni Pawlikowski, 1905. Izabela had been collecting since 1852 and continued to do so until her death in 1899. The collection’s creation is well documented in account books and in a huge body of correspondence she maintained with European antiquaries. Izabela’s career as an art collector began with the purchase of a number of drawings in 1849.2 In 1852 she bought in Paris prints by Albrecht Dürer and Lucas van Leyden, along with a fourteenth-century sculpture from the lower Rhineland.3 In 1853 the first Limoges enamels appeared in her collection. She developed a particular attachment to the art of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, a taste that would last until the end of her life.4 Izabela’s interest in ancient art undoubtedly began through the influence of her husband. Count Działyński formed an important collection of ancient vases during his stay in Italy from 1865 to 1867, following the fall of the Polish January Uprising. He visited Nola, Capua, Florence, Rome and Naples many times, where he formed contacts with excavators and local antiquaries, among others, with Simmaco Doria, Giacomo Gallozzi and Alessandro Castellani, who worked together on the excavations in Capua.5 These proto-archaeologists sold artefacts from their non-professional excavations at antiquarian auctions, direct to private collectors or to institutions such as the British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, and the Musée du Louvre. According to preserved correspondence, Doria offered a number of vases directly to Działyński, and both Doria and Gallozzi sent him summaries of the results of their excavations in Capua.6 For political reasons, Działyński could neither return to his estate nor send his property there; hence all his antiquarian purchases were sent to Hôtel Lambert, the residence of the Czartoryski family in Paris. The collection there was soon appreciated by French specialists such as Henri Longpérier and Jean de Witte. Longpérier, in an article from 1868, described a few vases from the Działyński collection, mentioning in the article four vases that already belonged to Izabela. These four vases, which might be considered Izabela’s first purchases in the field of ancient artefacts in the antiquarian market, have been identified in the Gołuchów collection.7 They were bought for Izabela by de Witte, from the antiquary Rafaele Barone, in Naples in 1867. No details survive to shed light on the circumstances of the purchase, and no other information can be found concerning the archaeological context from which the vases were recovered. They are mentioned for the first time as the property of Izabela in the Longpérier article, where it is suggested that the princess had developed her interest in ancient art and artefacts very quickly, even if her collection contained no other material of this kind at that time. It may be assumed that the vases were not an accidental purchase, since Jaqueline Roussette, a trusted companion, adviser and agent, informed Izabela around 1865 that she had just bought a catalogue of Jean de Witte’s Descriptions des antiquités et objets d’art qui composent le cabinet de feu M. le Chevalier E. Durand (1836).8 In the nineteenth century this catalogue was treated as a source book by those who were seriously interested in collecting ancient artefacts, particularly vases. It seems likely, then, that Izabela already had some knowledge of the market in ancient art and antiquities but that her interests remained focused more particularly on objects of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries such as sculptures and Limoges enamels. Jan Działyński, perhaps because of his interest in antiquities, became a devoted collector of ancient artefacts during his compulsory exile, with an interest focused particularly on Greek vases and Roman artefacts. He took pains in Naples and Rome to make visits to local dealers and antiquaries who were active around Nola and Capua.9 The rich correspondence surviving between Działyński and his wife demonstrates his true interests and his well-developed intuition in choosing artefacts worthy of his collection. Despite his own familiarity with the material, Działyński relied to a large extent on the opinions of other acknowledged experts. He contacted specialists and pioneers of archaeology who were co-workers of both the Louvre and the British Museum. These relations proved useful to the count but would also benefit his wife in the longer term. Among Działyński’s co-workers, de Witte and Longpérier deserve particular mention. The surviving correspondence shows that they had established contact by 1868, but give the impression that they had known each other well before those letters were written. Izabela would maintain contact with de Witte until the late 1890s. She was also a beneficiary of her husband’s relations with Giuseppe Mele, who recommended purchases of ancient artefacts to her, as well as to Działyński.10 In the process of developing her collection Izabela also began to rely on the advice of both Henri Hofmann and Wilhelm Fröhner.11 She was not only an active collector but also took care to expand her knowledge of the items reaching her collection. As a result of Izabela’s efforts, four catalogues were published, three of them concerning ancient artefacts in the collection. The first catalogue was authored by de Witte, while those published in 1886, 1896 and 1899 were prepared by Wilhelm Fröhner.12 The last of these was brought to publication by Émile Molinier, in 1903 following the princess’s death. During the period of the Gołuchów Majorat, John Beazley visited Gołuchów in 1926 and described the collection in his book Greek Vases in Poland.13 In 1931 the collection was featured in the international series Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum (cva). Artefacts in the collection from the excavations of Alfred Louis Delattre Jan Działyński eventually lost interest in ancient art, but Izabela applied herself to enriching the museum’s collection. There are many receipts illustrating the process of its enlargement. It is at this point that artefacts from Egypt and Cyprus were added to the collection at Gołuchów.14 Perhaps with the aim of increasing the diversity of the collection, other ancient objects lacking in special visual or technological qualities were also brought to the castle, including Greek amphorae and storage jars. This is the context in which the pottery from Carthage should be perceived. The catalogue by Fröhner details about sixteen Carthaginian artefacts in the Gołuchów collection, all of them associated with the excavations being conducted by Delattre in northern Africa. The author mentions three stone stelae, a bronze tool or weapon, a fragment of ostrich egg with a figurative decoration, and several ceramic vessels – two skyphoi, a guttus, three Punic jugs, a Roman bowl and four oil lamps.15 Krzysztof Bulas, in the cva, describes six vases as coming from Carthage16 – a plate, a red slip bowl, a kantharos (described as a skyphos), an askos and two jugs.17 All the vases from this group survived World War ii and four of them are exhibited at the Gołuchów castle;18 the askos and kantharos are at the National Museum in Warsaw. In the cva, two other vases are identified as coming from excavations supervised by Delattre in 1895. These are one Corinthian skyphos19 and a bucchero amphora.20 In most cases, only the year of the excavations is provided, without further information. The site of the excavations is explained only in one case: the kantharos was found on Byrsa Hill.21 Fröhner’s catalogues also mention other vases from the excavation in Carthage. Archival research reveals that the pottery from Carthage first appeared in the Gołuchów collection in 1895, a gift from Delattre to Izabela. At the present time there is insufficient information at our disposal to suggest how contact with Father Delattre was first established, nor whether any of the antiquaries collaborating with Izabela were involved in this process. Her relations with Delattre have been reconstructed in the light of two letters sent by him to an unidentified countess who mediated the contact between Delattre and Marceli Czartoryski,22 the princess’s nephew. Information from these letters and from two entries in the account books provides evidence that the Carthaginian artefacts came from excavations led by Delattre at some time between 1877 and 1895. Alfred Louis Delattre was born in 1850 in Déville-lès-Rouen, France, and died in 1932 at Carthage, in the French Protectorate of Tunisia. He was a missionary of the Société des Missionnaires d’Afrique, established by Cardinal Charles Lavigerie in 1868 and more commonly known as the White Fathers.23 Delattre arrived in Carthage in 1877 and in the same year began excavating in the territory of ancient Carthage. In 1884 his archbishopric was moved from Algiers to Tunis, where Delattre again supervised most of the archaeological research.24 His archaeological work concentrated on Carthage and on the surrounding areas, namely Byrsa Hill, the Douïmès site, Juno Hill and Santa Monica Hill.25 Delattre’s particular passion was for archaeology, to which he devoted a great deal of time and effort. Aside from his missionary activities, he also worked as a curator in the archaeological museum in Algiers and founded the Musée Lavigerie de Saint-Louis, where artefacts from his excavations were exhibited; later this museum was transformed into the Carthage National Museum. The main aim of archaeological works initiated by Lavigerie was to discover the oldest traces of Christianity in Africa,26 but his excavations revealed enormous amounts of information regarding ancient Carthage and raised interest in the Punic culture among scholars.27 This new knowledge had a significant impact on raising interest in Carthage and Punic culture among collectors of art and others who followed news of the new archaeological discoveries. Izabela Działyńska was known in the world of specialists as an experienced collector and perhaps it was this that led her advisers (probably Henry Hammond in particular) to draw her attention to the artefacts from Delattre’s excavations. It also should be mentioned that at the time when Izabela was enriching her collection with material from Carthage, Delattre already had a reputation as a generous donor, so that the process of acquiring new examples of ancient Mediterranean artefacts may not have presented many difficulties for her. Delattre was no professional archaeologist: his work was far from accurate and entailed the destruction of many archaeological layers; no proper documentation was undertaken and many artefacts considered as of no interest were discarded.28 What is more, Delattre and his co-workers gave away or sold many artefacts to European and American museums and private collections: thanks to his donations, the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology of the University of Michigan was founded.29 He also gave many finds to the museum in Rouen, his native town.30 It was in such circumstances that the jugs now in the Gołuchów collection came into the possession of Izabela Działyńska. The correspondence between Delattre and the unnamed countess provides the main source of information about these artefacts. There are two letters from Delattre, dated 13 and 27 May 1895.31 In the letter of 13 May, mention is made of two boxes of Punic artefacts, while that of 27 May carries the suggestion that the jugs and other finds from excavations were not bought by Izabela but were given to her: she received the artefacts from the excavations as an expression of Father Delattre’s gratitude for her donations towards the promotion of missionary activity. A note in the Gołuchów account book from May 1895 states: ‘to save the archaeological excavations in Africa – 100 francs’,32 information that sheds useful light on the context in which the finds from Carthage were obtained. Since Fröhner’s catalogue mentions only about sixteen artefacts from Carthage, it must be assumed that some of the items mentioned in the second letter were broken or lost in the course of their transport to Paris. According to the text, Delattre offered new items in exchange for the broken ones, but whether they ever reached Gołuchów remains unknown; there are no written sources to confirm it. It is difficult to judge which excavations these artefacts came from, and indeed there are no solid arguments for maintaining that all the items came from a single archaeological site: they could have been chosen from amongst the finds from excavations led by Delattre at any time between 1877 and 1895. At this point it should be mentioned that not all the pottery published by Bulas is accompanied by information on the date of the respective excavations. In most cases – including the Phoenician jugs studied in this article – the pieces in question are said to have come from excavations that took place in 1895;33 but the kantharos certainly came from excavations in Byrsa34 and the plate has an uncertain provenance.35 This may confirm that the items given to Izabela by Delattre came from a number of archaeological sites around Carthage. On the other hand, the majority of gifts are recorded as coming from excavations led by Delattre in 1895. We know that from January 1895 he was involved in excavating in Douïmès, a necropolis dating back to the period from the seventh century to the fifth century bc; between 1895 and 1896 more than 300 graves were discovered there. The results of this excavation were published as La nécropole punique de Douïmès (à Carthage): fouilles de 1895 et 1896.36 Unfortunately, the descriptions of the tombs are so generalized as to make it impossible to ascribe the artefacts to specific graves. Nevertheless, the chronology of the site fits the typology of most of the vessels, particularly the Punic jugs described in detail below. Two jugs from Carthage in the Gołuchów collection The jug with trefoil rim (Fig. 3) is preserved intact, apart from minor surface damage on the upper part. On the surface of the vessel are clear marks showing the use of a potter’s wheel. The discontinuity in the body profile indicates the joining of two parts of the vessel during the production process. The clay is light orange with a reddish tint on the belly and handle; the surface is slightly rough, with fine and medium admixtures, mainly limestone, calcite and quartz. The bottom of the jug is flat, currently covered by labels bearing inventory numbers. The shape of the trefoil rim, the massive handle and the slim shape of the vessel indicate quite an early place in the chronology of the type. Several analogous pieces are known from the Near East and the Mediterranean basin:37 among other sites may be mentioned Mozia,38 Laurita,39 Trayamar40 and, of course, from the necropolises of Carthage.41 The Mediterranean exemplars are dated to the seventh century bc, while the oriental vessels are older.42 Fig. 3. View largeDownload slide Jug with trefoil rim, inv. no. mnp a 709; height 16.2 cm, diameter (max.) 10.2 cm, diameter (foot) 3.4 cm. Photo: Jakub Baszczyński. Fig. 3. View largeDownload slide Jug with trefoil rim, inv. no. mnp a 709; height 16.2 cm, diameter (max.) 10.2 cm, diameter (foot) 3.4 cm. Photo: Jakub Baszczyński. The mushroom-lipped jug (Fig. 4) is in good condition, apart from slight damage to the edge of the rim. The height of the vessel is 14.0 cm; typological studies show that the average height of African mushroom-lipped jugs is 18.7 cm, while that of oriental vessels is 18.9 cm.43 The colour of the clay is relatively homogeneous, dark red, but in places with a lighter or darker tint; the surface of the jug is slightly rough with a fine temper that is quite evident on the surface. The vessel was clearly thrown on a fast wheel. The flat bottom is now covered by labels bearing inventory numbers. The jug has a small handle, characteristic for this form; its base is attached to a globular body while the upper end joins a straight neck terminating in a mushroom-shaped rim. Oriental analogues come from Tyre44 and are dated to the eighth century bc. In the Mediterranean basin, mushroom-lipped jugs with similar features were found in Amathus in Cyprus,45 in one of the necropolises of Carthage (Byrsa),46 and in Trayamar.47 The proportions of the vessel – particularly the ellipsoidal shape of the belly – and several analogous examples from the Mediterranean basin, allow us to date this piece to the seventh century bc,48 a suggestion confirmed by the absence of a red glaze, as is typical of seventh-century mushroom-lipped jugs.49 Its ascription to Phoenician culture is unquestionable.50 The vessels were recently subjected to archaeometrical studies, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and very simple petrographic analyses in order to obtain basic information regarding their technology. The chemical composition of the jugs was studied by means of a portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Bruker Tracer iii sd). During the analyses, MajMudRock and TraceMudRock calibration provided by the devices’ manufacturers was used.51 Fig. 4. View largeDownload slide Mushroom-lipped jug, inv. no. mnp a 708; height 14.0 cm, diameter (max.) 9.0 cm, diameter (foot) 4.4 cm. Photo: Jakub Baszczyński. Fig. 4. View largeDownload slide Mushroom-lipped jug, inv. no. mnp a 708; height 14.0 cm, diameter (max.) 9.0 cm, diameter (foot) 4.4 cm. Photo: Jakub Baszczyński. The spectrometer detected twenty-two elements. It is well known that the principal chemical components of clay are always present in overwhelming concentrations, so for the purposes of our research it was crucial to find a suitable way to differentiate between the jugs. The analytical approach focused on determining the elements k, rb, sr, y, zr, u. The geochemical homogeneity of these elements ensures the same origin of the analysed ceramics. The chemical compositions of the two jugs were shown to have no meaningful differences, so that a common source of the clay may be assumed. Additionally, a very small quantity of uranium was detected in both vessels, further indicating that the clay from which they are made came from a single source.52 Unfortunately, there were no remains from pottery kilns or misfired ceramics among the studied material with which to compare the results and to establish criteria to identify local production. A petrographic analysis was undertaken on the broken rims, involving no more than an examination of the clay matrix and non-plastic inclusions. Due to conservation restrictions, it proved impossible to extract a sample, since the surface for examination was not flat and smooth as it should be in normal circumstances. Nevertheless, the petrography confirms the results of the spectrometry: there are no important differences in the texture of the clays and in the temper that was used. The jug with trefoil rim is made from a light, levigated clay containing mainly quartz, calcite, feldspar and limestone, while the mushroom-lipped jug contains mainly quartz, calcite and feldspar.53 Conclusion The small group of artefacts from Carthage now held Gołuchów Castle has highlighted the legacy of ancient cultures present on the northern coast of Africa. Perhaps the exoticism of the place from which the finds came and the fact that in the eyes of Izabela Działyńska they symbolized Carthage, famous for its wars with the Roman Republic, induced her to take an interest in the excavations of Alfred Louis Delattre and to incorporate the artefacts into her collection. We may ask, are we able to reconstruct the biography of these two jugs that ended their journey in Gołuchów, a small, provincial village in the heart of Poland, where they have stood until recently as unrecognized items? The archival records indicate that the vessels were produced in Carthage, probably from the same clay source. It is known that in Phoenician culture mushroom-lipped jugs and jugs with a trefoil rim served at funerary ceremonies and as after-life equipment for the deceased. No doubt the items in question had been deposited in the necropolis of Douïmès and had lain buried for c.2600 years before they were excavated by Delattre at some time between 1877 and 1895 and shipped to Paris. From the capital of France they were transported to Gołuchów, to be included in the private collection of Izabela Działyńska. After the nationalization of the property at Gołuchów following the Second World War, they came to form part of the collection of ancient art of the National Museum in Poznań. Acknowledgements The authors would like to express their gratitude to the National Museum in Poznań for the opportunity to study the artefacts from Carthage, and to participants of the session ‘Dusty Archives and Archaeology: Old Information – new Perspectives!’ within the 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists in Vilnius in 2016, for their critical observations. Acquisition of the hand-held xrf device was supported by a grant from the National Science Centre - Poland (grant number dec-2013/09/b/hs3/00630). Notes and references 1 See P. Bikai, The Pottery of Tyre (Warminster, 1978), pl. v, nos 15–16. 2 As mentioned by K. Kłudkiewicz in her book on nineteenth-century collectors from Wielkopolska, there are among the archives of the Czartoryski family notes in the accounts mentioning the purchase of ‘gravitures’ by the young Izabela Czartoryska: see K. Kłudkiewicz, Wybór i konieczność. Kolekcje polskiej arystokracji w Wielkopolsce na przełomiexixixxwieku (Poznań, 2016), pp. 67–8. The purchases are not described in detail in the archives. N. Stogdon, ‘Prints from Gołuchów rediscovered’, Print Quarterly 13 no. 2 (1996), p. 157, note 9, mentions that Izabela bought a number of prints (unlocated) from Joseph Maberly in 1851. 3 The prints from Izabela’s collection were described in the volumes of M. Lehrs, Geschichte und kritischer Katalog des deutschen, niederländischen und französischen Kupferstichs imxv. Jahrhundert, vols i-ix (Vienna, 1908–34); F. Lugt, Les marques de collections de dessins & d’estampes (Amsterdam, 1921), no. 2801; the print collection from the Czartoryski Museum, National Museum in Cracow were published by Stogdon, op. cit. (note 2), pp. 149–80; he pointed to prints by Albrecht Dürer and Lucas van Leyden as the first well-known purchases in this field made by Izabela. Cf. T. Jakimowicz, ‘Od kolekcji ‘curiosités artistiques’ ku muzeum. Zbieractwo artystyczne Izabeli z Czartoryskich Działyńskiej w latach 1852–1899’, Studia Muzealne 13 (1982), p. 18. 4 Jakimowicz, op. cit (note 3), pp. 18–19. 5 F. Lenormant, ‘Union centrale des beaux-arts appliqués a l’industrie. Musée rétrospectif. Les Antiques (2e et dernier article)’, Gazette des Beaux-Arts. Courrier Européen de l’Art et de la Curiosité 8 no. 20 (1866), pp. 214–15; I. Iasiello, Napoli da capitale a periferia: archeologia e mercato antiquario in Campania nella seconda metà dell’Ottocento (Naples, 2011), pp. 117–18. 6 A. Mężyński, Jan Działyński 1829–1880 (Wrocław, 1987), p. 152–6; the author based his information on correspondence between Jan Działyński and Alessandro Castellani, Biblioteka Kórnicka/Kórnik Library (hereafter bk) 7471, pp. 1, 73 and Simmacio Doria, bk 7471, p. 10. 7 The vessels were bought by J. de Witte from the antiquary Raffaele Barone for Izabela Czartoryska in 1867. The red-figure Athenian hydria of the Washing Painter is now in the Gołuchów Castle Museum – cva 1 [Pologne 1], 33, 5; O. M. Jahn, ‘Giocatrici a morra’, Annali dell’Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica (1866), pp. 326–9; the red-figure Athenian stamnos of the Painter of Deepdene Amphora – cva 1 [Pologne 1], pl. 27; G. Minervini, Monumenti antichi inediti posseduti da Raffaele Barone, negoziante di antichità Volume primo (Naples, 1852), pl. vii; the red figure South Italian skyphos – cva 1 [Pologne 1], pl. 47, 5; Annali dell’Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica (1842), p. 113; and the red figure South Italian bottle – cva 1 [Pologne 1], pl. 49, 4, and Minervini, op. cit., pl. xvi are now held in the National Museum in Warsaw. 8 As Kamila Kłudkiewicz reports, this letter was sent to Izabela Czartoryska c.1865: see Kłudkiewicz, op. cit. (note 2), p. 72, Biblioteka Książąt Czartoryskich w Krakowie [The Princess Czartoryski Library] b.cz. 7450. 9 Jan Działyński’s personal notes prove how important this direct contact with the working archaeologist was to him. He probably assumed that in this way he would be able to learn more about subjects that were interesting to him and that the artefacts he might obtain in this way would be most certainly original (bk 07471, c. 81). 10 The archives (bk 074771 c. 34–35) were commented upon by Kłudkiewicz, op. cit. (note 2), p. 39, note 41. 11 Jean-Henri Hoffmann (1823–1897), a numismatist and expert in ancient coins, collector and currencies merchant. Scientific editor of the periodical Le Numismate (1862–1865), member of the French Society of Numismatists and member of the Royal Society of Numismatists of Belgium 12 Wilhelm Froehner (or Fröhner) (1835–1925) was born in Karlsruhe but from 1859 lived in Paris; in 1868 he took French nationality. Froehner was a curator at the Musée du Louvre, a researcher specialized in archaeology and a collector of antiquities. He was the author of many catalogues of private and public collections of ancient art: La colonne Trajane (1865); La collection Tyszkiewicz. Choix de monuments antiques (1892, 1898); Collection Julien Gréau. Verrerie antique, émaillerie et poterie appartenant à M. John Pierpont Morgan (1903). 13 Sir John Davidson Beazley (1885–1970), a British classical archaeologist and art historian, Professor of Classical Archaeology and Art at the University of Oxford from 1925 to 1956. He created the major index of Greek black-figure and red-figure pottery based on artistic styles. His book on black-figure painting, Attic Black-figure Vase-painters appeared in 1956. The final version of his book on red-figure wares, Attic Red-figure Vase-painters was published in 1963 as a three-volume work; the first book on red-figure vase painters was published in 1948. After his visit in Poland in 1926 he wrote a further book, Greek Vases in Poland (Oxford 1928). 14 The first known purchases of ancient Egyptian items are from the 1880s; the artefact from Cyprus found its way to the collection in 1885. 15 W. Fröhner, Collections du Château de Goluchow. Antiquités. Supplement (Paris, 1899), pp. 223–5, nos. 1–16, among the identified vessels is the bucherro amphora cva 1 [Poland 1], pl. 47, 1; pl. 6, 2. 16 cva 1 [Pologne1], p. 42. 17 All of the vessels survived World War ii. 18 These comprise a plate, Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu [National Museum in Poznań] (hereafter mnp) a 707), a bowl (mnp a 706) and two Punic jugs (mnp a 708, 709). 19 cva 1 [Pologne 1], pl. 6, 2. 20 cva 1 [Pologne 1], pl. 47, 1. 21 cva 1 [Pologne 1], pl. 54, 6. The skyphos is now at the National Museum in Poznań (mnp a 723), the amphora is in the National Museum in Warsaw. 22 Marceli Czartoryski (1841–1909) was also a collector; he gave a part of his collection, namely Egyptian artefacts, to the Jagiellonian University in 1872. 23 J. de Arteche, The Cardinal of Africa: Charles Lavigerie, Founder of the White Fathers (London, 1964); William A. Burridge, Destiny Africa: Cardinal Lavigerie and the making of the White Fathers (London, 1966); François Renault, Le Cardinal Lavigerie (Paris, 1992); John O’Donohue (tr.), Cardinal Lavigerie (London, 1994). 24 S. L. Dyson, In Pursuit of Ancient Pasts: A history of classical archaeology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (New Haven, 2006), pp. 63–4. 25 J. Freed, ‘Le père Alfred-Louis Delattre (1850–1932) et les fouilles archéologiques de Carthage’, Histoire et missions chrétiennes 8 (2008), pp. 67–100; A. L. Delattre, Carthage: nécropole punique de la Colline de Saint-Louis (Lyon, 1896); Carthage: quelques tombeaux de la nécropole punique de Douïmes (1892–1894) (Lyon 1897); La nécropole punique de Douïmès (à Carthage): fouilles de 1895 et 1896 (Paris 1897); Carthage: la nécropole punique voisine de la colline de Sainte-Monique: le premier mois des fouilles, Janvier 1898 (Paris 1899); ‘Fouilles exécutées dans la nécropole punique voisine de Sainte-Monique, à Carthage’, Compte Rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 45 (1901), pp. 583–602. 26 A. Mahjoubi, Les origines du mouvement national en Tunisie, 1904–1934 (Tunis, 1982), p. 19. 27 W.H.C. Frend, The Archaeology of early Christianity: A history (London 1996), pp. 69–72, 183. 28 K. B. Stern, Inscribing Devotion and Death. Archaeological evidence for Jewish populations of North Africa (Leiden and Boston, 2008), pp. 8–11, 198, 276. 29 J. G. Pedley, The Life and Work of Francis Willey Kelsey. Archaeology, antiquity, and the arts (Ann Arbor 2012), p. 403. 30 Stern, op. cit. (note 28), pp. 13–15; C. Gutron, L’archéologie en Tunisie (xixe–xxe siècles): jeux généalogiques sur l’Antiquité (Paris 2005), pp. 169–80; S. Crogiez and O. Hottot, ‘Les collections carthaginoises du musée départemental des Antiquités de Rouen’, Africa Romana 13 (2000), p. 495. 31 amnp, a2794, pp. 43–6; 47–9; fig. 1, 2. 32 Biblioteka Polska w Paryżu [Polish Library in Paris] 837, p. 179. 33 cva [Pologne 1], pp. 11, 34, 42; pls 6 no. 2, 47 no. 1, 54 nos 1–3, 5. 34 cva [Pologne 1], p. 42, pl. 54 no. 6. 35 cva [Pologne 1], p. 42, pl. 54 no. 4. 36 Delattre, op. cit. La nécropole punique de Douimes (note 25). 37 See F. Nuñez, Estudio Cronologico-Secuencial de los materiales cerámicos de la necrópolis fenicia de Tiro-Al Bass (Líbano). Campaña de 1997 (Barcelona, 2008), pp. 184–6. 38 V. Tusa, ‘Relazione preliminare degli scavi eseguiti a Mozia negli anni 1972–4’, in Mozia 9. Rapporto preliminare della Missione congiunta con la Soprintendenza delle Antichità della Sicilia occidentale (=Studi Semitici 50), ed. A. Ciasca et al. (Rome, 1978), pp. 68–70. 39 M. Pellicer, La necrópolis Lurita (Almuñecar, Granada) en el contexto de la colonización fenicia (=Cuadernos de Arqueolgía Mediterránea 15) (Barcelona, 2007), p. 114. 40 H. G. Niemeyer and H. Schubart, Trayamar (Mainz am Rhein, 1975), Taf. 13, p. 552. 41 P. Cintas, Manuel d’archaeologie punique i (Paris, 1970), pl. xxi; P. Cintas, Manuel d’archaeologie punique ii (Paris, 1976), p. 287, pl. xciv. 42 F. Nuñez, ‘Referencias secuenciales del repertorio cerámico fenicio metropolitano de la Edad del Hierro Tardío’, in Motya and the Phoenician Ceramic Repertoire between the Levant and the West 9th–6th Centurybc, ed. L. Nigro (Rome, 2010), p. 83. 43 A. Peserico, Le brocche ‘a fungo’ fenicie nel Mediterraneo: tipologia e cronologia (Rome, 1996), p. 131. 44 See note 1. 45 P. Bikai, The Phoenician Pottery of Cyprus (Nicosia, 1987), p. 21. 46 S. Lancel (ed.), Byrsaii. Mission archéologique française à Carthage (Rome, 1982), p. 297. 47 Niemeyer and Schubart, op. cit. (note 40), Taf. 16, p. 600. 48 Compare with Peserico op. cit. (note 43), Tav. 7–9 (note 38). 49 G. Maass-Lindemann, ‘Interrelaciones de la cerámica fenicia en el Occidente mediterráneo’, Mainake 28 (2006), p. 294. 50 Idem. 51 MajMudRock and TraceMudRock calibrations are a type of software designed for handheld spectrometers used in the analysis of clays and ceramics. 52 See M. Krueger and I. Głuszek, ‘Wyniki analiz chemicznych dwóch dzbanów fenickich z kolekcji gołuchowskiej’, Folia Praehistorica Posnaniensia vol. xxii (in press). 53 See note 52. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of the History of Collections Oxford University Press

Carthaginian pottery in the collection of Izabela Działyńska, née Czartoryska

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Abstract

Abstract At the end of the nineteenth century Princess Izabela Działyńska (1830–1899), owner of Gołuchów Castle (Poland) and possessor of a huge collection of art, bought in Paris a small assemblage of ancient artefacts which included two jugs of clearly oriental origin. Today they stand in the National Museum in Poznań, Gołuchów branch, as hitherto unrecognized items. This paper attempts to outline the context of their acquisition and to raise the issue of the archaeological excavations undertaken at Carthage by the French missionary Alfred Louis Delattre. The jugs remain unique in Poland and are rare in other European collections. Through archival, archaeometrical and typological studies it proves possible not only to determine the specific geographical and chronological origins of the vessels but also to reconstruct a large part of their cultural biographies. At Gołuchów Castle Museum, a branch of the Polish National Museum in Poznań, can be found two ancient jugs of clearly oriental origin, characterized by a mushroom-lipped outline and a trefoil rim respectively (see below, Figs 3–4). These shapes are common in the Phoenician repertoire, although they remain rare in the museums of Central Europe. The jugs belong to the Gołuchów collection, created by Princess Izabela Działyńska (1830–1899), born Izabela Czartoryska; the collection takes its name from the place where it was formed, namely the castle of Gołuchów (Fig. 1), a village near Poznań in Poland. Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide The castle in Gołuchów. Photo: Sławomir Obst. Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide The castle in Gołuchów. Photo: Sławomir Obst. The presence of these pieces has been widely known since the collection was formed. The earliest catalogue in which they are mentioned describes them as pottery from Carthage; in later literature they are described more specifically as Punic pottery or Phoenician–Punic pottery. This does not mean that they came from the Levantine coast, although typologically their features are characteristic of production in the Near East during the eighth century bc.1 A north-central African provenance may be suggested as more credible for our jugs, although this does not exclude a Phoenician affiliation: Carthage was at that time a Phoenician colony that had started to undergo its own colonial expansion from the seventh century bc onwards. For this reason the term ‘Phoenician’ may justifiably be used to describe the relationship of the jugs in question with the more widely known Phoenician koine. The ancient art collection of Izabela Działyńska The collection of Princess Izabela Działyńska, part of which survives in the museum at Gołuchów, comprised not only masterpieces of European art but also a huge collection of ancient artefacts (Fig. 2). Izabela was born in Warsaw on 14 December 1830, the daughter of Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski and Princess Anna née Sapieha. At the age of three she and her family moved to Paris, where the Czartoryski family settled after the Polish Insurrection of 1830–31. The young princess showed an interest in the history of art and in painting and drawing from an early age. She agreed to fulfil her parents’ wish – more political than sentimental – that she should marry Count Jan Działyński. The marriage took place in February 1857, but Działyński was unable to show any warmth of feeling towards his wife and their life was one of frigidity and quarrels. This was upsetting for both families, for each had hoped that Jan and Izabela would establish at Gołuchów, the castle and estate that had been bought for Jan by his father Tytus Działyński, a new family line that would unite the two families and would reinforce the national spirit among Polish noblemen. Jan Działyński borrowed vast sums of money from the Czartoryskis, mainly from his wife Izabela, in order to support military and subversive activities in the Wielkopolska region. At the fall of the uprising against the Russians in 1863 he was forced, under sentence of death, into exile in Paris and Italy. During his exile he developed an interest in collecting ancient art, an area of interest that brought the unfortunate couple a degree of shared interest and which led to their consulting each before making purchases. In 1868 Działyński’s properties were returned to him and the death sentence was revoked; in 1869 and in 1872, in payment of his debts, he passed ownership to his wife of both Gołuchów and the collection of ancient vases. Izabela became increasingly attached to the estate and, around 1872, she decided that the restored castle of Gołuchów would not only become her main residence but would also house the entire collection she had gathered to that point and would continue to expand in the future. The restoration and construction was not completed until c.1886. The idea of transforming the castle (or at least part of the residence) into a museum was born in the course of this construction work and was pursued thereafter. In 1893, in order to secure its existence and to provide financial resources for the resulting Czartoryskis Museum, a special entail was elaborated, termed an Ordynacja in Polish and a Majorat in Prussian law. This arrangement remained in force until World War ii when, facing the imminent threat of the Nazi invasion, the most valuable part of the collection was taken for safety to Krakow and Warsaw by Countess Maria Ludwika Czartoryska, mother of the last holder of the Gołuchów entail. During the war, most of the collection was looted, first by the Nazis and later by the Red Army. In the post-war period a large part of the collection was returned to the National Museum in Warsaw, and some part of it was exhibited at the Gołuchów Castle Museum and at the National Museum in Poznań; some pieces also went to the Czartoryskis Museum branch of the National Museum in Krakow. Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide Hall of the Greek Pottery in Gołuchów Castle. Photo: Antoni Pawlikowski, 1905. Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide Hall of the Greek Pottery in Gołuchów Castle. Photo: Antoni Pawlikowski, 1905. Izabela had been collecting since 1852 and continued to do so until her death in 1899. The collection’s creation is well documented in account books and in a huge body of correspondence she maintained with European antiquaries. Izabela’s career as an art collector began with the purchase of a number of drawings in 1849.2 In 1852 she bought in Paris prints by Albrecht Dürer and Lucas van Leyden, along with a fourteenth-century sculpture from the lower Rhineland.3 In 1853 the first Limoges enamels appeared in her collection. She developed a particular attachment to the art of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, a taste that would last until the end of her life.4 Izabela’s interest in ancient art undoubtedly began through the influence of her husband. Count Działyński formed an important collection of ancient vases during his stay in Italy from 1865 to 1867, following the fall of the Polish January Uprising. He visited Nola, Capua, Florence, Rome and Naples many times, where he formed contacts with excavators and local antiquaries, among others, with Simmaco Doria, Giacomo Gallozzi and Alessandro Castellani, who worked together on the excavations in Capua.5 These proto-archaeologists sold artefacts from their non-professional excavations at antiquarian auctions, direct to private collectors or to institutions such as the British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, and the Musée du Louvre. According to preserved correspondence, Doria offered a number of vases directly to Działyński, and both Doria and Gallozzi sent him summaries of the results of their excavations in Capua.6 For political reasons, Działyński could neither return to his estate nor send his property there; hence all his antiquarian purchases were sent to Hôtel Lambert, the residence of the Czartoryski family in Paris. The collection there was soon appreciated by French specialists such as Henri Longpérier and Jean de Witte. Longpérier, in an article from 1868, described a few vases from the Działyński collection, mentioning in the article four vases that already belonged to Izabela. These four vases, which might be considered Izabela’s first purchases in the field of ancient artefacts in the antiquarian market, have been identified in the Gołuchów collection.7 They were bought for Izabela by de Witte, from the antiquary Rafaele Barone, in Naples in 1867. No details survive to shed light on the circumstances of the purchase, and no other information can be found concerning the archaeological context from which the vases were recovered. They are mentioned for the first time as the property of Izabela in the Longpérier article, where it is suggested that the princess had developed her interest in ancient art and artefacts very quickly, even if her collection contained no other material of this kind at that time. It may be assumed that the vases were not an accidental purchase, since Jaqueline Roussette, a trusted companion, adviser and agent, informed Izabela around 1865 that she had just bought a catalogue of Jean de Witte’s Descriptions des antiquités et objets d’art qui composent le cabinet de feu M. le Chevalier E. Durand (1836).8 In the nineteenth century this catalogue was treated as a source book by those who were seriously interested in collecting ancient artefacts, particularly vases. It seems likely, then, that Izabela already had some knowledge of the market in ancient art and antiquities but that her interests remained focused more particularly on objects of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries such as sculptures and Limoges enamels. Jan Działyński, perhaps because of his interest in antiquities, became a devoted collector of ancient artefacts during his compulsory exile, with an interest focused particularly on Greek vases and Roman artefacts. He took pains in Naples and Rome to make visits to local dealers and antiquaries who were active around Nola and Capua.9 The rich correspondence surviving between Działyński and his wife demonstrates his true interests and his well-developed intuition in choosing artefacts worthy of his collection. Despite his own familiarity with the material, Działyński relied to a large extent on the opinions of other acknowledged experts. He contacted specialists and pioneers of archaeology who were co-workers of both the Louvre and the British Museum. These relations proved useful to the count but would also benefit his wife in the longer term. Among Działyński’s co-workers, de Witte and Longpérier deserve particular mention. The surviving correspondence shows that they had established contact by 1868, but give the impression that they had known each other well before those letters were written. Izabela would maintain contact with de Witte until the late 1890s. She was also a beneficiary of her husband’s relations with Giuseppe Mele, who recommended purchases of ancient artefacts to her, as well as to Działyński.10 In the process of developing her collection Izabela also began to rely on the advice of both Henri Hofmann and Wilhelm Fröhner.11 She was not only an active collector but also took care to expand her knowledge of the items reaching her collection. As a result of Izabela’s efforts, four catalogues were published, three of them concerning ancient artefacts in the collection. The first catalogue was authored by de Witte, while those published in 1886, 1896 and 1899 were prepared by Wilhelm Fröhner.12 The last of these was brought to publication by Émile Molinier, in 1903 following the princess’s death. During the period of the Gołuchów Majorat, John Beazley visited Gołuchów in 1926 and described the collection in his book Greek Vases in Poland.13 In 1931 the collection was featured in the international series Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum (cva). Artefacts in the collection from the excavations of Alfred Louis Delattre Jan Działyński eventually lost interest in ancient art, but Izabela applied herself to enriching the museum’s collection. There are many receipts illustrating the process of its enlargement. It is at this point that artefacts from Egypt and Cyprus were added to the collection at Gołuchów.14 Perhaps with the aim of increasing the diversity of the collection, other ancient objects lacking in special visual or technological qualities were also brought to the castle, including Greek amphorae and storage jars. This is the context in which the pottery from Carthage should be perceived. The catalogue by Fröhner details about sixteen Carthaginian artefacts in the Gołuchów collection, all of them associated with the excavations being conducted by Delattre in northern Africa. The author mentions three stone stelae, a bronze tool or weapon, a fragment of ostrich egg with a figurative decoration, and several ceramic vessels – two skyphoi, a guttus, three Punic jugs, a Roman bowl and four oil lamps.15 Krzysztof Bulas, in the cva, describes six vases as coming from Carthage16 – a plate, a red slip bowl, a kantharos (described as a skyphos), an askos and two jugs.17 All the vases from this group survived World War ii and four of them are exhibited at the Gołuchów castle;18 the askos and kantharos are at the National Museum in Warsaw. In the cva, two other vases are identified as coming from excavations supervised by Delattre in 1895. These are one Corinthian skyphos19 and a bucchero amphora.20 In most cases, only the year of the excavations is provided, without further information. The site of the excavations is explained only in one case: the kantharos was found on Byrsa Hill.21 Fröhner’s catalogues also mention other vases from the excavation in Carthage. Archival research reveals that the pottery from Carthage first appeared in the Gołuchów collection in 1895, a gift from Delattre to Izabela. At the present time there is insufficient information at our disposal to suggest how contact with Father Delattre was first established, nor whether any of the antiquaries collaborating with Izabela were involved in this process. Her relations with Delattre have been reconstructed in the light of two letters sent by him to an unidentified countess who mediated the contact between Delattre and Marceli Czartoryski,22 the princess’s nephew. Information from these letters and from two entries in the account books provides evidence that the Carthaginian artefacts came from excavations led by Delattre at some time between 1877 and 1895. Alfred Louis Delattre was born in 1850 in Déville-lès-Rouen, France, and died in 1932 at Carthage, in the French Protectorate of Tunisia. He was a missionary of the Société des Missionnaires d’Afrique, established by Cardinal Charles Lavigerie in 1868 and more commonly known as the White Fathers.23 Delattre arrived in Carthage in 1877 and in the same year began excavating in the territory of ancient Carthage. In 1884 his archbishopric was moved from Algiers to Tunis, where Delattre again supervised most of the archaeological research.24 His archaeological work concentrated on Carthage and on the surrounding areas, namely Byrsa Hill, the Douïmès site, Juno Hill and Santa Monica Hill.25 Delattre’s particular passion was for archaeology, to which he devoted a great deal of time and effort. Aside from his missionary activities, he also worked as a curator in the archaeological museum in Algiers and founded the Musée Lavigerie de Saint-Louis, where artefacts from his excavations were exhibited; later this museum was transformed into the Carthage National Museum. The main aim of archaeological works initiated by Lavigerie was to discover the oldest traces of Christianity in Africa,26 but his excavations revealed enormous amounts of information regarding ancient Carthage and raised interest in the Punic culture among scholars.27 This new knowledge had a significant impact on raising interest in Carthage and Punic culture among collectors of art and others who followed news of the new archaeological discoveries. Izabela Działyńska was known in the world of specialists as an experienced collector and perhaps it was this that led her advisers (probably Henry Hammond in particular) to draw her attention to the artefacts from Delattre’s excavations. It also should be mentioned that at the time when Izabela was enriching her collection with material from Carthage, Delattre already had a reputation as a generous donor, so that the process of acquiring new examples of ancient Mediterranean artefacts may not have presented many difficulties for her. Delattre was no professional archaeologist: his work was far from accurate and entailed the destruction of many archaeological layers; no proper documentation was undertaken and many artefacts considered as of no interest were discarded.28 What is more, Delattre and his co-workers gave away or sold many artefacts to European and American museums and private collections: thanks to his donations, the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology of the University of Michigan was founded.29 He also gave many finds to the museum in Rouen, his native town.30 It was in such circumstances that the jugs now in the Gołuchów collection came into the possession of Izabela Działyńska. The correspondence between Delattre and the unnamed countess provides the main source of information about these artefacts. There are two letters from Delattre, dated 13 and 27 May 1895.31 In the letter of 13 May, mention is made of two boxes of Punic artefacts, while that of 27 May carries the suggestion that the jugs and other finds from excavations were not bought by Izabela but were given to her: she received the artefacts from the excavations as an expression of Father Delattre’s gratitude for her donations towards the promotion of missionary activity. A note in the Gołuchów account book from May 1895 states: ‘to save the archaeological excavations in Africa – 100 francs’,32 information that sheds useful light on the context in which the finds from Carthage were obtained. Since Fröhner’s catalogue mentions only about sixteen artefacts from Carthage, it must be assumed that some of the items mentioned in the second letter were broken or lost in the course of their transport to Paris. According to the text, Delattre offered new items in exchange for the broken ones, but whether they ever reached Gołuchów remains unknown; there are no written sources to confirm it. It is difficult to judge which excavations these artefacts came from, and indeed there are no solid arguments for maintaining that all the items came from a single archaeological site: they could have been chosen from amongst the finds from excavations led by Delattre at any time between 1877 and 1895. At this point it should be mentioned that not all the pottery published by Bulas is accompanied by information on the date of the respective excavations. In most cases – including the Phoenician jugs studied in this article – the pieces in question are said to have come from excavations that took place in 1895;33 but the kantharos certainly came from excavations in Byrsa34 and the plate has an uncertain provenance.35 This may confirm that the items given to Izabela by Delattre came from a number of archaeological sites around Carthage. On the other hand, the majority of gifts are recorded as coming from excavations led by Delattre in 1895. We know that from January 1895 he was involved in excavating in Douïmès, a necropolis dating back to the period from the seventh century to the fifth century bc; between 1895 and 1896 more than 300 graves were discovered there. The results of this excavation were published as La nécropole punique de Douïmès (à Carthage): fouilles de 1895 et 1896.36 Unfortunately, the descriptions of the tombs are so generalized as to make it impossible to ascribe the artefacts to specific graves. Nevertheless, the chronology of the site fits the typology of most of the vessels, particularly the Punic jugs described in detail below. Two jugs from Carthage in the Gołuchów collection The jug with trefoil rim (Fig. 3) is preserved intact, apart from minor surface damage on the upper part. On the surface of the vessel are clear marks showing the use of a potter’s wheel. The discontinuity in the body profile indicates the joining of two parts of the vessel during the production process. The clay is light orange with a reddish tint on the belly and handle; the surface is slightly rough, with fine and medium admixtures, mainly limestone, calcite and quartz. The bottom of the jug is flat, currently covered by labels bearing inventory numbers. The shape of the trefoil rim, the massive handle and the slim shape of the vessel indicate quite an early place in the chronology of the type. Several analogous pieces are known from the Near East and the Mediterranean basin:37 among other sites may be mentioned Mozia,38 Laurita,39 Trayamar40 and, of course, from the necropolises of Carthage.41 The Mediterranean exemplars are dated to the seventh century bc, while the oriental vessels are older.42 Fig. 3. View largeDownload slide Jug with trefoil rim, inv. no. mnp a 709; height 16.2 cm, diameter (max.) 10.2 cm, diameter (foot) 3.4 cm. Photo: Jakub Baszczyński. Fig. 3. View largeDownload slide Jug with trefoil rim, inv. no. mnp a 709; height 16.2 cm, diameter (max.) 10.2 cm, diameter (foot) 3.4 cm. Photo: Jakub Baszczyński. The mushroom-lipped jug (Fig. 4) is in good condition, apart from slight damage to the edge of the rim. The height of the vessel is 14.0 cm; typological studies show that the average height of African mushroom-lipped jugs is 18.7 cm, while that of oriental vessels is 18.9 cm.43 The colour of the clay is relatively homogeneous, dark red, but in places with a lighter or darker tint; the surface of the jug is slightly rough with a fine temper that is quite evident on the surface. The vessel was clearly thrown on a fast wheel. The flat bottom is now covered by labels bearing inventory numbers. The jug has a small handle, characteristic for this form; its base is attached to a globular body while the upper end joins a straight neck terminating in a mushroom-shaped rim. Oriental analogues come from Tyre44 and are dated to the eighth century bc. In the Mediterranean basin, mushroom-lipped jugs with similar features were found in Amathus in Cyprus,45 in one of the necropolises of Carthage (Byrsa),46 and in Trayamar.47 The proportions of the vessel – particularly the ellipsoidal shape of the belly – and several analogous examples from the Mediterranean basin, allow us to date this piece to the seventh century bc,48 a suggestion confirmed by the absence of a red glaze, as is typical of seventh-century mushroom-lipped jugs.49 Its ascription to Phoenician culture is unquestionable.50 The vessels were recently subjected to archaeometrical studies, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and very simple petrographic analyses in order to obtain basic information regarding their technology. The chemical composition of the jugs was studied by means of a portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Bruker Tracer iii sd). During the analyses, MajMudRock and TraceMudRock calibration provided by the devices’ manufacturers was used.51 Fig. 4. View largeDownload slide Mushroom-lipped jug, inv. no. mnp a 708; height 14.0 cm, diameter (max.) 9.0 cm, diameter (foot) 4.4 cm. Photo: Jakub Baszczyński. Fig. 4. View largeDownload slide Mushroom-lipped jug, inv. no. mnp a 708; height 14.0 cm, diameter (max.) 9.0 cm, diameter (foot) 4.4 cm. Photo: Jakub Baszczyński. The spectrometer detected twenty-two elements. It is well known that the principal chemical components of clay are always present in overwhelming concentrations, so for the purposes of our research it was crucial to find a suitable way to differentiate between the jugs. The analytical approach focused on determining the elements k, rb, sr, y, zr, u. The geochemical homogeneity of these elements ensures the same origin of the analysed ceramics. The chemical compositions of the two jugs were shown to have no meaningful differences, so that a common source of the clay may be assumed. Additionally, a very small quantity of uranium was detected in both vessels, further indicating that the clay from which they are made came from a single source.52 Unfortunately, there were no remains from pottery kilns or misfired ceramics among the studied material with which to compare the results and to establish criteria to identify local production. A petrographic analysis was undertaken on the broken rims, involving no more than an examination of the clay matrix and non-plastic inclusions. Due to conservation restrictions, it proved impossible to extract a sample, since the surface for examination was not flat and smooth as it should be in normal circumstances. Nevertheless, the petrography confirms the results of the spectrometry: there are no important differences in the texture of the clays and in the temper that was used. The jug with trefoil rim is made from a light, levigated clay containing mainly quartz, calcite, feldspar and limestone, while the mushroom-lipped jug contains mainly quartz, calcite and feldspar.53 Conclusion The small group of artefacts from Carthage now held Gołuchów Castle has highlighted the legacy of ancient cultures present on the northern coast of Africa. Perhaps the exoticism of the place from which the finds came and the fact that in the eyes of Izabela Działyńska they symbolized Carthage, famous for its wars with the Roman Republic, induced her to take an interest in the excavations of Alfred Louis Delattre and to incorporate the artefacts into her collection. We may ask, are we able to reconstruct the biography of these two jugs that ended their journey in Gołuchów, a small, provincial village in the heart of Poland, where they have stood until recently as unrecognized items? The archival records indicate that the vessels were produced in Carthage, probably from the same clay source. It is known that in Phoenician culture mushroom-lipped jugs and jugs with a trefoil rim served at funerary ceremonies and as after-life equipment for the deceased. No doubt the items in question had been deposited in the necropolis of Douïmès and had lain buried for c.2600 years before they were excavated by Delattre at some time between 1877 and 1895 and shipped to Paris. From the capital of France they were transported to Gołuchów, to be included in the private collection of Izabela Działyńska. After the nationalization of the property at Gołuchów following the Second World War, they came to form part of the collection of ancient art of the National Museum in Poznań. Acknowledgements The authors would like to express their gratitude to the National Museum in Poznań for the opportunity to study the artefacts from Carthage, and to participants of the session ‘Dusty Archives and Archaeology: Old Information – new Perspectives!’ within the 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists in Vilnius in 2016, for their critical observations. Acquisition of the hand-held xrf device was supported by a grant from the National Science Centre - Poland (grant number dec-2013/09/b/hs3/00630). Notes and references 1 See P. Bikai, The Pottery of Tyre (Warminster, 1978), pl. v, nos 15–16. 2 As mentioned by K. Kłudkiewicz in her book on nineteenth-century collectors from Wielkopolska, there are among the archives of the Czartoryski family notes in the accounts mentioning the purchase of ‘gravitures’ by the young Izabela Czartoryska: see K. Kłudkiewicz, Wybór i konieczność. Kolekcje polskiej arystokracji w Wielkopolsce na przełomiexixixxwieku (Poznań, 2016), pp. 67–8. The purchases are not described in detail in the archives. N. Stogdon, ‘Prints from Gołuchów rediscovered’, Print Quarterly 13 no. 2 (1996), p. 157, note 9, mentions that Izabela bought a number of prints (unlocated) from Joseph Maberly in 1851. 3 The prints from Izabela’s collection were described in the volumes of M. Lehrs, Geschichte und kritischer Katalog des deutschen, niederländischen und französischen Kupferstichs imxv. Jahrhundert, vols i-ix (Vienna, 1908–34); F. Lugt, Les marques de collections de dessins & d’estampes (Amsterdam, 1921), no. 2801; the print collection from the Czartoryski Museum, National Museum in Cracow were published by Stogdon, op. cit. (note 2), pp. 149–80; he pointed to prints by Albrecht Dürer and Lucas van Leyden as the first well-known purchases in this field made by Izabela. Cf. T. Jakimowicz, ‘Od kolekcji ‘curiosités artistiques’ ku muzeum. Zbieractwo artystyczne Izabeli z Czartoryskich Działyńskiej w latach 1852–1899’, Studia Muzealne 13 (1982), p. 18. 4 Jakimowicz, op. cit (note 3), pp. 18–19. 5 F. Lenormant, ‘Union centrale des beaux-arts appliqués a l’industrie. Musée rétrospectif. Les Antiques (2e et dernier article)’, Gazette des Beaux-Arts. Courrier Européen de l’Art et de la Curiosité 8 no. 20 (1866), pp. 214–15; I. Iasiello, Napoli da capitale a periferia: archeologia e mercato antiquario in Campania nella seconda metà dell’Ottocento (Naples, 2011), pp. 117–18. 6 A. Mężyński, Jan Działyński 1829–1880 (Wrocław, 1987), p. 152–6; the author based his information on correspondence between Jan Działyński and Alessandro Castellani, Biblioteka Kórnicka/Kórnik Library (hereafter bk) 7471, pp. 1, 73 and Simmacio Doria, bk 7471, p. 10. 7 The vessels were bought by J. de Witte from the antiquary Raffaele Barone for Izabela Czartoryska in 1867. The red-figure Athenian hydria of the Washing Painter is now in the Gołuchów Castle Museum – cva 1 [Pologne 1], 33, 5; O. M. Jahn, ‘Giocatrici a morra’, Annali dell’Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica (1866), pp. 326–9; the red-figure Athenian stamnos of the Painter of Deepdene Amphora – cva 1 [Pologne 1], pl. 27; G. Minervini, Monumenti antichi inediti posseduti da Raffaele Barone, negoziante di antichità Volume primo (Naples, 1852), pl. vii; the red figure South Italian skyphos – cva 1 [Pologne 1], pl. 47, 5; Annali dell’Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica (1842), p. 113; and the red figure South Italian bottle – cva 1 [Pologne 1], pl. 49, 4, and Minervini, op. cit., pl. xvi are now held in the National Museum in Warsaw. 8 As Kamila Kłudkiewicz reports, this letter was sent to Izabela Czartoryska c.1865: see Kłudkiewicz, op. cit. (note 2), p. 72, Biblioteka Książąt Czartoryskich w Krakowie [The Princess Czartoryski Library] b.cz. 7450. 9 Jan Działyński’s personal notes prove how important this direct contact with the working archaeologist was to him. He probably assumed that in this way he would be able to learn more about subjects that were interesting to him and that the artefacts he might obtain in this way would be most certainly original (bk 07471, c. 81). 10 The archives (bk 074771 c. 34–35) were commented upon by Kłudkiewicz, op. cit. (note 2), p. 39, note 41. 11 Jean-Henri Hoffmann (1823–1897), a numismatist and expert in ancient coins, collector and currencies merchant. Scientific editor of the periodical Le Numismate (1862–1865), member of the French Society of Numismatists and member of the Royal Society of Numismatists of Belgium 12 Wilhelm Froehner (or Fröhner) (1835–1925) was born in Karlsruhe but from 1859 lived in Paris; in 1868 he took French nationality. Froehner was a curator at the Musée du Louvre, a researcher specialized in archaeology and a collector of antiquities. He was the author of many catalogues of private and public collections of ancient art: La colonne Trajane (1865); La collection Tyszkiewicz. Choix de monuments antiques (1892, 1898); Collection Julien Gréau. Verrerie antique, émaillerie et poterie appartenant à M. John Pierpont Morgan (1903). 13 Sir John Davidson Beazley (1885–1970), a British classical archaeologist and art historian, Professor of Classical Archaeology and Art at the University of Oxford from 1925 to 1956. He created the major index of Greek black-figure and red-figure pottery based on artistic styles. His book on black-figure painting, Attic Black-figure Vase-painters appeared in 1956. The final version of his book on red-figure wares, Attic Red-figure Vase-painters was published in 1963 as a three-volume work; the first book on red-figure vase painters was published in 1948. After his visit in Poland in 1926 he wrote a further book, Greek Vases in Poland (Oxford 1928). 14 The first known purchases of ancient Egyptian items are from the 1880s; the artefact from Cyprus found its way to the collection in 1885. 15 W. Fröhner, Collections du Château de Goluchow. Antiquités. Supplement (Paris, 1899), pp. 223–5, nos. 1–16, among the identified vessels is the bucherro amphora cva 1 [Poland 1], pl. 47, 1; pl. 6, 2. 16 cva 1 [Pologne1], p. 42. 17 All of the vessels survived World War ii. 18 These comprise a plate, Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu [National Museum in Poznań] (hereafter mnp) a 707), a bowl (mnp a 706) and two Punic jugs (mnp a 708, 709). 19 cva 1 [Pologne 1], pl. 6, 2. 20 cva 1 [Pologne 1], pl. 47, 1. 21 cva 1 [Pologne 1], pl. 54, 6. The skyphos is now at the National Museum in Poznań (mnp a 723), the amphora is in the National Museum in Warsaw. 22 Marceli Czartoryski (1841–1909) was also a collector; he gave a part of his collection, namely Egyptian artefacts, to the Jagiellonian University in 1872. 23 J. de Arteche, The Cardinal of Africa: Charles Lavigerie, Founder of the White Fathers (London, 1964); William A. Burridge, Destiny Africa: Cardinal Lavigerie and the making of the White Fathers (London, 1966); François Renault, Le Cardinal Lavigerie (Paris, 1992); John O’Donohue (tr.), Cardinal Lavigerie (London, 1994). 24 S. L. Dyson, In Pursuit of Ancient Pasts: A history of classical archaeology in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (New Haven, 2006), pp. 63–4. 25 J. Freed, ‘Le père Alfred-Louis Delattre (1850–1932) et les fouilles archéologiques de Carthage’, Histoire et missions chrétiennes 8 (2008), pp. 67–100; A. L. Delattre, Carthage: nécropole punique de la Colline de Saint-Louis (Lyon, 1896); Carthage: quelques tombeaux de la nécropole punique de Douïmes (1892–1894) (Lyon 1897); La nécropole punique de Douïmès (à Carthage): fouilles de 1895 et 1896 (Paris 1897); Carthage: la nécropole punique voisine de la colline de Sainte-Monique: le premier mois des fouilles, Janvier 1898 (Paris 1899); ‘Fouilles exécutées dans la nécropole punique voisine de Sainte-Monique, à Carthage’, Compte Rendus des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 45 (1901), pp. 583–602. 26 A. Mahjoubi, Les origines du mouvement national en Tunisie, 1904–1934 (Tunis, 1982), p. 19. 27 W.H.C. Frend, The Archaeology of early Christianity: A history (London 1996), pp. 69–72, 183. 28 K. B. Stern, Inscribing Devotion and Death. Archaeological evidence for Jewish populations of North Africa (Leiden and Boston, 2008), pp. 8–11, 198, 276. 29 J. G. Pedley, The Life and Work of Francis Willey Kelsey. Archaeology, antiquity, and the arts (Ann Arbor 2012), p. 403. 30 Stern, op. cit. (note 28), pp. 13–15; C. Gutron, L’archéologie en Tunisie (xixe–xxe siècles): jeux généalogiques sur l’Antiquité (Paris 2005), pp. 169–80; S. Crogiez and O. Hottot, ‘Les collections carthaginoises du musée départemental des Antiquités de Rouen’, Africa Romana 13 (2000), p. 495. 31 amnp, a2794, pp. 43–6; 47–9; fig. 1, 2. 32 Biblioteka Polska w Paryżu [Polish Library in Paris] 837, p. 179. 33 cva [Pologne 1], pp. 11, 34, 42; pls 6 no. 2, 47 no. 1, 54 nos 1–3, 5. 34 cva [Pologne 1], p. 42, pl. 54 no. 6. 35 cva [Pologne 1], p. 42, pl. 54 no. 4. 36 Delattre, op. cit. La nécropole punique de Douimes (note 25). 37 See F. Nuñez, Estudio Cronologico-Secuencial de los materiales cerámicos de la necrópolis fenicia de Tiro-Al Bass (Líbano). Campaña de 1997 (Barcelona, 2008), pp. 184–6. 38 V. Tusa, ‘Relazione preliminare degli scavi eseguiti a Mozia negli anni 1972–4’, in Mozia 9. Rapporto preliminare della Missione congiunta con la Soprintendenza delle Antichità della Sicilia occidentale (=Studi Semitici 50), ed. A. Ciasca et al. (Rome, 1978), pp. 68–70. 39 M. Pellicer, La necrópolis Lurita (Almuñecar, Granada) en el contexto de la colonización fenicia (=Cuadernos de Arqueolgía Mediterránea 15) (Barcelona, 2007), p. 114. 40 H. G. Niemeyer and H. Schubart, Trayamar (Mainz am Rhein, 1975), Taf. 13, p. 552. 41 P. Cintas, Manuel d’archaeologie punique i (Paris, 1970), pl. xxi; P. Cintas, Manuel d’archaeologie punique ii (Paris, 1976), p. 287, pl. xciv. 42 F. Nuñez, ‘Referencias secuenciales del repertorio cerámico fenicio metropolitano de la Edad del Hierro Tardío’, in Motya and the Phoenician Ceramic Repertoire between the Levant and the West 9th–6th Centurybc, ed. L. Nigro (Rome, 2010), p. 83. 43 A. Peserico, Le brocche ‘a fungo’ fenicie nel Mediterraneo: tipologia e cronologia (Rome, 1996), p. 131. 44 See note 1. 45 P. Bikai, The Phoenician Pottery of Cyprus (Nicosia, 1987), p. 21. 46 S. Lancel (ed.), Byrsaii. Mission archéologique française à Carthage (Rome, 1982), p. 297. 47 Niemeyer and Schubart, op. cit. (note 40), Taf. 16, p. 600. 48 Compare with Peserico op. cit. (note 43), Tav. 7–9 (note 38). 49 G. Maass-Lindemann, ‘Interrelaciones de la cerámica fenicia en el Occidente mediterráneo’, Mainake 28 (2006), p. 294. 50 Idem. 51 MajMudRock and TraceMudRock calibrations are a type of software designed for handheld spectrometers used in the analysis of clays and ceramics. 52 See M. Krueger and I. Głuszek, ‘Wyniki analiz chemicznych dwóch dzbanów fenickich z kolekcji gołuchowskiej’, Folia Praehistorica Posnaniensia vol. xxii (in press). 53 See note 52. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

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