AbstractOBJECTIVETo simplify the practice of stereotactic surgery by using an original method, apparatus, and solid anatomic replica for trajectory planning and to validate the method and apparatus in a laboratory and clinical trial.METHODSThe patient is marked with fiducials and scanned by using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The three-dimensional data are converted to a format acceptable to stereolithography. Stereolithogra- phy uses a laser to polymerize photosensitive resin into a solid plastic model (biomodel). Stereolithography can replicate blood vessels, soft tissue, tumor, and bone accurately (<0.8 mm). A stereotactic apparatus is referenced to fiducials replicated in the biomodel. The trajectory for the intervention is determined and saved. The apparatus is attached to the patient fiducials, and the intervention is replicated.RESULTSThree types of apparatus (template, Brown-Roberts-Wells frame, and D'Urso frame) were tested on phantoms and patients requiring the excision/biopsy of tumors. The localization errors determined from the phantom studies were template, 0.82 mm; Brown-Roberts-Wells frame, 1.17 mm; and D'Urso frame, 0.89 mm. The surgeons reported that clinical use of the template and D'Urso frame was accurate and ergonomic. The Brown-Roberts-Wells frame was more difficult to use and somewhat inaccurate.CONCLUSIONBiomodel-guided stereotaxy has significant advantages. It is performed quickly; it is based on simple, intuitive methodology; it enhances visualization of anatomy and trajectory planning; it enhances patient understanding; it uses inexpensive equipment; it does not require rigid head fixation; and it has greater versatility than known techniques. Disadvantages are biomodel cost and a manufacturing time of 12 to 24 hours.
Neurosurgery – Oxford University Press
Published: May 1, 1999
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