BIOnIC: a classification system to effectively incorporate mobile applications in the psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents

BIOnIC: a classification system to effectively incorporate mobile applications in the psychiatric... Implications Practice: A classification system can facilitate the process of searching for appropriate and helpful applications to use with patients. Further, having a list of prescreened and categorized applications provides a starting place to utilize applications effectively. Policy: No direct implications for policy makers. Research: We believe having a classification system based on potential therapeutic uses can assist clinicians in selecting different mobile applications to compare for specific therapeutic outcomes. TO THE EDITOR With the increasingly important role that mobile applications (or apps) have in today’s world, and particularly in our patients’ lives, the purposeful selection and addition of these tools in the psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents is an important therapeutic opportunity. However, given the vast and rapidly changing array of mobile applications available, it can be daunting for clinicians to evaluate and utilize these treatment tools effectively. In this article, we offer a classification system, termed BIOnIC in recognition of the use of technology to assist humans that aids in the identification, categorization, and incorporation of mobile applications in the psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents. There is a growing body of literature on the utility of mobile applications in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. For example, a research study by Arean et al. [1] demonstrated that two mobile applications reduced depression symptoms scores in an adult population with moderate depression. A study by Simons et al. demonstrated potential for the mobile application SpeechPrompts to treat prosodic disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder and other communication impairments. Chaplais et al. reviewed randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of smartphones, plus nutrition and physical activity to manage child and adolescent obesity, concluding that smartphone usage was linked to improved engagement and reduced dropout rates in long-term interventions [2]. Finally, a study by Gregory JM et al. discusses the potential benefits of integrating smartphone-related interventions, like the application Be Safe, for smartphone-based safety planning in psychiatric units [3]. The variety and ever-increasing range of mobile applications available makes it challenging for clinicians to stay up-to-date or to utilize these tools effectively. The article by Boudreaux [4] suggests seven steps for evaluating health related applications to ensure they are user-friendly and helpful for the target disease or behavior. However, there is still a need for a framework to categorize applications and to guide the selection of appropriate applications based on an individual’s needs. We believe having a classification system based on potential therapeutic uses may assist in searching for appropriate and helpful applications. Further, having a list of prescreened and categorized applications would provide a place to start for clinicians looking to utilize applications in their patient populations. During the months of January and February 2017, we searched the iTunes (iOS) and GooglePlay (Android) mobile application stores using search terms related to psychotherapeutic modalities (cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, meditation), prevalent psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar, schizophrenia) and expressive games characteristically used in therapy with children and adolescents (drawing, painting, dollhouse). From these results, we selected and downloaded the applications targeting children and adolescents. We then reviewed the list of applications listed in the online stores under the headline “related,” and included these as appropriate. This search yielded a total of 45 applications. We screened the quality of each of the applications using the following predetermined criteria: Intuitive interface (judged by a panel consisting of child and adolescent psychiatrists and psychiatry residents working with children and adolescents) Can be used within a short time frame (<20 min) No explicit sexual, violent or political content Potential therapeutic use (judged by a panel consisting of child and adolescent psychiatrists and psychiatry residents working with children and adolescents) After discarding applications that did not meet these criteria, we categorized the remaining 33 into four groups based on their general characteristics and potential use. These four groups were abbreviated using the acronym “BIOnIC” as shown below: 1 Build therapeutic alliance and treatment adherence 2. Foster Imagination, expression and creativity 3. Ongoing practice of emotional skills 4. Intellectual and Cognitive skill acquisition Table 1 summarizes these four categories, their potential applications and provides suggested search terms and currently available apps. Table 1 | BIOnIC classification for mobile application incorporation in the psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents Category  Potential use  Suggested search terms  Examples  Build therapeutic alliance, treatment adherence and psychoeducation  Track mood, sleep, medication use, improve psychoeducation.  Medication tracker, mood tracker, sleep tracker, psychoeducation, schizophrenia, bipolar.  iOS: Health storylines, Moods: Tracking for Better Mental Health, CareZone, Simple Bipolar. Android: Medisafe, Mytherapy Meds and Pill Reminder, Sleep Calculator.  Foster Imagination, expression and creativity  Stimulate self-expression and creativity with digital painting, acting, puppet shows, dollhouse play and avatar design.  Drawing, painting, charades, puppets, dollhouse, avatar.  iOS: Drawing Desk, Draw and Tell, Heads Up! Puppet Pals, My PlayHome, Emoji Me Face Maker. Android: Doodle Kid Joy, Drawing for kids, My PlayHome, Bitmoji.  Ongoing practice of emotional skills  Teach skills like mindfulness, deep breathing, emotion recognition and communication, thought challenging.  Stress, anxiety, depression, CBT, DBT, meditation, emotion recognition.  iOS: What’s Up: A Mental Health App, Stress and Anxiety Companion, CBT Thought Record Diary, DBT Skills Diary, Headspace, Smiling Mind, Welzen. Android: CBT Thought Record Diary, Wysa, Headspace, Calm.  Intellectual and Cognitive skills acquisition  Improve vocabulary, phonetics, emotion recognition and reasoning skills.  Autism, face recognition, patterns, vocabulary, phonetic, Mental reasoning.  iOS: Touch and Learn, Phonics Genius, Articulation Station, Learning Patterns, ABA flashcards and Games, Peak - Brain Training. Android: Autism Therapy with mental imagery therapy for autism, Autism iHelp, Phonetic Birds, Puzzlerama.  Category  Potential use  Suggested search terms  Examples  Build therapeutic alliance, treatment adherence and psychoeducation  Track mood, sleep, medication use, improve psychoeducation.  Medication tracker, mood tracker, sleep tracker, psychoeducation, schizophrenia, bipolar.  iOS: Health storylines, Moods: Tracking for Better Mental Health, CareZone, Simple Bipolar. Android: Medisafe, Mytherapy Meds and Pill Reminder, Sleep Calculator.  Foster Imagination, expression and creativity  Stimulate self-expression and creativity with digital painting, acting, puppet shows, dollhouse play and avatar design.  Drawing, painting, charades, puppets, dollhouse, avatar.  iOS: Drawing Desk, Draw and Tell, Heads Up! Puppet Pals, My PlayHome, Emoji Me Face Maker. Android: Doodle Kid Joy, Drawing for kids, My PlayHome, Bitmoji.  Ongoing practice of emotional skills  Teach skills like mindfulness, deep breathing, emotion recognition and communication, thought challenging.  Stress, anxiety, depression, CBT, DBT, meditation, emotion recognition.  iOS: What’s Up: A Mental Health App, Stress and Anxiety Companion, CBT Thought Record Diary, DBT Skills Diary, Headspace, Smiling Mind, Welzen. Android: CBT Thought Record Diary, Wysa, Headspace, Calm.  Intellectual and Cognitive skills acquisition  Improve vocabulary, phonetics, emotion recognition and reasoning skills.  Autism, face recognition, patterns, vocabulary, phonetic, Mental reasoning.  iOS: Touch and Learn, Phonics Genius, Articulation Station, Learning Patterns, ABA flashcards and Games, Peak - Brain Training. Android: Autism Therapy with mental imagery therapy for autism, Autism iHelp, Phonetic Birds, Puzzlerama.  CBT cognitive behavioral therapy; DBT dialectical behavioral therapy. View Large Table 1 | BIOnIC classification for mobile application incorporation in the psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents Category  Potential use  Suggested search terms  Examples  Build therapeutic alliance, treatment adherence and psychoeducation  Track mood, sleep, medication use, improve psychoeducation.  Medication tracker, mood tracker, sleep tracker, psychoeducation, schizophrenia, bipolar.  iOS: Health storylines, Moods: Tracking for Better Mental Health, CareZone, Simple Bipolar. Android: Medisafe, Mytherapy Meds and Pill Reminder, Sleep Calculator.  Foster Imagination, expression and creativity  Stimulate self-expression and creativity with digital painting, acting, puppet shows, dollhouse play and avatar design.  Drawing, painting, charades, puppets, dollhouse, avatar.  iOS: Drawing Desk, Draw and Tell, Heads Up! Puppet Pals, My PlayHome, Emoji Me Face Maker. Android: Doodle Kid Joy, Drawing for kids, My PlayHome, Bitmoji.  Ongoing practice of emotional skills  Teach skills like mindfulness, deep breathing, emotion recognition and communication, thought challenging.  Stress, anxiety, depression, CBT, DBT, meditation, emotion recognition.  iOS: What’s Up: A Mental Health App, Stress and Anxiety Companion, CBT Thought Record Diary, DBT Skills Diary, Headspace, Smiling Mind, Welzen. Android: CBT Thought Record Diary, Wysa, Headspace, Calm.  Intellectual and Cognitive skills acquisition  Improve vocabulary, phonetics, emotion recognition and reasoning skills.  Autism, face recognition, patterns, vocabulary, phonetic, Mental reasoning.  iOS: Touch and Learn, Phonics Genius, Articulation Station, Learning Patterns, ABA flashcards and Games, Peak - Brain Training. Android: Autism Therapy with mental imagery therapy for autism, Autism iHelp, Phonetic Birds, Puzzlerama.  Category  Potential use  Suggested search terms  Examples  Build therapeutic alliance, treatment adherence and psychoeducation  Track mood, sleep, medication use, improve psychoeducation.  Medication tracker, mood tracker, sleep tracker, psychoeducation, schizophrenia, bipolar.  iOS: Health storylines, Moods: Tracking for Better Mental Health, CareZone, Simple Bipolar. Android: Medisafe, Mytherapy Meds and Pill Reminder, Sleep Calculator.  Foster Imagination, expression and creativity  Stimulate self-expression and creativity with digital painting, acting, puppet shows, dollhouse play and avatar design.  Drawing, painting, charades, puppets, dollhouse, avatar.  iOS: Drawing Desk, Draw and Tell, Heads Up! Puppet Pals, My PlayHome, Emoji Me Face Maker. Android: Doodle Kid Joy, Drawing for kids, My PlayHome, Bitmoji.  Ongoing practice of emotional skills  Teach skills like mindfulness, deep breathing, emotion recognition and communication, thought challenging.  Stress, anxiety, depression, CBT, DBT, meditation, emotion recognition.  iOS: What’s Up: A Mental Health App, Stress and Anxiety Companion, CBT Thought Record Diary, DBT Skills Diary, Headspace, Smiling Mind, Welzen. Android: CBT Thought Record Diary, Wysa, Headspace, Calm.  Intellectual and Cognitive skills acquisition  Improve vocabulary, phonetics, emotion recognition and reasoning skills.  Autism, face recognition, patterns, vocabulary, phonetic, Mental reasoning.  iOS: Touch and Learn, Phonics Genius, Articulation Station, Learning Patterns, ABA flashcards and Games, Peak - Brain Training. Android: Autism Therapy with mental imagery therapy for autism, Autism iHelp, Phonetic Birds, Puzzlerama.  CBT cognitive behavioral therapy; DBT dialectical behavioral therapy. View Large DISCUSSION Technology permeates the lives of children and adolescents in the 21st century. For many, it has become their main form of communication and source of entertainment. There is an ever-increasing body of evidence demonstrating that technology, including mobile applications, can be utilized in mental health settings. As treatment providers working with children and adolescents, staying up-to-date and taking advantage of the multiple tools available is essential if we seek to engage and understand our patients optimally. We hope the BIOnIC classification system will provide a framework for mental health providers working with children and adolescents to navigate and select individualized and high-quality mobile applications for their patients and contribute to the nascent field of therapeutic mobile technologies. Compliance with Ethical Standards Disclosure Statement: We certify that this article and its content has not been previously published and the manuscript is not being simultaneously submitted elsewhere. None of the data has been previously reported. The authors have full control of all primary data and they agree to allow the journal to review their data if requested. The article did not use any funding and the authors have no actual or potential conflicts of interest. References 1. Arean P, Hallgren K, Jordan Jet al.   The use and effectiveness of mobile apps for depression: results from a fully remote clinical trial. J Med Internet Res . 2016; 18( 12): e330. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  2. Chaplais E, Naughton G, Thivel D. Smartphone interventions for weight treatment and behavioral change in pediatric obesity: a systematic review. Telemed J E Health . 2015; 21( 10): 822– 830. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  3. Gregory JM, Javeed S, Taylor-Gates M. Integrating smartphone technology at the time of discharge from a child and adolescent inpatient psychiatry unit. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry . 2017; 26( 1): 45– 50. Google Scholar PubMed  4. Boudreaux ED, Waring M, Hayes RBet al.   Evaluating and selecting mobile health apps: strategies for healthcare providers and healthcare organizations. Translat Behav Med . 2014; 4( 4): 363– 371. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS   © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Translational Behavioral Medicine Oxford University Press

BIOnIC: a classification system to effectively incorporate mobile applications in the psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents

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© Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018
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D.O.I.
10.1093/tbm/ibx047
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Abstract

Implications Practice: A classification system can facilitate the process of searching for appropriate and helpful applications to use with patients. Further, having a list of prescreened and categorized applications provides a starting place to utilize applications effectively. Policy: No direct implications for policy makers. Research: We believe having a classification system based on potential therapeutic uses can assist clinicians in selecting different mobile applications to compare for specific therapeutic outcomes. TO THE EDITOR With the increasingly important role that mobile applications (or apps) have in today’s world, and particularly in our patients’ lives, the purposeful selection and addition of these tools in the psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents is an important therapeutic opportunity. However, given the vast and rapidly changing array of mobile applications available, it can be daunting for clinicians to evaluate and utilize these treatment tools effectively. In this article, we offer a classification system, termed BIOnIC in recognition of the use of technology to assist humans that aids in the identification, categorization, and incorporation of mobile applications in the psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents. There is a growing body of literature on the utility of mobile applications in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. For example, a research study by Arean et al. [1] demonstrated that two mobile applications reduced depression symptoms scores in an adult population with moderate depression. A study by Simons et al. demonstrated potential for the mobile application SpeechPrompts to treat prosodic disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder and other communication impairments. Chaplais et al. reviewed randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of smartphones, plus nutrition and physical activity to manage child and adolescent obesity, concluding that smartphone usage was linked to improved engagement and reduced dropout rates in long-term interventions [2]. Finally, a study by Gregory JM et al. discusses the potential benefits of integrating smartphone-related interventions, like the application Be Safe, for smartphone-based safety planning in psychiatric units [3]. The variety and ever-increasing range of mobile applications available makes it challenging for clinicians to stay up-to-date or to utilize these tools effectively. The article by Boudreaux [4] suggests seven steps for evaluating health related applications to ensure they are user-friendly and helpful for the target disease or behavior. However, there is still a need for a framework to categorize applications and to guide the selection of appropriate applications based on an individual’s needs. We believe having a classification system based on potential therapeutic uses may assist in searching for appropriate and helpful applications. Further, having a list of prescreened and categorized applications would provide a place to start for clinicians looking to utilize applications in their patient populations. During the months of January and February 2017, we searched the iTunes (iOS) and GooglePlay (Android) mobile application stores using search terms related to psychotherapeutic modalities (cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, meditation), prevalent psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar, schizophrenia) and expressive games characteristically used in therapy with children and adolescents (drawing, painting, dollhouse). From these results, we selected and downloaded the applications targeting children and adolescents. We then reviewed the list of applications listed in the online stores under the headline “related,” and included these as appropriate. This search yielded a total of 45 applications. We screened the quality of each of the applications using the following predetermined criteria: Intuitive interface (judged by a panel consisting of child and adolescent psychiatrists and psychiatry residents working with children and adolescents) Can be used within a short time frame (<20 min) No explicit sexual, violent or political content Potential therapeutic use (judged by a panel consisting of child and adolescent psychiatrists and psychiatry residents working with children and adolescents) After discarding applications that did not meet these criteria, we categorized the remaining 33 into four groups based on their general characteristics and potential use. These four groups were abbreviated using the acronym “BIOnIC” as shown below: 1 Build therapeutic alliance and treatment adherence 2. Foster Imagination, expression and creativity 3. Ongoing practice of emotional skills 4. Intellectual and Cognitive skill acquisition Table 1 summarizes these four categories, their potential applications and provides suggested search terms and currently available apps. Table 1 | BIOnIC classification for mobile application incorporation in the psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents Category  Potential use  Suggested search terms  Examples  Build therapeutic alliance, treatment adherence and psychoeducation  Track mood, sleep, medication use, improve psychoeducation.  Medication tracker, mood tracker, sleep tracker, psychoeducation, schizophrenia, bipolar.  iOS: Health storylines, Moods: Tracking for Better Mental Health, CareZone, Simple Bipolar. Android: Medisafe, Mytherapy Meds and Pill Reminder, Sleep Calculator.  Foster Imagination, expression and creativity  Stimulate self-expression and creativity with digital painting, acting, puppet shows, dollhouse play and avatar design.  Drawing, painting, charades, puppets, dollhouse, avatar.  iOS: Drawing Desk, Draw and Tell, Heads Up! Puppet Pals, My PlayHome, Emoji Me Face Maker. Android: Doodle Kid Joy, Drawing for kids, My PlayHome, Bitmoji.  Ongoing practice of emotional skills  Teach skills like mindfulness, deep breathing, emotion recognition and communication, thought challenging.  Stress, anxiety, depression, CBT, DBT, meditation, emotion recognition.  iOS: What’s Up: A Mental Health App, Stress and Anxiety Companion, CBT Thought Record Diary, DBT Skills Diary, Headspace, Smiling Mind, Welzen. Android: CBT Thought Record Diary, Wysa, Headspace, Calm.  Intellectual and Cognitive skills acquisition  Improve vocabulary, phonetics, emotion recognition and reasoning skills.  Autism, face recognition, patterns, vocabulary, phonetic, Mental reasoning.  iOS: Touch and Learn, Phonics Genius, Articulation Station, Learning Patterns, ABA flashcards and Games, Peak - Brain Training. Android: Autism Therapy with mental imagery therapy for autism, Autism iHelp, Phonetic Birds, Puzzlerama.  Category  Potential use  Suggested search terms  Examples  Build therapeutic alliance, treatment adherence and psychoeducation  Track mood, sleep, medication use, improve psychoeducation.  Medication tracker, mood tracker, sleep tracker, psychoeducation, schizophrenia, bipolar.  iOS: Health storylines, Moods: Tracking for Better Mental Health, CareZone, Simple Bipolar. Android: Medisafe, Mytherapy Meds and Pill Reminder, Sleep Calculator.  Foster Imagination, expression and creativity  Stimulate self-expression and creativity with digital painting, acting, puppet shows, dollhouse play and avatar design.  Drawing, painting, charades, puppets, dollhouse, avatar.  iOS: Drawing Desk, Draw and Tell, Heads Up! Puppet Pals, My PlayHome, Emoji Me Face Maker. Android: Doodle Kid Joy, Drawing for kids, My PlayHome, Bitmoji.  Ongoing practice of emotional skills  Teach skills like mindfulness, deep breathing, emotion recognition and communication, thought challenging.  Stress, anxiety, depression, CBT, DBT, meditation, emotion recognition.  iOS: What’s Up: A Mental Health App, Stress and Anxiety Companion, CBT Thought Record Diary, DBT Skills Diary, Headspace, Smiling Mind, Welzen. Android: CBT Thought Record Diary, Wysa, Headspace, Calm.  Intellectual and Cognitive skills acquisition  Improve vocabulary, phonetics, emotion recognition and reasoning skills.  Autism, face recognition, patterns, vocabulary, phonetic, Mental reasoning.  iOS: Touch and Learn, Phonics Genius, Articulation Station, Learning Patterns, ABA flashcards and Games, Peak - Brain Training. Android: Autism Therapy with mental imagery therapy for autism, Autism iHelp, Phonetic Birds, Puzzlerama.  CBT cognitive behavioral therapy; DBT dialectical behavioral therapy. View Large Table 1 | BIOnIC classification for mobile application incorporation in the psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents Category  Potential use  Suggested search terms  Examples  Build therapeutic alliance, treatment adherence and psychoeducation  Track mood, sleep, medication use, improve psychoeducation.  Medication tracker, mood tracker, sleep tracker, psychoeducation, schizophrenia, bipolar.  iOS: Health storylines, Moods: Tracking for Better Mental Health, CareZone, Simple Bipolar. Android: Medisafe, Mytherapy Meds and Pill Reminder, Sleep Calculator.  Foster Imagination, expression and creativity  Stimulate self-expression and creativity with digital painting, acting, puppet shows, dollhouse play and avatar design.  Drawing, painting, charades, puppets, dollhouse, avatar.  iOS: Drawing Desk, Draw and Tell, Heads Up! Puppet Pals, My PlayHome, Emoji Me Face Maker. Android: Doodle Kid Joy, Drawing for kids, My PlayHome, Bitmoji.  Ongoing practice of emotional skills  Teach skills like mindfulness, deep breathing, emotion recognition and communication, thought challenging.  Stress, anxiety, depression, CBT, DBT, meditation, emotion recognition.  iOS: What’s Up: A Mental Health App, Stress and Anxiety Companion, CBT Thought Record Diary, DBT Skills Diary, Headspace, Smiling Mind, Welzen. Android: CBT Thought Record Diary, Wysa, Headspace, Calm.  Intellectual and Cognitive skills acquisition  Improve vocabulary, phonetics, emotion recognition and reasoning skills.  Autism, face recognition, patterns, vocabulary, phonetic, Mental reasoning.  iOS: Touch and Learn, Phonics Genius, Articulation Station, Learning Patterns, ABA flashcards and Games, Peak - Brain Training. Android: Autism Therapy with mental imagery therapy for autism, Autism iHelp, Phonetic Birds, Puzzlerama.  Category  Potential use  Suggested search terms  Examples  Build therapeutic alliance, treatment adherence and psychoeducation  Track mood, sleep, medication use, improve psychoeducation.  Medication tracker, mood tracker, sleep tracker, psychoeducation, schizophrenia, bipolar.  iOS: Health storylines, Moods: Tracking for Better Mental Health, CareZone, Simple Bipolar. Android: Medisafe, Mytherapy Meds and Pill Reminder, Sleep Calculator.  Foster Imagination, expression and creativity  Stimulate self-expression and creativity with digital painting, acting, puppet shows, dollhouse play and avatar design.  Drawing, painting, charades, puppets, dollhouse, avatar.  iOS: Drawing Desk, Draw and Tell, Heads Up! Puppet Pals, My PlayHome, Emoji Me Face Maker. Android: Doodle Kid Joy, Drawing for kids, My PlayHome, Bitmoji.  Ongoing practice of emotional skills  Teach skills like mindfulness, deep breathing, emotion recognition and communication, thought challenging.  Stress, anxiety, depression, CBT, DBT, meditation, emotion recognition.  iOS: What’s Up: A Mental Health App, Stress and Anxiety Companion, CBT Thought Record Diary, DBT Skills Diary, Headspace, Smiling Mind, Welzen. Android: CBT Thought Record Diary, Wysa, Headspace, Calm.  Intellectual and Cognitive skills acquisition  Improve vocabulary, phonetics, emotion recognition and reasoning skills.  Autism, face recognition, patterns, vocabulary, phonetic, Mental reasoning.  iOS: Touch and Learn, Phonics Genius, Articulation Station, Learning Patterns, ABA flashcards and Games, Peak - Brain Training. Android: Autism Therapy with mental imagery therapy for autism, Autism iHelp, Phonetic Birds, Puzzlerama.  CBT cognitive behavioral therapy; DBT dialectical behavioral therapy. View Large DISCUSSION Technology permeates the lives of children and adolescents in the 21st century. For many, it has become their main form of communication and source of entertainment. There is an ever-increasing body of evidence demonstrating that technology, including mobile applications, can be utilized in mental health settings. As treatment providers working with children and adolescents, staying up-to-date and taking advantage of the multiple tools available is essential if we seek to engage and understand our patients optimally. We hope the BIOnIC classification system will provide a framework for mental health providers working with children and adolescents to navigate and select individualized and high-quality mobile applications for their patients and contribute to the nascent field of therapeutic mobile technologies. Compliance with Ethical Standards Disclosure Statement: We certify that this article and its content has not been previously published and the manuscript is not being simultaneously submitted elsewhere. None of the data has been previously reported. The authors have full control of all primary data and they agree to allow the journal to review their data if requested. The article did not use any funding and the authors have no actual or potential conflicts of interest. References 1. Arean P, Hallgren K, Jordan Jet al.   The use and effectiveness of mobile apps for depression: results from a fully remote clinical trial. J Med Internet Res . 2016; 18( 12): e330. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  2. Chaplais E, Naughton G, Thivel D. Smartphone interventions for weight treatment and behavioral change in pediatric obesity: a systematic review. Telemed J E Health . 2015; 21( 10): 822– 830. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  3. Gregory JM, Javeed S, Taylor-Gates M. Integrating smartphone technology at the time of discharge from a child and adolescent inpatient psychiatry unit. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry . 2017; 26( 1): 45– 50. Google Scholar PubMed  4. Boudreaux ED, Waring M, Hayes RBet al.   Evaluating and selecting mobile health apps: strategies for healthcare providers and healthcare organizations. Translat Behav Med . 2014; 4( 4): 363– 371. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS   © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018

Journal

Translational Behavioral MedicineOxford University Press

Published: Jan 29, 2018

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