Baltic Drugs Traffic, 1650–1850. Sound Toll Registers Online as a Source for the Import of Exotic Medicines in the Baltic Sea Area

Baltic Drugs Traffic, 1650–1850. Sound Toll Registers Online as a Source for the Import of... Summary The analysis of the shipping of five key Asian, African and American drugs through the Danish Sound in the period 1650–1850 suggests that the Baltic Sea area absorbed exotic medicinal drugs in significant quantities only from the second half of the eighteenth century—at least about a century later than northwest Europe. This may be an indication that the area differed significantly from northwest Europe in the development of medical services. We have analysed the shipping of five medicinal drugs: china root, sarsaparilla, rhubarb, senna and benjamin. The main source for this analysis is the Danish Sound Toll Registers (STRs), accessed via Sound Toll Registers Online, the STRs electronic database at www.soundtoll.nl. international medicine trade, early modern Europe, Baltic Sea area, Sound Toll Registers Online, rhubarb, sarsaparilla Introduction While discussing the European reception of eye-witness accounts of the availability and use of medicinal herbs in early modern indigenous American societies, Mary Lindemann argues that it is still unclear to what extent knowledge of these plants influenced European medicine.1 The same is true for the knowledge of Asian herbal drugs, even if contacts with India and China were much older and some relevant Asian commodities—Lindemann lists coffee, tea, camphor and opium—were applied as medicinal drugs in Europe.2 Indeed, the supply and availability of drugs seem to be taken for granted or simply ignored in many a textbook, monograph and collection of articles on the history of medicine—perhaps because the medicines were so desperately ineffective.3 This does not mean that historians lack an interest in exotic—non-European—medicines and their supply and use in early modern Europe. The issue has been discussed in many other books and articles dealing with more specific topics. A few examples may illustrate this.4 Shaw and Welch have written a critical retail business history of a late fifteenth-century Florence apothecary establishment which sold, among other things, medicines which regularly featured ingredients with exotic simples such as pudding pipe (cassia fistula), rhubarb and senna.5 Peter Borschberg and Anna Winterbottom have studied the China root. Borschberg focuses on the European supply of this Asian drug by the Dutch East India Company and its medicinal use in Europe.6 Winterbottom more broadly discusses the spread of China root from China over the rest of the world and into Europe in the course of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and its replacement by sarsaparilla as a remedy against syphilis in eighteenth century Europe.7 Jarcho presents a history of peruvian bark and its introduction and spread in Western Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.8 Maehle extensively discusses the empirical testing of opium and peruvian bark in the eighteenth century.9 These studies are mainly based on qualitative information from literary sources such as the discussion of medicines in learned books and reports.10 But there are also quantitative analyses based on sources of a more serial character, mainly involving international trade. Wallis’ discussion of the import of exotic drugs into England is based on English port and customs books.11 Foust studies several aspects of the history of rhubarb, including the relevant London trade, on the basis of figures from English and Russian customs books.12 Wallis stresses the value of the history of the drug commerce for medical history arguing that the quantitative development of the import of medicinal drugs into a country could serve as a gauge of the development of the consumption of drugs there and, consequently, as an indication of the development of the country’s medical services.13 His own study involves the import of exotic drugs from other continents into England but his observation is, no doubt, also true for the intra-European distribution of these medicines. Indeed, a weak spot in the knowledge of the use of exotic drugs in Europe concerns the development of the geographical and social spread of these substances. Research into the intra-European drugs trade in general and into the distribution of exotic drugs within Europe in particular would certainly contribute to the development of that knowledge.14 Conventional intra-European commercial history is not of much help here as it is overwhelmingly dominated by the study of the great staples—grain, timber, fish, wine, salt and textiles—and hardly mentions medicines at all.15 Wallis’ article mentioned above, on ‘England’s drug trade’ hardly tackles the problem either but is a better starting point. Wallis argues that imports of drugs into English expanded substantially in both the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, that the increase in the seventeenth century was mainly absorbed by growing demand in the domestic market and that the continued increase during the eighteenth century coincided with a marked rise of re-export and was therefore driven by foreign demand. Consequently, the greatest growth of English drugs consumption occurred in the seventeenth century but had ended by 1700.16 Most imported drugs, according to Wallis, came to England from Asia and the Americas, either directly or via the Dutch Republic, which re-exported Asian drugs imported by the Dutch East India Company, and from southern European countries re-exporting imports from the Levant and South and Central America. Wallis does not mention or discuss the composition and the destinations of England’s re-export of drugs. His analysis suggests that it gained momentum only by the end of the seventeenth century.17 If this is true and indicative of the re-export by other colonial powers, we may expect that European countries with no direct commercial links with Asia and America began to import drugs only in the late seventeenth century and, by implication, began to consume exotic drugs to a substantial extent only in the eighteenth century. Foust’s studies on rhubarb, too, provide useful stepping stones for the study of the internal European distribution of medicines.18 Foust shows that there were roughly three routes by which rhubarb, a popular cathartic in early modern Europe, came from China to Western Europe in the seventeenth century: via the Levant, via Cape of Good Hope and via Russia. The ancient Asian overland routes and the connected sea routes to the Levant were the oldest and were used for this purpose from at least the late Middle Ages.19 The Venetians shipped the merchandise further into Europe.20 The sea route via Cape of Good Hope had been used since its opening in about 1500.21 The way overland via Siberia and European Russia to the ports of Reval, Riga and, predominantly, Archangel and further across the sea was exploited from the beginning of the seventeenth century.22 Foust’s intriguing monograph on ‘the wondrous drug’ is—as far as figures are concerned—hard to follow and not very precise. He focuses his argument on the trade of London. Due to a lack of available sources he is almost silent about the rhubarb business of other parties, such as the Dutch—apart from their Russia trade—French, Danes and Swedes. He argues that relatively small quantities of rhubarb were imported into Britain throughout the seventeenth century and into the first three decades of the eighteenth century. Most of that rhubarb came via the Levant while only small quantities were shipped in via Cape of Good Hope with a brief flurry in the first decade of the eighteenth century. Direct imports of rhubarb from Russia to London probably did not occur before 1698 and after that only in small amounts into the 1720s.23 Throughout the seventeenth century, export from Archangel was dominated by Dutch merchants, who sent the rhubarb mainly to Amsterdam, the hub from where it was distributed to the rest of Europe, including, in any case in the early eighteenth century, England.24 The big change began in the early 1720s, when the rhubarb supply from the Levant suddenly ceased almost completely, perhaps as a consequence of the disruption of the Asian caravan route by regional political and military turmoil.25 London’s rhubarb imports were at a low ebb for a few years but picked up when the average annual amount of rhubarb imported into London directly from Russia jumped to nearly 9,500 pounds in the four years 1728–1731 and 4,500 pounds in the years 1732–1735.26 By that time the rhubarb was no longer exported from Russia via old Archangel but, since about 1720, via newly-founded St Petersburg.27 The London’s rhubarb imports from Russia wilted after 1735 once again to almost nil but this interruption coincided with an increase of London rhubarb imports from the Dutch Republic to an annual average of about 2,500 pounds.28 It may be assumed, as Foust reasons, that much of this was ‘Russian’ rhubarb. Apparently, the route of direct Russian rhubarb exports shifted from London to Amsterdam.29 The increase of direct and indirect imports into London of Russian rhubarb coincided with a rapid rise of imports by the East India Company up to an annual average of 4,700 pounds in 1728–1731, after which it dropped to an annual average of over 1,000 pounds for the rest of 1730s.30 This was just a modest foreboding of things to come, the beginning of ‘rhubarb mania’ and the rise of a mass market in Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century.31 Throughout the 1740s, the Company imported more than 10,000 pounds on average per year—almost 80 per cent of the total rhubarb imports.32 The rise continued and London imported an annual average of more than 18,000 pounds in the 1750s and double that amount in the 1760s. In the 1750s more than 93 per cent of rhubarb in London markets was supplied by the East India Company, the rest coming from Russia, the Dutch Republic—probably supplying Russian rhubarb—and the Levant. In the 1760s the East India Company’s portion decreased to slightly over 80 per cent as direct Russian exports to London picked up, amounting to an annual average of 6,000 pounds (15 per cent of the total imports)—and 4,500 pounds between 1762 and 1780. The rest—Russian rhubarb, too—came from Amsterdam.33 In the 1770s, London rhubarb imports suddenly declined to about 10,000 pounds per year on average, of which, again, 83 per cent was supplied by the East India Company and 16 per cent came from Russia.34 More than 13,500 pounds a year on average were re-exported—evidently partly from the stockpiles accumulated in the preceding years. Holland and Flanders together took 40 per cent, German ports about 20 per cent and the Mediterranean, mainly Italy, 35 per cent. In the 1780s and 1790s London rhubarb imports seems to have picked up again to a level of about 40,000 pounds per year.35 By the 1740s Great Britain re-exported about half of its rhubarb imports—mainly to the continent. The East India Company, Foust asserts, had become the leading rhubarb dealer of both Great Britain and the continent. In the 1750s Great Britain re-exported 73 per cent of its rhubarb imports—mainly to the Mediterranean markets and Holland and Flanders, and small quantities to the German lands and Ireland. In the 1760s re-export amounted to 63 per cent, mainly destined, again, to the Mediterranean countries and, more than half, to Amsterdam, which continued to be the leading distributor of rhubarb to Western Europe.36 Some general conclusions from Foust’s and Wallis’ studies could be that Europe, or, at any rate, England, imported increasing quantities of exotic drugs throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The import increases accelerated in the eighteenth century, apparently because it was only at that point in time that countries with no direct commercial links to Asia and America began to import drugs from countries that had those links. Both Foust’s and Wallis’ studies do not discuss the composition and the destinations of the re-export of exotic drugs in any detail. But they make it very evident that further quantitative research into the intra-European drug trade will make a valuable contribution to the study of medical and commercial history. The Sound Toll Registers One of the main sources available to study the intra-European drug trade are the Sound Toll Registers (STRs), which are kept at the Danish National Archives in Copenhagen and contain detailed records of the tolls levied by the king of Denmark in the town of Elsinore on ships passing through the Sound, the strait between Denmark and Sweden connecting the North and Baltic Seas.37 Holding information on about 1.8 million passages executed between 1497 and 1857, when the toll was abolished, the STRs constitute one of the great sources of European commercial history. Their size and detail make the STRs virtually impossible to handle; as a result they are hardly used. As a partial solution to this problem, in the first half of the twentieth century, Ellinger Bang and Korst published a monumental abridged version of the STRs, which is commonly known as the Sound Toll Tables (STT).38 Since then, these seven large volumes of tabular summaries of STRs data have been used in most major studies of early modern European trade. Their enormous significance, however, should not conceal their shortcomings, which have been amply discussed in the historiography.39 The STT only cover the years 1497–1783 and do not include the period 1784 to 1857. Data are presented only at a high level of aggregation; individual passages, shipmasters and cargoes have disappeared from sight.40 Information on complete transport routes is missing, even though the STRs provide this information for every passage from 1669 onwards. Commodities are combined in arbitrary, often useless categories.41 As a result, the STT are useless as an instrument for the study of both the trade in individual medicines and the traffic of drugs in general. Since 2009, the University of Groningen and Tresoar, the Frisian Historical and Literary Centre in Leeuwarden, have been engaged in a groundbreaking effort to make the STRs available for direct and easy use in an electronic database containing the complete data of all 1.8 million passages through the Sound. The database, Sound Toll Registers Online, or STRO, is instantly accessible for all via the internet: www.soundtoll.nl.42 Of course, both the STRs and STRO may not be used uncritically. As always, the researcher must be aware of the limitations of the source.43 First, there were other routes to the Baltic, including the Little Belt, the Great Belt, overland routes, the route to Russia via North Cape and, from 1784 on, the Schleswig-Holstein Canal. Individually, each of these routes may not have offered a serious alternative for the Sound, but taken together they should not be omitted. Traffic through the Little Belt is largely unknown, but seems to have been significant only for local transport.44 The Great Belt was used only by a minor regional group of shipmasters predominantly connecting Lübeck and Rostock with Danish and Norwegian ports. Like the Little Belt, it was much harder to navigate than the Sound while the same toll tariffs were applied in both straits.45 Overland routes to the Baltic Sea area were only relevant for the transportation of low-volume and high-value commodities.46 The Schleswig-Holstein Canal between Tönning on the North Sea and Kiel on the Baltic was opened in 1784, but it never attracted a lot of traffic, because only small ships could pass through it.47 Lastly, the sea route to Russia via the White Sea port of Archangel was the main gateway to Russia during the long seventeenth century, when Russia had been pushed back from the Baltic coast by the Swedes. Archangel was the preferred alternative for Russia’s transit trade via the Swedish and other possessions lying between the Baltic Sea and Russia. Vital as it was to Russia, it usually involved well below 10 per cent of the Sound traffic.48 The second issue regarding the reliability of the STRs involves fraud. It is widely accepted that all ships passing the Sound in the years covered by the STRs are recorded in it.49 But shipmasters certainly evaded payment of the total toll due by making false declarations of the commodities carried on board. Comparisons with other sources, especially customs accounts of individual ports, which suffer from the same issue of reliability, has shown that the information on cargoes in the STRs is generally correct but not complete.50 In particular, small volumes of expensive commodities were always subject to fraud.51 A third reason for handling the STRs with care lies in the toll exemption that was applied throughout to Danish ships and goods and Swedish vessels and commodities between 1650 and, practically, 1710.52 Alternative routes, fraud and exemptions cannot alter the fact that the STRs are a great source for trade and transport. Even to the highly critical historian, they are a very rich starting point for the analysis of European trade and transport in the period they cover.53 Despite all its general merits it remains to be seen to what extent the STRs are a reliable source for studying the movement of drugs. Medicines may generally be regarded as low-weight, low-volume and expensive commodities and therefore may have been transported to the Baltic Sea area overland and may have been smuggled through the Sound. It is therefore, almost by definition, hard to assess to what extent this happened, but Foust’s fine article on ‘Russian rhubarb’ published in 1986 and referred to in the previous section of the article may serve as a starting point to find out if the STRs can be used as a source for the study of Baltic drugs traffic at all.54 Foust compares figures from—among other places—two separate sources for the rhubarb traffic between St Petersburg and London in the period 1753–1804. The first source involves the British Inspector General’s Ledgers of Imports and Exports for the years 1697–1780 (Customs 3). The other source is a list published by Joshua Jepson Oddy, a member of the British Russia and Levant Companies and is most likely based on the customs ledger books of St Petersburg which do not seem to have survived. The relevant figures are included here in Figure 1 which is basically a repetition of the graph that Foust presents.55 With Foust we observe that both time series all but coincide, except for the year 1765. Foust discusses the 1765 difference at length and concludes that the high British figure must be right and that—‘wild speculation’—Oddy’s low figure could be the result of a ‘scribal error in a single digit in the original Russian customs register’.56 Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide Volumes of rhubarb exported from St Petersburg to London (Oddy) and imported in London from St Petersburg (Customs 3), 1753–1780, in pounds avoirdupois. Source: Foust, ‘Customs 3’, 556–7. Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide Volumes of rhubarb exported from St Petersburg to London (Oddy) and imported in London from St Petersburg (Customs 3), 1753–1780, in pounds avoirdupois. Source: Foust, ‘Customs 3’, 556–7. To test the reliability of the STRs with respect to the drugs traffic, we may now assess the volume of the rhubarb traffic from St Petersburg to London in the period 1753–1780 as recorded in the STRs (Table 1) and compare them with the figures presented by Foust and included in graph 1.57 The comparison is presented in Figure 2, where two things stand out. Table 1. Volumes of rhubarb passing through the Sound from St Petersburg to London, 1753–1780, in pounds avoirdupois Year    Year    Year    1753  0  1762  2170.7  1771  0  1754  0  1763  4762.0  1772  121.8  1755  0  1764  5912.8  1773  0  1756  0  1765  30759.8  1774  2052.5  1757  0  1766  0  1775  3615.6  1758  0  1767  3637.4  1776  3066.1  1759  0  1768  4386.5  1777  900.8  1760  180.5  1769  0  1778  842.1  1761  1464.0  1770  2450.5  1779  3218.8          1780  5629.4  Year    Year    Year    1753  0  1762  2170.7  1771  0  1754  0  1763  4762.0  1772  121.8  1755  0  1764  5912.8  1773  0  1756  0  1765  30759.8  1774  2052.5  1757  0  1766  0  1775  3615.6  1758  0  1767  3637.4  1776  3066.1  1759  0  1768  4386.5  1777  900.8  1760  180.5  1769  0  1778  842.1  1761  1464.0  1770  2450.5  1779  3218.8          1780  5629.4  Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide Volumes of rhubarb exported from St Petersburg to London (Oddy), passing the Sound, departing from St Petersburg and destined to London (STRO) and imported in London from St Petersburg (Customs 3), 1753–1780, in pounds avoirdupois. Sources: Foust, ‘Customs 3’, 556–7 for Customs 3 and Oddy; Table 1 for STRO. Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide Volumes of rhubarb exported from St Petersburg to London (Oddy), passing the Sound, departing from St Petersburg and destined to London (STRO) and imported in London from St Petersburg (Customs 3), 1753–1780, in pounds avoirdupois. Sources: Foust, ‘Customs 3’, 556–7 for Customs 3 and Oddy; Table 1 for STRO. First, Foust’s feeling that the Customs 3 figure for 1765 is correct and Oddy’s figure is wrong seems to be confirmed by the Danish figure. Second, all three time series tally very nicely. It seems safe to conclude that the STRs figures as extracted from STRO are—making due allowance for all necessary source criticism—reliable for the study of the rhubarb traffic through the Sound. By extension, it may be maintained that the STRs can give an indication of the development of the transport of other drugs, too. This does not mean that the figures presented here reflect all rhubarb traffic. The correspondence of the three time series does not prove that there was no fraud. It is conceivable that all figures are based on the same bills of lading or other commercial papers. Moreover, the extent to which rhubarb was transported overland remains unknown. The same reservations must be applied when analysing STRs figures for the traffic in other medicines. The Baltic Drug Traffic With all this in mind, STRO would indeed allow us to scrutinise the development of the size and the structure of the export and import of medicinal drugs by the Baltic Sea countries—to the extent that they were transported via the Sound—and to test the assumption that European countries with no or little direct commercial links with Asia and America began to import drugs only in the late seventeenth century and, by implication, began to consume exotic drugs to a substantial extent only in the eighteenth century. To keep this endeavour to a manageable size, we limit the analysis to china root, sarsaparilla, rhubarb, senna and benjamin. These five stand out among the drugs imported into England in the greatest quantities, measured by value as listed by Wallis; they are the ones which occurred in at least six of the eight periods between 1566 and 1774 Wallis distinguishes.58 China root is generally identified as the dried root of a creeper known as smilax chinensis. It was imported from China and applied in Europe as a medicine to treat syphilis throughout the sixteenth, seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.59 Import into Europe and, by implication, its medicinal use, had virtually ceased by the beginning of the nineteenth century.60 Sarsaparilla is generally considered to be the dried root of several vines of the genus smilax indigenous to Middle America, akin to China root. It was imported into Europe from the West Indies throughout the early modern period.61 It was used within Europe as a medicine to cure syphilis and rheumatism and as a blood purifier.62 Sarsaparilla was a sought-after alternative for China root and had superseded it in England by the mid-eighteenth century and probably displaced it on the continent, too, by the nineteenth century.63 Rhubarb involves the dried roots and rhizomes of rheum officinale, a rhubarb variant the highest quality of which was grown in China. In Europe, processed to a powder, it was a sought-after and very expensive effective but mild cathartic for the treatment of many afflictions.64 Senna was a purgative prepared from the leaves of cassia acutifolia and cassia angustifolia.65 The currently accepted name of both species is senna alexandrina, indicating a perennial non-climbing shrub.66 The cassia acutifolia senna came from the upper Nile territories and was shipped to Europe via Alexandria.67 The cassia angustifolia senna originated from Somalia, the Arabian peninsula and South India.68 It came to Europe probably via the Cape of Good Hope. Benjamin or benzoin was the fragrant resin of styrax tonkinensis and styrax benzoin, grown, respectively, in Thailand and Java and Sumatra. Due to its apparently antibiotic qualities, it may have been used to treat bronchitis. It was also used as a perfume.69 Before we dive again into the STRs we should have a closer look at the historiography on the matter which, as mentioned above, does pay some attention to the import of medicinal drugs from Asia and America into Europe but barely touches upon the intra-European drugs trade. Discussions of the foreign trade of the Baltic Sea countries hardly mention the ‘Wallis five’. The seventeenth-century pound-toll registers of Elbing as published by Thomas Lindblad do not mention any of the drugs listed by Wallis, including sarsaparilla, china root, rhubarb, senna and benjamin. Nor do these registers include any commodities which might be associated directly with drugs. Only the sundry categories of ‘kramerey’ and ‘kaufmanschaft’ might have included medicines.70 Arnold Soom has used the Reval records of duty payments to analyse the town’s export to and import from Western Europe in the seventeenth century. These registers include medicinal drugs much more decisively.71 Commodities that may be identified as medicinal drugs were not exported from Reval but they certainly appear among the town’s imports. Soom does not provide any relevant time series but briefly touches on the import of the small category of ‘pharmacist wares, dyes and chemicals’. He observes that individual medicinal drugs as ‘Galgant’, ‘Zitfer Saat und wurzeln’, ‘Violen Wurzeln’, ‘Scheidewasser’, ‘Driakel’ and ‘Jeres Wurzeln’ are seldom mentioned in the toll registers. Medicines were usually hidden in categories as ‘Apothekereien und Materialien’, ‘trockene Kreuter’, ‘Balbirer Sachen und medicamenten’ and ‘Drogereyen, Farbereyen und Apothekereyen’.72 Soom does not discuss the broad categories of pedlary and general merchandise and is silent on the question of whether these categories do or do not occur in the Reval toll registers. He only mentions ‘Riselse Krämerei’, which he identifies as textile pedlary of the town of Lille.73 We may conclude that in the Reval toll registers individual medicinal drugs are only sparsely mentioned in the seventeenth century and usually included in broader categories of commodities. Reval clearly imported drugs in the seventeenth century but nothing decisive can be said about the volume, the composition and the development of this business. This conclusion remains unaffected by the evidence produced by Foust and Kotilaine. As mentioned above, Foust points out that Russia exported rhubarb overland to Reval and Riga from the beginning of the seventeenth century. And Kotilaine shows that the Reval and Narva transit trade in the middle of the seventeenth century included imports of rhubarb from Russia—apparently over land from Moscow, Novgorod and Pskov.74 This suggests that rhubarb was consumed in Narva, Reval, Riga and—by extension—Estonia and Livonia and may have been re-exported to other Baltic Sea destinations. But we do not know how large and regular this consumption and the related trade were. On the admittedly narrow basis of the literature on Elbing, Reval—and although there is even less documentation—Narva and Riga, it may be concluded that Baltic Sea countries with no direct commercial links with Asia and America did import exotic drugs in the seventeenth century but that it seems unlikely that this happened in significant quantities. There are, in any case, hardly any drugs visible in the relevant sources. The same observation is true for eighteenth-century Sweden. Lindblad analyses Sweden’s imports in great detail for the years 1738, 1765 and 1792 on the basis of contemporary official Swedish statistics. Among the Swedish imports, the value of the category of ‘oils and drugs’ amounted to less than 5 per cent while that category was heavily dominated by vegetable oils such as linseed-oil. Of the Wallis five, only senna was registered with a tiny total value varying from 39 to 108 rix-dollars per year (about 0.1 promille of the total import value).75 The famous Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) may have advocated the production of exotic herbal medicines like opium and rhubarb at home but this Cameralist inclination can hardly have been a reaction to any large-scale Swedish importing and consumption of these drugs.76 Accepting the reliability of the STRs, we may explore its potential for the study of the Baltic drugs traffic and assess how volumes of the Wallis five transported through the Sound developed. It turns out that only sarsaparilla and rhubarb occur regularly in the STRO, 1124 and 915 times respectively in the period 1670–1849. Benjamin (as benzoin), china root (as radix chinae) and senna barely appear. This can hardly be attributed to the possibility that these commodities may be found under alternative designations in the STRs. Chinawurzel, pockenwurzel and their variants, names under which china root was also known, are absent in the STRs too.77 Senna’s modern scientific names, cassia acutifolia and cassia angustifolia do not appear either. Cas(s)ia fistula and cas(s)ia lignea do appear, but they are not the shrub senna alexandrina and, therefore, are not senna. Cassia fistula is a tree native to Southeast Asia that grows to ten meters tall and is today commonly known as ‘golden shower’.78 Its legumes were used to prepare a laxative in the early modern period, and still are today.79Cassia lignea is the bark of cinnamomum aromaticum, which is also called cinnamomum cassia, a medium-sized tree cultivated in tropical and subtropical South and Southeast Asia, the dried bark of which is used as a cinnamon-like spice.80 The virtual absence of senna, benjamin and china root may be theoretically explained in several ways. First, these commodities may have been registered after all—under names we have not yet identified. Secondly, their absence may reflect an actual situation, as they might have passed through the Sound only very rarely. In that case either there was very little relevant Baltic traffic or it was carried out via overland routes. Thirdly, their absence may obscure an other situation where there was substantial traffic through the Sound but where the commodities mentioned were not recorded at all or were included in general terms such as ‘medikamenter’ and ‘medicin(alier)’ (medicines), ‘drogerier’ (drugs), ‘apotekervarer’ (pharmacist wares) or even—less likely—‘kramery’ (pedlary) and ‘købmandskab’ (general merchandise). Provisionally, we would suppose that senna, benjamin and china root passed the Sound very rarely. There seems to be no reason why rhubarb and sarsaparilla would have been transported through the Sound and explicitly registered in Elsinore while other drugs passing in comparable volumes were not. The Baltic Rhubarb Traffic The STRs do enable us to expand the statistics Foust provides on the rhubarb traffic. Table 2 and Figure 3 make clear that the east to west rhubarb flow through the Sound showed hesitant and intermittent beginnings from 1681 and picked suddenly up in the late 1720s. Table 2. Total volumes of rhubarb passing through the Sound eastward and westward, 1681–1849, in tons Year  E–W  W–E  Year  E–W  W–E  Year  E–W  W–E  year  E–W  W–E  1681  0.123  0  1723  1.570  0  1765  18.521  0  1807  0.917  0.085  1682  0  0  1724  0  0  1766  0  0  1808  0  0  1683  0.381  0  1725  0  0  1767  4.265  0.133  1809  0  0  1684  0.205  0  1726  0  0  1768  2.022  0.094  1810  0.046  0  1685  0  0  1727  0  0  1769  0.112  0.088  1811  0  0.058  1686  0  0  1728  4.460  0  1770  1.181  0.087  1812  0  0  1687  0  0  1729  25.068  0  1771  0  0.051  1813  0  0.050  1688  0  0  1730  7.218  0  1772  0.055  0.200  1814  0.129  1.126  1689  0  0  1731  4.702  0  1773  0.033  0.005  1815  0.338  0.015  1690  0  0  1732  0  0  1774  0.934  0.161  1816  3.243  0.056  1691  0  0  1733  0.614  0  1775  0  0  1817  0.311  0.081  1692  0  0  1734  0.505  0  1776  1.391  0.0614  1818  2.801  0.314  1693  0  0  1735  2.343  0  1777  0.701  0.0424  1819  0.575  0.067  1694  0  0  1736  1.740  0  1778  0.382  0.4396  1820  3.424  0.037  1695  0  0  1737  0.491  0  1779  1.602  0.0042  1821  2.769  0.441  1696  0  0  1738  2.795  0  1780  3.385  0.1213  1822  2.895  0.124  1697  0.050  0  1739  1.474  0.021  1781  3.152  0.3043  1823  2.500  0.128  1698  0.175  0  1740  0.620  0  1782  1.785  0.0827  1824  0  0  1699  0  0  1741  0  0.021  1783  3.509  0  1825  2.489  0  1700  0  0  1742  0  0  1784  0.002  0.306  1826  0.057  0.167  1701  0  0  1743  0  0  1785  0.521  0.097  1827  1.175  0.057  1702  0  0  1744  0  0  1786  1.619  0.349  1828  1.650  0.298  1703  0  0  1745  0  0  1787  4.277  1.704  1829  7.115  0.197  1704  0  0  1746  2.436  0  1788  0.870  1.587  1830  0.083  0.132  1705  0  0  1747  0  0  1789  1.344  1.386  1831  3.534  0.376  1706  0  0  1748  0  0.017  1790  0.816  1.022  1832  0.252  0.347  1707  0  0  1749  1.275  0  1791  1.858  0.453  1833  3.653  0.124  1708  0.085  0  1750  0  0  1792  0.547  0.622  1834  3.279  0.851  1709  0  0  1751  1.007  0  1793  0.246  0.186  1835  4.950  0.094  1710  0  0  1752  0.328  0.059  1794  0.204  0.289  1836  4.437  0.122  1711  0.601  0.138  1753  0  0.108  1795  0.364  0.283  1837  2.779  0  1712  0  0  1754  0.004  0.021  1796  1.411  3.655  1838  0.165  0.062  1713  0.042  0  1755  0  0.021  1797  0.538  2.486  1839  26.706  0.237  1714  0  0  1756  0  0.008  1798  4.268  1.616  1840  3.691  0.180  1715  0  0  1757  0  0.060  1799  1.404  0.071  1841  1.232  0.067  1716  0.164  0  1758  0  0.017  1800  0.007  0.107  1842  1.602  0.119  1717  0  0  1759  0  0  1801  0  0.118  1843  4.005  0.858  1718  0  0  1760  0.082  0.008  1802  0.692  0.301  1844  1.367  1.066  1719  0  0  1761  0.706  0.169  1803  1.411  0.026  1845  1.566  0.891  1720  0  0  1762  1.148  0.158  1804  1.426  1.332  1846  1.511  0.351  1721  0  0  1763  3.586  0.234  1805  1.403  0.142  1847  1.998  0.079  1722  0  0  1764  13.499  2.039  1806  1.026  0.530  1848  4.056  0.780                    1849  8.374  0.687  Year  E–W  W–E  Year  E–W  W–E  Year  E–W  W–E  year  E–W  W–E  1681  0.123  0  1723  1.570  0  1765  18.521  0  1807  0.917  0.085  1682  0  0  1724  0  0  1766  0  0  1808  0  0  1683  0.381  0  1725  0  0  1767  4.265  0.133  1809  0  0  1684  0.205  0  1726  0  0  1768  2.022  0.094  1810  0.046  0  1685  0  0  1727  0  0  1769  0.112  0.088  1811  0  0.058  1686  0  0  1728  4.460  0  1770  1.181  0.087  1812  0  0  1687  0  0  1729  25.068  0  1771  0  0.051  1813  0  0.050  1688  0  0  1730  7.218  0  1772  0.055  0.200  1814  0.129  1.126  1689  0  0  1731  4.702  0  1773  0.033  0.005  1815  0.338  0.015  1690  0  0  1732  0  0  1774  0.934  0.161  1816  3.243  0.056  1691  0  0  1733  0.614  0  1775  0  0  1817  0.311  0.081  1692  0  0  1734  0.505  0  1776  1.391  0.0614  1818  2.801  0.314  1693  0  0  1735  2.343  0  1777  0.701  0.0424  1819  0.575  0.067  1694  0  0  1736  1.740  0  1778  0.382  0.4396  1820  3.424  0.037  1695  0  0  1737  0.491  0  1779  1.602  0.0042  1821  2.769  0.441  1696  0  0  1738  2.795  0  1780  3.385  0.1213  1822  2.895  0.124  1697  0.050  0  1739  1.474  0.021  1781  3.152  0.3043  1823  2.500  0.128  1698  0.175  0  1740  0.620  0  1782  1.785  0.0827  1824  0  0  1699  0  0  1741  0  0.021  1783  3.509  0  1825  2.489  0  1700  0  0  1742  0  0  1784  0.002  0.306  1826  0.057  0.167  1701  0  0  1743  0  0  1785  0.521  0.097  1827  1.175  0.057  1702  0  0  1744  0  0  1786  1.619  0.349  1828  1.650  0.298  1703  0  0  1745  0  0  1787  4.277  1.704  1829  7.115  0.197  1704  0  0  1746  2.436  0  1788  0.870  1.587  1830  0.083  0.132  1705  0  0  1747  0  0  1789  1.344  1.386  1831  3.534  0.376  1706  0  0  1748  0  0.017  1790  0.816  1.022  1832  0.252  0.347  1707  0  0  1749  1.275  0  1791  1.858  0.453  1833  3.653  0.124  1708  0.085  0  1750  0  0  1792  0.547  0.622  1834  3.279  0.851  1709  0  0  1751  1.007  0  1793  0.246  0.186  1835  4.950  0.094  1710  0  0  1752  0.328  0.059  1794  0.204  0.289  1836  4.437  0.122  1711  0.601  0.138  1753  0  0.108  1795  0.364  0.283  1837  2.779  0  1712  0  0  1754  0.004  0.021  1796  1.411  3.655  1838  0.165  0.062  1713  0.042  0  1755  0  0.021  1797  0.538  2.486  1839  26.706  0.237  1714  0  0  1756  0  0.008  1798  4.268  1.616  1840  3.691  0.180  1715  0  0  1757  0  0.060  1799  1.404  0.071  1841  1.232  0.067  1716  0.164  0  1758  0  0.017  1800  0.007  0.107  1842  1.602  0.119  1717  0  0  1759  0  0  1801  0  0.118  1843  4.005  0.858  1718  0  0  1760  0.082  0.008  1802  0.692  0.301  1844  1.367  1.066  1719  0  0  1761  0.706  0.169  1803  1.411  0.026  1845  1.566  0.891  1720  0  0  1762  1.148  0.158  1804  1.426  1.332  1846  1.511  0.351  1721  0  0  1763  3.586  0.234  1805  1.403  0.142  1847  1.998  0.079  1722  0  0  1764  13.499  2.039  1806  1.026  0.530  1848  4.056  0.780                    1849  8.374  0.687  Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). Table 3. Main westward rhubarb routes through the Sound, 1681–1849, in tons Year  St Petersburg - London  St Petersburg - Amsterdam  Rest - rest westward  Year  St Petersburg - London  St Petersburg - Amsterdam  Rest - rest westward  Year  St Petersburg - London  St Petersburg - Amsterdam  Rest - rest westward  1681  0  0  0.123  1737  0  0.491  0  1793  0.229  0  0.017  1682  0  0  0  1738  0  2.795  0  1794  0.196  0  0.008  1683  0  0  0.381  1739  0  1.474  0  1795  0.354  0  0.010  1684  0  0  0.205  1740  0  0  0.620  1796  1.365  0  0.046  1685  0  0  0  1741  0  0  0  1797  0.452  0.082  0.004  1686  0  0  0  1742  0  0  0  1798  4.029  0.100  0.139  1687  0  0  0  1743  0  0  0  1799  1.404  0  0  1688  0  0  0  1744  0  0  0  1800  0  0  0.007  1689  0  0  0  1745  0  0  0  1801  0  0  0  1690  0  0  0  1746  0.642  1.310  0.483  1802  0.327  0  0.365  1691  0  0  0  1747  0  0  0  1803  0.751  0.655  0.005  1692  0  0  0  1748  0  0  0  1804  1.310  0  0.117  1693  0  0  0  1749  0  0.368  0.907  1805  1.236  0  0.166  1694  0  0  0  1750  0  0  0  1806  0.985  0  0.041  1695  0  0  0  1751  1.007  0  0  1807  0.917  0  0  1696  0  0  0  1752  0  0.328  0  1808  0  0  0  1697  0  0  0.050  1753  0  0  0  1809  0  0  0  1698  0  0  0.175  1754  0  0  0.004  1810  0  0  0.046  1699  0  0  0  1755  0  0  0  1811  0  0  0  1700  0  0  0  1756  0  0  0  1812  0  0  0  1701  0  0  0  1757  0  0  0  1813  0  0  0  1702  0  0  0  1758  0  0  0  1814  0  0  0.129  1703  0  0  0  1759  0  0  0  1815  0  0.098  0.239  1704  0  0  0  1760  0.082  0  0  1816  3.080  0  0.164  1705  0  0  0  1761  0.664  0  0.0419  1817  0    0.311  1706  0  0  0  1762  0.985  0.164  0  1818  2.489  0  0.312  1707  0  0  0  1763  2.160  0.998  0.428  1819  0  0.104  0.471  1708  0  0  0.085  1764  2.682  2.113  8.703  1820  2.904  0  0.520  1709  0  0  0  1765  13.952  4.569  0  1821  2.235  0.532  0.002  1710  0  0  0  1766  0  0  0  1822  2.846  0.049  0  1711  0  0  0.601  1767  1.650  1.858  0.757  1823  2.029  0.472  0  1712  0  0  0  1768  1.990  0.033  0  1824  0  0  0  1713  0  0  0.042  1769  0  0  0.112  1825  1.923  0  0.566  1714  0  0  0  1770  1.112  0.016  0.053  1826  0  0.008  0.049  1715  0  0  0  1771  0  0  0  1827  1.175  0  0  1716  0  0  0.164  1772  0.055  0  0  1828  1.650  0  0  1717  0  0  0  1773  0  0.033  0  1829  4.426  0.754  1.935  1718  0  0  0  1774  0.931  0  0.003  1830  0  0  0.083  1719  0  0  0  1775  0  0  0  1831  3.282  0  0.252  1720  0  0  0  1776  1.391  0  0  1832  0  0.168  0.084  1721  0  0  0  1777  0.409  0  0.292  1833  3.551  0  0.102  1722  0  0  0  1778  0.382  0  0  1834  3.263  0  0.017  1723  0  0.528  1.042  1779  1.451  0  0.151  1835  4.918  0  0.033  1724  0  0  0  1780  2.553  0.688  0.144  1836  4.338  0.016  0.084  1725  0  0  0  1781  3.152  0  0  1837  2.616  0  0.164  1726  0  0  0  1782  1.752  0  0.033  1838  0  0.085  0.079  1727  0  0  0  1783  3.275  0.233  0  1839  26.625  0.081  0  1728  0.911  1.692  1.858  1784  0  0  0.002  1840  3.516  0  0.175  1729  4.730  19.416  0.922  1785  0.518  0  0.002  1841  0.655  0  0.577  1730  2.607  3.349  1.262  1786  1.617  0  0.002  1842  1.569  0  0.033  1731  0.749  3.754  0.199  1787  4.113  0.165  0  1843  3.964  0  0.041  1732  0  0  0  1788  0.870  0  0  1844  0.605  0  0.763  1733  0.614  0  0  1789  0.637  0.396  0.311  1845  0.221  0  1.268  1734  0  0  0.505  1790  0.212  0  0.604  1846  0.747  0  0.764  1735  1.228  1.115  0  1791  0.843  0  1.015  1847  1.998  0  0  1736  0  1.740  0  1792  0.352  0  0.195  1848  3.083  0  0.973                  1849  3.888  0  4.485  Year  St Petersburg - London  St Petersburg - Amsterdam  Rest - rest westward  Year  St Petersburg - London  St Petersburg - Amsterdam  Rest - rest westward  Year  St Petersburg - London  St Petersburg - Amsterdam  Rest - rest westward  1681  0  0  0.123  1737  0  0.491  0  1793  0.229  0  0.017  1682  0  0  0  1738  0  2.795  0  1794  0.196  0  0.008  1683  0  0  0.381  1739  0  1.474  0  1795  0.354  0  0.010  1684  0  0  0.205  1740  0  0  0.620  1796  1.365  0  0.046  1685  0  0  0  1741  0  0  0  1797  0.452  0.082  0.004  1686  0  0  0  1742  0  0  0  1798  4.029  0.100  0.139  1687  0  0  0  1743  0  0  0  1799  1.404  0  0  1688  0  0  0  1744  0  0  0  1800  0  0  0.007  1689  0  0  0  1745  0  0  0  1801  0  0  0  1690  0  0  0  1746  0.642  1.310  0.483  1802  0.327  0  0.365  1691  0  0  0  1747  0  0  0  1803  0.751  0.655  0.005  1692  0  0  0  1748  0  0  0  1804  1.310  0  0.117  1693  0  0  0  1749  0  0.368  0.907  1805  1.236  0  0.166  1694  0  0  0  1750  0  0  0  1806  0.985  0  0.041  1695  0  0  0  1751  1.007  0  0  1807  0.917  0  0  1696  0  0  0  1752  0  0.328  0  1808  0  0  0  1697  0  0  0.050  1753  0  0  0  1809  0  0  0  1698  0  0  0.175  1754  0  0  0.004  1810  0  0  0.046  1699  0  0  0  1755  0  0  0  1811  0  0  0  1700  0  0  0  1756  0  0  0  1812  0  0  0  1701  0  0  0  1757  0  0  0  1813  0  0  0  1702  0  0  0  1758  0  0  0  1814  0  0  0.129  1703  0  0  0  1759  0  0  0  1815  0  0.098  0.239  1704  0  0  0  1760  0.082  0  0  1816  3.080  0  0.164  1705  0  0  0  1761  0.664  0  0.0419  1817  0    0.311  1706  0  0  0  1762  0.985  0.164  0  1818  2.489  0  0.312  1707  0  0  0  1763  2.160  0.998  0.428  1819  0  0.104  0.471  1708  0  0  0.085  1764  2.682  2.113  8.703  1820  2.904  0  0.520  1709  0  0  0  1765  13.952  4.569  0  1821  2.235  0.532  0.002  1710  0  0  0  1766  0  0  0  1822  2.846  0.049  0  1711  0  0  0.601  1767  1.650  1.858  0.757  1823  2.029  0.472  0  1712  0  0  0  1768  1.990  0.033  0  1824  0  0  0  1713  0  0  0.042  1769  0  0  0.112  1825  1.923  0  0.566  1714  0  0  0  1770  1.112  0.016  0.053  1826  0  0.008  0.049  1715  0  0  0  1771  0  0  0  1827  1.175  0  0  1716  0  0  0.164  1772  0.055  0  0  1828  1.650  0  0  1717  0  0  0  1773  0  0.033  0  1829  4.426  0.754  1.935  1718  0  0  0  1774  0.931  0  0.003  1830  0  0  0.083  1719  0  0  0  1775  0  0  0  1831  3.282  0  0.252  1720  0  0  0  1776  1.391  0  0  1832  0  0.168  0.084  1721  0  0  0  1777  0.409  0  0.292  1833  3.551  0  0.102  1722  0  0  0  1778  0.382  0  0  1834  3.263  0  0.017  1723  0  0.528  1.042  1779  1.451  0  0.151  1835  4.918  0  0.033  1724  0  0  0  1780  2.553  0.688  0.144  1836  4.338  0.016  0.084  1725  0  0  0  1781  3.152  0  0  1837  2.616  0  0.164  1726  0  0  0  1782  1.752  0  0.033  1838  0  0.085  0.079  1727  0  0  0  1783  3.275  0.233  0  1839  26.625  0.081  0  1728  0.911  1.692  1.858  1784  0  0  0.002  1840  3.516  0  0.175  1729  4.730  19.416  0.922  1785  0.518  0  0.002  1841  0.655  0  0.577  1730  2.607  3.349  1.262  1786  1.617  0  0.002  1842  1.569  0  0.033  1731  0.749  3.754  0.199  1787  4.113  0.165  0  1843  3.964  0  0.041  1732  0  0  0  1788  0.870  0  0  1844  0.605  0  0.763  1733  0.614  0  0  1789  0.637  0.396  0.311  1845  0.221  0  1.268  1734  0  0  0.505  1790  0.212  0  0.604  1846  0.747  0  0.764  1735  1.228  1.115  0  1791  0.843  0  1.015  1847  1.998  0  0  1736  0  1.740  0  1792  0.352  0  0.195  1848  3.083  0  0.973                  1849  3.888  0  4.485  Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). Fig. 3. View largeDownload slide Total volumes of rhubarb passing through the Sound eastward and westward, 1681–1849, in tons. Source: Table 2. Fig. 3. View largeDownload slide Total volumes of rhubarb passing through the Sound eastward and westward, 1681–1849, in tons. Source: Table 2. From that point onwards and throughout the first half of the nineteenth century the flow usually oscillated between zero and five tons annually with an increasing trend and peaks far exceeding that general level in 1729, 1764–1765 and 1839. More than 90 per cent of the rhubarb was shipped from St Petersburg, founded during the Great Northern War (1700–1721), while more than half of the rest had been loaded in Riga—predominantly after it had become a Russian port in that same war. The remainder came from eleven other ports. The main destinations were London (66 per cent) and—mostly in the 1720s, 1730s and 1760s—Amsterdam (27 per cent), the remaining 7 per cent being distributed among 47 other ports. Accordingly, the main routes along which rhubarb was shipped westward through the Sound went from St Petersburg to London (65 per cent) and Amsterdam (20 per cent) (Table 3 and Figure 4). Fig. 4. View largeDownload slide Main westward rhubarb routes through the Sound, 1681–1849, in tons. Source: Table 3. Fig. 4. View largeDownload slide Main westward rhubarb routes through the Sound, 1681–1849, in tons. Source: Table 3. All this seems to be in line with some important notions that have been put forward by Foust. The rhubarb coming westward through the Sound was almost exclusively Russian re-export after this had been redirected from Archangel to St Petersburg following the Peace of Nystad of 1721. Initially, the St Petersburg re-export was predominantly directed to Amsterdam just as the Archangel re-export had been before the war. Only after the middle of the eighteenth century did London gain structural importance and replace Amsterdam as the dominant destination. The eastward counter flow of rhubarb through the Sound was relatively small but not negligible, amounting to about 13 per cent of the total volume of the westward flow. It gained significance in the middle of the eighteenth century and reached its highest volume mainly in the 1780s and 1790s, more or less matching the westward flow from 1787 to 1804 (Table 2 and Figures 3 and 5). Overall, most rhubarb transported eastward through the Sound was destined for Stettin (36 per cent), a proportion to Copenhagen, Königsberg, St Petersburg, Stockholm and Danzig (in that order, together 56 per cent) and the rest (9 per cent) to 24 different places (Table 4). Table 4. Rhubarb transported eastward through the Sound according to ports of destination, 1711–1849, in tons and percentages Decades  To Stettin in tons  To Stettin (%)  To Copenhagen in tons  To Copenhagen (%)  To Königsberg in tons  To Königsberg (%)  To St Petersburg in tons  To St Petersburg (%)  To Stockholm in tons  To Stockholm (%)  To Danzig in tons  To Danzig (%)  To rest (24 places) in tons  To rest (24 places) (%)  Total in tons  Total (%)  1711–1720  0  0  0.601  81.3  0  0  0  0  0  0  0.138  18.7  0  0  0.740  100  1721–1730  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0.100  100. 0  0.100  100  1731–1740  0  0  0  0  0  0  0.195  90.2  0.021  9.8  0  0  0  0  0.216  100  1741–1750  0.017  44.3  0  0  0  0  0  0  0.021  55.7  0  0  0  0  0.038  100  1751–1760  0.025  8.4  0  0  0  0  0  0  0.119  39.4  0.091  30.1  0.067  22.1  0.302  100  1761–1770  0.116  3.9  0  0  0.042  1.4  2.274  75.7  0.245  8.2  0.327  10.9  0  0  3.005  100  1771–1780  0.410  37.8  0  0  0.125  11.5  0  0  0.496  45.7  0.042  3.9  0.013  1.2  1.086  100  1781–1790  3.949  57.7  0  0  0.919  13.4  0.392  5.7  0.700  10.2  0.505  7.4  0.376  5.5  6.841  100  1791–1800  1.840  18.8  3.237  33.1  2.695  27.6  0.726  7.4  0.367  3.8  0.292  3.0  0.611  6.3  9.767  100  1801–1810  0.661  26.1  0.642  25.3  0.252  10.0  0  0  0.867  34.2  0  0  0.112  4.4  2.534  100  1811–1820  0.118  6.6  0.233  13.0  0.253  14.1  0  0  0.161  9.0  0  0  1.023  57.2  1.789  100  1821–1830  0.922  59.7  0.000  0  0.167  10.8  0  0  0.142  9.2  0.175  11.3  0.138  8.9  1.544  100  1831–1840  1.800  75.2  0.107  4.5  0.190  7.9  0  0  0.068  2.8  0.229  9.6  0  0  2.394  100  1841–1849  2.735  55.8  0.324  6.6  0.161  3.3  0.352  7.2  0.538  11.0  0.126  2.6  0.663  13.5  4.899  100  Total  12.594  35.7  5.144  14.6  4.804  13.6  3.938  11.2  3.746  10.6  1.925  5.5  3.103  8.8  35.254  100  Decades  To Stettin in tons  To Stettin (%)  To Copenhagen in tons  To Copenhagen (%)  To Königsberg in tons  To Königsberg (%)  To St Petersburg in tons  To St Petersburg (%)  To Stockholm in tons  To Stockholm (%)  To Danzig in tons  To Danzig (%)  To rest (24 places) in tons  To rest (24 places) (%)  Total in tons  Total (%)  1711–1720  0  0  0.601  81.3  0  0  0  0  0  0  0.138  18.7  0  0  0.740  100  1721–1730  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0.100  100. 0  0.100  100  1731–1740  0  0  0  0  0  0  0.195  90.2  0.021  9.8  0  0  0  0  0.216  100  1741–1750  0.017  44.3  0  0  0  0  0  0  0.021  55.7  0  0  0  0  0.038  100  1751–1760  0.025  8.4  0  0  0  0  0  0  0.119  39.4  0.091  30.1  0.067  22.1  0.302  100  1761–1770  0.116  3.9  0  0  0.042  1.4  2.274  75.7  0.245  8.2  0.327  10.9  0  0  3.005  100  1771–1780  0.410  37.8  0  0  0.125  11.5  0  0  0.496  45.7  0.042  3.9  0.013  1.2  1.086  100  1781–1790  3.949  57.7  0  0  0.919  13.4  0.392  5.7  0.700  10.2  0.505  7.4  0.376  5.5  6.841  100  1791–1800  1.840  18.8  3.237  33.1  2.695  27.6  0.726  7.4  0.367  3.8  0.292  3.0  0.611  6.3  9.767  100  1801–1810  0.661  26.1  0.642  25.3  0.252  10.0  0  0  0.867  34.2  0  0  0.112  4.4  2.534  100  1811–1820  0.118  6.6  0.233  13.0  0.253  14.1  0  0  0.161  9.0  0  0  1.023  57.2  1.789  100  1821–1830  0.922  59.7  0.000  0  0.167  10.8  0  0  0.142  9.2  0.175  11.3  0.138  8.9  1.544  100  1831–1840  1.800  75.2  0.107  4.5  0.190  7.9  0  0  0.068  2.8  0.229  9.6  0  0  2.394  100  1841–1849  2.735  55.8  0.324  6.6  0.161  3.3  0.352  7.2  0.538  11.0  0.126  2.6  0.663  13.5  4.899  100  Total  12.594  35.7  5.144  14.6  4.804  13.6  3.938  11.2  3.746  10.6  1.925  5.5  3.103  8.8  35.254  100  Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). Fig. 5. View largeDownload slide Main eastward rhubarb routes through the Sound, 1711–1849, in tons. Source: Table 6. Fig. 5. View largeDownload slide Main eastward rhubarb routes through the Sound, 1711–1849, in tons. Source: Table 6. The rhubarb drug had been shipped mainly from London (68 per cent) and to a much lesser degree from Gothenburg (18 per cent)—the rest coming from 15 other ports (Table 5). Table 5. Rhubarb transported eastward through the Sound according to ports of departure, 1711–1849, in tons and percentages Decades  From London in tons  From London (%)  From Gothenburg in tons  From Gothenburg (%)  From rest in tons  From rest (%)  Total in tons  Total (%)  1711–1720  0  0  0  0  0.138  100  0.138  100  1721–1730  0  _  0  _  0  _  0.000  _  1731–1740  0  0  0.021  100  0  0  0.021  100  1741–1750  0  0  0.017  44.3  0.021  55.7  0.038  100  1751–1760  0.167  55.3  0.127  42.0  0.008  2.7  0.302  100  1761-1770  2.521  83.9  0.393  13.1  0.090  3.0  3.005  100  1771-1780  0.410  37.8  0.663  61.1  0.012  1.1  1.086  100  1781-1790  5.758  84.2  1.077  15.8  0.003  0.0  6.839  100  1791-1800  6.493  66.5  1.005  10.3  2.269  23.2  9.767  100  1801-1810  1.194  47.1  1.190  47.0  0.150  5.9  2.534  100  1811-1820  0.559  31.0  1.059  58.7  0.186  10.3  1.804  100  1821-1830  1.154  74.8  0.085  5.5  0.305  19.7  1.544  100  1831-1840  2.054  85.8  0.119  5.0  0.220  9.2  2.394  100  1841-1849  2.905  59.3  0.538  11.0  1.456  29.7  4.899  100  Total  23.216  67.5  6.295  18.3  4.859  14.1  34.370  100  Decades  From London in tons  From London (%)  From Gothenburg in tons  From Gothenburg (%)  From rest in tons  From rest (%)  Total in tons  Total (%)  1711–1720  0  0  0  0  0.138  100  0.138  100  1721–1730  0  _  0  _  0  _  0.000  _  1731–1740  0  0  0.021  100  0  0  0.021  100  1741–1750  0  0  0.017  44.3  0.021  55.7  0.038  100  1751–1760  0.167  55.3  0.127  42.0  0.008  2.7  0.302  100  1761-1770  2.521  83.9  0.393  13.1  0.090  3.0  3.005  100  1771-1780  0.410  37.8  0.663  61.1  0.012  1.1  1.086  100  1781-1790  5.758  84.2  1.077  15.8  0.003  0.0  6.839  100  1791-1800  6.493  66.5  1.005  10.3  2.269  23.2  9.767  100  1801-1810  1.194  47.1  1.190  47.0  0.150  5.9  2.534  100  1811-1820  0.559  31.0  1.059  58.7  0.186  10.3  1.804  100  1821-1830  1.154  74.8  0.085  5.5  0.305  19.7  1.544  100  1831-1840  2.054  85.8  0.119  5.0  0.220  9.2  2.394  100  1841-1849  2.905  59.3  0.538  11.0  1.456  29.7  4.899  100  Total  23.216  67.5  6.295  18.3  4.859  14.1  34.370  100  Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). Accordingly, the main routes which rhubarb followed eastward through the Sound were those from London to Stettin (36 per cent), from London to Copenhagen, Königsberg and Danzig (together 20 per cent) and from Gothenburg to Stockholm (9 per cent) (Table 6 and Figure 5). The 57 other routes—the ‘rest to rest’—amounted 35 per cent. Table 6. Main eastward rhubarb routes through the Sound, 1711–1849, in tons Year  London– Stettin  London– Königsberg, Danzig and Copenhagen  Gothenburg– Stockholm  Rest–rest (57 routes)  Year  London– Stettin  London– Königsberg, Danzig and Copenhagen  Gothenburg– Stockholm  Rest–rest (57 routes)  Year  London– Stettin  London– Königsberg, Danzig and Copenhagen  Gothenburg– Stockholm  Rest–rest (57 routes)  1711  0  0  0  0.138  1757  0  0  0.060  0  1803  0  0  0.026  0  1712  0  0  0  0  1758  0  0  0.017  0  1804  0.495  0.091  0.394  0.352  1713  0  0  0  0  1759  0  0  0  0  1805  0  0  0.051  0.091  1714  0  0  0  0  1760  0  0  0  0.008  1806  0  0.243  0.219  0.068  1715  0  0  0  0  1761  0  0  0.042  0.127  1807  0  0  0.085  0  1716  0  0  0  0  1762  0  0  0.158  0  1808  0  0  0  0  1717  0  0  0  0  1763  0  0  0  0.234  1809  0  0  0  0  1718  0  0  0  0  1764  0  0  0  2.039  1810  0  0  0  0  1719  0  0  0  0  1765  0  0  0  0  1811  0  0  0  0.058  1720  0  0  0  0  1766  0  0  0  0  1812  0  0  0  0  1721  0  0  0  0  1767  0  0.133  0  0  1813  0  0.050  0  0  1722  0  0  0  0  1768  0.084  0  0.011  0  1814  0  0.181  0  0.946  1723  0  0  0  0  1769  0  0  0  0.088  1815  0  0  0  0.015  1724  0  0  0  0  1770  0.030  0  0.034  0.024  1816  0.056  0  0  0  1725  0  0  0  0  1771  0.051  0  0  0  1817  0  0  0.076  0.005  1726  0  0  0  0  1772  0.200  0    0  1818  0.063  0  0  0.251  1727  0  0  0  0  1773  0.005  0  0  0  1819  0  0.067  0  0  1728  0  0  0  0  1774  0.145  0  0.003  0.012  1820  0  0  0  0.037  1729  0  0  0  0  1775  0  0  0  0  1821  0  0.233  0  0.208  1730  0  0  0  0  1776  0  0  0.053  0.008  1822  0  0  0  0.124  1731  0  0  0  0  1777  0  0  0  0.042  1823  0.128  0  0  0  1732  0  0  0  0  1778  0  0  0.440  0  1824  0  0  0  0  1733  0  0  0  0  1779  0  0  0  0.004  1825  0  0  0  0  1734  0  0  0  0  1780  0.009  0  0  0.112  1826  0.167  0  0  0  1735  0  0  0  0  1781  0.032  0  0  0.273  1827  0  0  0  0.057  1736  0  0  0  0  1782  0.011  0.009  0  0.062  1828  0.298  0  0  0  1737  0  0  0  0  1783  0  0  0  0  1829  0.197  0  0  0  1738  0  0  0  0  1784  0.009  0  0.296  0  1830  0.132  0  0  0  1739  0  0  0.021  0  1785  0.005  0  0  0.093  1831  0.178  0.062  0  0.136  1740  0  0  0  0  1786  0.121  0.226  0  0.003  1832  0.255  0.063  0  0.029  1741  0  0  0  0.021  1787  1.309  0.288  0.089  0.019  1833  0  0.069  0  0.055  1742  0  0  0  0  1788  0.798  0.703  0.022  0.064  1834  0.851  0  0  0  1743  0  0  0  0  1789  1.102  0  0.173  0.111  1835  0.094  0  0  0  1744  0  0  0  0  1790  0.561  0.198  0.119  0.145  1836  0.122  0  0  0  1745  0  0  0  0  1791  0.015  0.005  0.010  0.424  1837  0  0  0  0  1746  0  0  0  0  1792  0  0.404  0.001  0.218  1838  0.062  0  0  0  1747  0  0  0  0  1793  0  0.077  0.108  0  1839  0.177  0.060  0  0  1748  0  0  0  0.017  1794  0.041  0.146  0  0.102  1840  0.061  0  0.013  0.107  1749  0  0  0  0  1795  0  0.194    0.089  1841  0.063  0  0  0.005  1750  0  0  0  0  1796  0.700  0  0  2.955  1842  0.119  0  0  0  1751  0    0  0  1797  0.492  1.709  0.069  0.215  1843  0.301  0  0.538  0.019  1752  0  0  0  0.059  1798  0.429  1.039  0  0.149  1844  0.885  0  0  0.180  1753  0.017  0.09  0  0  1799  0  0  0.031  0.040  1845  0.620  0  0  0.271  1754  0  0  0.021  0  1800  0.107  0  0  0  1846  0.351  0  0  0  1755  0  0  0.021  0  1801  0.113  0  0  0.005  1847  0.079  0  0  0  1756  0  0  0  0.008  1802  0  0.252  0  0.049  1848  0.118  0.210  0  0.451                      1849  0.044  0.114  0  0.529                    Total in tons    12.299  6.915  3.201  11.954                    Total per cents    35.8  20.1  9.3  34.8  Year  London– Stettin  London– Königsberg, Danzig and Copenhagen  Gothenburg– Stockholm  Rest–rest (57 routes)  Year  London– Stettin  London– Königsberg, Danzig and Copenhagen  Gothenburg– Stockholm  Rest–rest (57 routes)  Year  London– Stettin  London– Königsberg, Danzig and Copenhagen  Gothenburg– Stockholm  Rest–rest (57 routes)  1711  0  0  0  0.138  1757  0  0  0.060  0  1803  0  0  0.026  0  1712  0  0  0  0  1758  0  0  0.017  0  1804  0.495  0.091  0.394  0.352  1713  0  0  0  0  1759  0  0  0  0  1805  0  0  0.051  0.091  1714  0  0  0  0  1760  0  0  0  0.008  1806  0  0.243  0.219  0.068  1715  0  0  0  0  1761  0  0  0.042  0.127  1807  0  0  0.085  0  1716  0  0  0  0  1762  0  0  0.158  0  1808  0  0  0  0  1717  0  0  0  0  1763  0  0  0  0.234  1809  0  0  0  0  1718  0  0  0  0  1764  0  0  0  2.039  1810  0  0  0  0  1719  0  0  0  0  1765  0  0  0  0  1811  0  0  0  0.058  1720  0  0  0  0  1766  0  0  0  0  1812  0  0  0  0  1721  0  0  0  0  1767  0  0.133  0  0  1813  0  0.050  0  0  1722  0  0  0  0  1768  0.084  0  0.011  0  1814  0  0.181  0  0.946  1723  0  0  0  0  1769  0  0  0  0.088  1815  0  0  0  0.015  1724  0  0  0  0  1770  0.030  0  0.034  0.024  1816  0.056  0  0  0  1725  0  0  0  0  1771  0.051  0  0  0  1817  0  0  0.076  0.005  1726  0  0  0  0  1772  0.200  0    0  1818  0.063  0  0  0.251  1727  0  0  0  0  1773  0.005  0  0  0  1819  0  0.067  0  0  1728  0  0  0  0  1774  0.145  0  0.003  0.012  1820  0  0  0  0.037  1729  0  0  0  0  1775  0  0  0  0  1821  0  0.233  0  0.208  1730  0  0  0  0  1776  0  0  0.053  0.008  1822  0  0  0  0.124  1731  0  0  0  0  1777  0  0  0  0.042  1823  0.128  0  0  0  1732  0  0  0  0  1778  0  0  0.440  0  1824  0  0  0  0  1733  0  0  0  0  1779  0  0  0  0.004  1825  0  0  0  0  1734  0  0  0  0  1780  0.009  0  0  0.112  1826  0.167  0  0  0  1735  0  0  0  0  1781  0.032  0  0  0.273  1827  0  0  0  0.057  1736  0  0  0  0  1782  0.011  0.009  0  0.062  1828  0.298  0  0  0  1737  0  0  0  0  1783  0  0  0  0  1829  0.197  0  0  0  1738  0  0  0  0  1784  0.009  0  0.296  0  1830  0.132  0  0  0  1739  0  0  0.021  0  1785  0.005  0  0  0.093  1831  0.178  0.062  0  0.136  1740  0  0  0  0  1786  0.121  0.226  0  0.003  1832  0.255  0.063  0  0.029  1741  0  0  0  0.021  1787  1.309  0.288  0.089  0.019  1833  0  0.069  0  0.055  1742  0  0  0  0  1788  0.798  0.703  0.022  0.064  1834  0.851  0  0  0  1743  0  0  0  0  1789  1.102  0  0.173  0.111  1835  0.094  0  0  0  1744  0  0  0  0  1790  0.561  0.198  0.119  0.145  1836  0.122  0  0  0  1745  0  0  0  0  1791  0.015  0.005  0.010  0.424  1837  0  0  0  0  1746  0  0  0  0  1792  0  0.404  0.001  0.218  1838  0.062  0  0  0  1747  0  0  0  0  1793  0  0.077  0.108  0  1839  0.177  0.060  0  0  1748  0  0  0  0.017  1794  0.041  0.146  0  0.102  1840  0.061  0  0.013  0.107  1749  0  0  0  0  1795  0  0.194    0.089  1841  0.063  0  0  0.005  1750  0  0  0  0  1796  0.700  0  0  2.955  1842  0.119  0  0  0  1751  0    0  0  1797  0.492  1.709  0.069  0.215  1843  0.301  0  0.538  0.019  1752  0  0  0  0.059  1798  0.429  1.039  0  0.149  1844  0.885  0  0  0.180  1753  0.017  0.09  0  0  1799  0  0  0.031  0.040  1845  0.620  0  0  0.271  1754  0  0  0.021  0  1800  0.107  0  0  0  1846  0.351  0  0  0  1755  0  0  0.021  0  1801  0.113  0  0  0.005  1847  0.079  0  0  0  1756  0  0  0  0.008  1802  0  0.252  0  0.049  1848  0.118  0.210  0  0.451                      1849  0.044  0.114  0  0.529                    Total in tons    12.299  6.915  3.201  11.954                    Total per cents    35.8  20.1  9.3  34.8  Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). The London to St Petersburg and New York to Copenhagen routes stand out in the rest-to-rest category, of which, taken together, they constitute almost one half (47 per cent). These two routes, nevertheless, appear in only a few isolated years—London–St Petersburg mainly in 1764, New York–Copenhagen only in 1796.81 One might be tempted to conclude from the combination of data of the westward and the eastward flows through the Sound that rhubarb arrived in the Baltic Sea area only after the Archangel epoch, that is from the 1720s, and that hardly any rhubarb reached the area before that. After all, it was only from the 1720s did Russia begin to export rhubarb westward via the Sound, while significant quantities of rhubarb were not shipped eastward through the Sound until the 1750s onwards. We have, however, already seen that some Baltic Sea ports—Reval, Narva, Riga—imported rhubarb overland from Russia long before that, in the seventeenth century. It seems very likely that these ports re-exported the drug to other Baltic Sea ports and that this transit and distribution business would have been concentrated in St Petersburg and to a much lesser extend in Riga after the Great Northern War. The Sound Toll Registers are silent about trade and shipping within the Baltic Sea area. It will remain impossible to make firm assessments about the volume of that business before relevant information has been extracted from other sources. To summarise, we may conclude that rhubarb arrived overland from the east to at least some Baltic Sea ports throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and that these ports probably re-exported it to other Baltic Sea ports. From the 1750s rhubarb began to be shipped to non-Russian Baltic Sea ports via the Sound. This was most likely an additional flow. The Baltic sarsaparilla traffic Sarsaparilla seems to offer a better case for studying the supply of exotic drugs to the Baltic Sea area. Sarsaparilla reached Europe via the Atlantic Ocean and probably mainly arrived in the Baltic Sea area via the Sound. Table 7 and Figure 6 show the development of both that flow and the flow in the opposite direction from 1670 to 1849. Table 7. Total volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound eastward and westward, 1670–1849, in tons Year  W–E  E–W  Year  W–E  E–W  Year  W–E  E–W  Year  W–E  E–W  1670  0  0  1715  0.177  0  1760  0  0  1805  11.485  0.137  1671  0.074  0  1716  0.148  0  1761  0  0  1806  5.846  3.426  1672  0.012  0  1717  0.336  0  1762  0.052  0  1807  1.699  0  1673  0  0  1718  0.235  0  1763  0.097  0  1808  0  0  1674  0.049  0  1719  0.078  0  1764  0  0  1809  1.230  0  1675  0.099  0  1720  0.040  0  1765  0  0  1810  1.318  0  1676  0.148  0  1721  0.059  0  1766  0.247  0  1811  1.322  0  1677  0.245  0  1722  0.037  0  1767  0.007  0  1812  5.034  0  1678  0.124  0  1723  0.051  0  1768  0  0  1813  4.121  0  1679  0.198  0  1724  0.052  0  1769  0.454  0  1814  15.466  0  1680  0.148  0  1725  0.124  0  1770  0  0.219  1815  10.728  0.499  1681  0.296  0  1726  0.025  0  1771  0.650  0  1816  22.050  0  1682  0.395  0  1727  0.025  0  1772  0.390  0  1817  44.376  0.211  1683  0  0  1728  0  0  1773  0.713  0  1818  15.507  0  1684  0.124  0  1729  0  0  1774  0.509  0  1819  24.637  0  1685  0.049  0  1730  0.049  0  1775  0.149  0  1820  53.565  0  1686  0.025  0  1731  0  0  1776  0  0  1821  59.109  0  1687  0.049  0  1732  0  0  1777  0.651  0  1822  17.242  0.341  1688  0.074  0  1733  0  0  1778  0.619  0  1823  23.333  0  1689  0.074  0  1734  0  0  1779  0.045  0  1824  1.051  0  1690  0.111  0  1735  0.049  0  1780  0.208  0  1825  50.958  0  1691  0.025  0  1736  0.001  0  1781  0.024  0  1826  34.842  0.002  1692  0  0  1737  0  0  1782  0.091  0  1827  3.181  0  1693  0.098  0  1738  0.153  0  1783  0.672  0  1828  22.266  0.134  1694  0.351  0  1739  0  0  1784  0.514  0  1829  102.253  1.311  1695  1.544  1.217  1740  0  0  1785  0.091  0  1830  23.874  0  1696  0  0  1741  0  0  1786  0.509  0  1831  58.026  0  1697  0.012  0  1742  0  0  1787  0.325  0  1832  48.904  0  1698  0.262  0  1743  0  0  1788  0.430  0  1833  61.529  0  1699  0.161  0  1744  0  0  1789  1.529  0  1834  74.647  0  1700  0.074  0  1745  0.008  0  1790  5.379  0  1835  71.194  0  1701  0.099  0  1746  0  0  1791  4.061  0  1836  56.428  0  1702  0.105  0  1747  0  0  1792  5.469  0  1837  39.660  0  1701  0  0  1748  0.097  0  1793  2.978  0  1838  47.385  0  1704  0.027  0  1749  0  0  1794  3.152  0  1839  66.632  0.969  1705  0.037  0  1750  0  0  1795  7.627  0  1840  72.255  0  1706  0  0  1751  0.184  0  1796  11.465  0  1841  21.024  0  1707  0  0  1752  0  0  1797  0  1.508  1842  121.985  0.004  1708  0.057  0  1753  0.273  0  1798  0.213  0  1843  102.717  4.775  1709  0  0  1754  0  0  1799  0.100  0  1844  122.346  2.373  1710  0.222  0  1755  0  0  1800  0.174  0  1845  53.839  0  1711  0.127  0  1756  0  0  1801  0.321  0  1846  51.996  0  1712  0.030  0  1757  0  0  1802  0.753  0  1847  44.454  0  1713  0.487  0  1758  0  0  1803  4.581  0  1848  28.281  0  1714  0.091  0  1759  0  0  1804  20.857  0.097  1849  35.958  0.363  Year  W–E  E–W  Year  W–E  E–W  Year  W–E  E–W  Year  W–E  E–W  1670  0  0  1715  0.177  0  1760  0  0  1805  11.485  0.137  1671  0.074  0  1716  0.148  0  1761  0  0  1806  5.846  3.426  1672  0.012  0  1717  0.336  0  1762  0.052  0  1807  1.699  0  1673  0  0  1718  0.235  0  1763  0.097  0  1808  0  0  1674  0.049  0  1719  0.078  0  1764  0  0  1809  1.230  0  1675  0.099  0  1720  0.040  0  1765  0  0  1810  1.318  0  1676  0.148  0  1721  0.059  0  1766  0.247  0  1811  1.322  0  1677  0.245  0  1722  0.037  0  1767  0.007  0  1812  5.034  0  1678  0.124  0  1723  0.051  0  1768  0  0  1813  4.121  0  1679  0.198  0  1724  0.052  0  1769  0.454  0  1814  15.466  0  1680  0.148  0  1725  0.124  0  1770  0  0.219  1815  10.728  0.499  1681  0.296  0  1726  0.025  0  1771  0.650  0  1816  22.050  0  1682  0.395  0  1727  0.025  0  1772  0.390  0  1817  44.376  0.211  1683  0  0  1728  0  0  1773  0.713  0  1818  15.507  0  1684  0.124  0  1729  0  0  1774  0.509  0  1819  24.637  0  1685  0.049  0  1730  0.049  0  1775  0.149  0  1820  53.565  0  1686  0.025  0  1731  0  0  1776  0  0  1821  59.109  0  1687  0.049  0  1732  0  0  1777  0.651  0  1822  17.242  0.341  1688  0.074  0  1733  0  0  1778  0.619  0  1823  23.333  0  1689  0.074  0  1734  0  0  1779  0.045  0  1824  1.051  0  1690  0.111  0  1735  0.049  0  1780  0.208  0  1825  50.958  0  1691  0.025  0  1736  0.001  0  1781  0.024  0  1826  34.842  0.002  1692  0  0  1737  0  0  1782  0.091  0  1827  3.181  0  1693  0.098  0  1738  0.153  0  1783  0.672  0  1828  22.266  0.134  1694  0.351  0  1739  0  0  1784  0.514  0  1829  102.253  1.311  1695  1.544  1.217  1740  0  0  1785  0.091  0  1830  23.874  0  1696  0  0  1741  0  0  1786  0.509  0  1831  58.026  0  1697  0.012  0  1742  0  0  1787  0.325  0  1832  48.904  0  1698  0.262  0  1743  0  0  1788  0.430  0  1833  61.529  0  1699  0.161  0  1744  0  0  1789  1.529  0  1834  74.647  0  1700  0.074  0  1745  0.008  0  1790  5.379  0  1835  71.194  0  1701  0.099  0  1746  0  0  1791  4.061  0  1836  56.428  0  1702  0.105  0  1747  0  0  1792  5.469  0  1837  39.660  0  1701  0  0  1748  0.097  0  1793  2.978  0  1838  47.385  0  1704  0.027  0  1749  0  0  1794  3.152  0  1839  66.632  0.969  1705  0.037  0  1750  0  0  1795  7.627  0  1840  72.255  0  1706  0  0  1751  0.184  0  1796  11.465  0  1841  21.024  0  1707  0  0  1752  0  0  1797  0  1.508  1842  121.985  0.004  1708  0.057  0  1753  0.273  0  1798  0.213  0  1843  102.717  4.775  1709  0  0  1754  0  0  1799  0.100  0  1844  122.346  2.373  1710  0.222  0  1755  0  0  1800  0.174  0  1845  53.839  0  1711  0.127  0  1756  0  0  1801  0.321  0  1846  51.996  0  1712  0.030  0  1757  0  0  1802  0.753  0  1847  44.454  0  1713  0.487  0  1758  0  0  1803  4.581  0  1848  28.281  0  1714  0.091  0  1759  0  0  1804  20.857  0.097  1849  35.958  0.363  Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). Fig. 6. View largeDownload slide Total volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound eastward and westward, 1670–1849, in tons. Source: Table 7. Fig. 6. View largeDownload slide Total volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound eastward and westward, 1670–1849, in tons. Source: Table 7. Four things stand out. First, the east–west traffic of sarsaparilla was indeed negligible. Second, in the long period from 1671 up to and including 1788, the west–east traffic exceeded one ton per year only once—in 1695.82 Third, the traffic increased considerably from 1789 onwards, but up to and including 1813 it exceeded eight tons per year only in 1796, 1804 and 1805; and, fourth, sarsaprilla began a spectacular and persistent—only very occasionally interrupted—rise from 1814 onwards to levels over 20, 40 and 60 tons per year with peaks of over 100 tons in 1829, 1842, 1843 and 1844. The large figures of the nineteenth century make the small levels before that seem negligible. They are not. Table 8 illustrates this point, comparing imports of sarsaparilla in England and in the Baltic Sea region via the Sound. We have interpreted the measure ‘lb’ in Wallis as pound avoirdupois of 0.454 kilogram. Table 8. English sarsaparilla imports and sarsaparilla passing eastward trough the Sound, 1685–1774, in tons Year  E: English import  S: Eastward through the Sound  S as percentage of E  1685  7.604  0.049  0.6  1699  5.003  0.161  3.2  1700  5.003  0.074  1.5  1701  5.003  0.099  2.0  1722  0.573  0.037  6.5  1723  0.573  0.051  9.0  1724  0.573  0.052  9.1  1752  22.623  0  0.0  1753  22.623  0.273  1.2  1754  22.623  0  0.0  1772  1.539  0.390  25.4  1773  1.539  0.713  46.3  1774  1.539  0.509  33.1  Year  E: English import  S: Eastward through the Sound  S as percentage of E  1685  7.604  0.049  0.6  1699  5.003  0.161  3.2  1700  5.003  0.074  1.5  1701  5.003  0.099  2.0  1722  0.573  0.037  6.5  1723  0.573  0.051  9.0  1724  0.573  0.052  9.1  1752  22.623  0  0.0  1753  22.623  0.273  1.2  1754  22.623  0  0.0  1772  1.539  0.390  25.4  1773  1.539  0.713  46.3  1774  1.539  0.509  33.1  Sources: English import—Wallis, ‘Exotic drugs,’ 42; Eastward through the Sound—www.soundtoll.nl. (see note 57). It is clear that sarsaprilla imports in the Baltic Sea region were tiny compared to those of England for a long time. But it also appears that they picked up in the second half of the eighteenth century to a level of about one-third of England’s imports. And that level was probably twice as high in net figures. After all, if we may conclude from Wallis’ figures that England consumed perhaps half of its imported medicinal drugs and re-exported the other half in the second half of the eighteenth century, and if this is true for the single case of sarsaparilla, too, we can propose that the level of the Baltic Sea region’s consumption of sarsaparilla amounted to about two-thirds of that of England in the second half of the eighteenth century—if, indeed, the Baltic Sea region did not re-export the medicine.83 We may, in any case, conclude that the Baltic Sea region only began to import sarsaparilla in any significant quantities in the second half of the eighteenth century—at least a hundred years later than England. Before we jump to any further conclusions about the pace at which sarsaparilla conquered the Baltic Sea hinterlands, we should look at its precise destinations. Table 9 and Figure 7 indicate that, from 1788 onwards, the sarsaparilla traffic was directed to St Petersburg—and, far less, in the 1840s, to its outport Kronstadt—to a such an overwhelming extent that it almost blocks our view of the sarsaparilla traffic to the other relevant ports. It is, nevertheless, relevant to check the structure and the development of that traffic. Its total for the entire period from 1671 to 1849 amounted 152 tons and its development is depicted in Table 10 and Figure 8. Table 9. Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound to St Petersburg, Kronstadt and the rest of the Baltic Sea region destinations, 1671–1849, in tons Year  SPb  Kronstadt  Rest  Year  SPb  Kronstadt  Rest  Year  SPb  Kronstadt  Rest  1671  0  0  0.074  1731  0  0  0  1791  3.942  0  0.119  1672  0  0  0.012  1732  0  0  0  1792  5.357  0  0.112  1673  0  0  0  1733  0  0  0  1793  2.978  0  0  1674  0  0  0.049  1734  0  0  0  1794  0  0  3.152  1675  0  0  0.099  1735  0  0  0.049  1795  7.627  0  0  1676  0  0  0.148  1736  0  0  0.001  1796  11.292  0  0.173  1677  0  0  0.245  1737  0  0  0  1797  0  0  0  1678  0  0  0.124  1738  0  0  0.153  1798  0  0  0.213  1679  0  0  0.198  1739  0  0  0  1799  0  0  0.100  1680  0  0  0.148  1740  0  0  0  1800  0.174  0  0  1681  0  0  0.296  1741  0  0  0  1801  0.321  0  0  1682  0  0  0.395  1742  0  0  0  1802  0.730  0  0.023  1683  0  0  0  1743  0  0  0  1803  3.131  0  1.450  1684  0  0  0.124  1744  0  0  0  1804  14.767  0  6.090  1685  0  0  0.049  1745  0  0  0.008  1805  10.951  0  0.534  1686  0  0  0.025  1746  0  0  0  1806  5.646  0  0.201  1687  0  0  0.049  1747  0  0  0  1807  1.699  0  0  1688  0  0  0.074  1748  0  0  0.097  1808  0  0  0  1689  0  0  0.074  1749  0  0  0  1809  1.230  0  0  1690  0  0  0.111  1750  0  0  0  1810  0  0  1.318  1691  0  0  0.025  1751  0  0  0.184  1811  1.322  0  0  1692  0  0  0  1752  0  0  0  1812  0  0  5.034  1693  0  0  0.098  1753  0.011  0  0.262  1813  4.121  0  0  1694  0  0  0.351  1754  0  0  0  1814  15.166  0  0.299  1695  0  0  1.544  1755  0  0  0  1815  10.662  0  0.066  1696  0  0  0  1756  0  0  0  1816  21.416  0  0.633  1697  0  0  0.012  1757  0  0  0  1817  44.341  0  0.035  1698  0  0  0.262  1758  0  0  0  1818  15.501  0  0.006  1699  0  0  0.161  1759  0  0  0  1819  24.526  0  0.110  1700  0  0  0.074  1760  0  0  0  1820  49.475  0  4.090  1701  0  0  0.099  1761  0  0  0  1821  58.884  0  0.225  1702  0  0  0.105  1762  0  0  0.052  1822  16.530  0  0.712  1703  0  0  0  1763  0  0  0.097  1823  16.891  0  6.441  1704  0  0  0.027  1764  0  0  0  1824  1.037  0  0.014  1705  0  0  0.037  1765  0  0  0  1825  29.903  0  21.055  1706  0  0  0  1766  0.247  0  0  1826  32.234  0  2.607  1707  0  0  0  1767  0.0  0  0.007  1827  3.101  0  0.079  1708  0  0  0.057  1768  0  0  0  1828  17.796  0  4.469  1709  0  0  0  1769  0.442  0  0.012  1829  98.812  0  3.441  1710  0  0  0.222  1770  0  0  0  1830  20.233  0  3.641  1711  0  0  0.127  1771  0.493  0  0.157  1831  49.499  0  8.527  1712  0  0  0.030  1772  0.172  0  0.218  1832  46.342  0  2.562  1713  0  0  0.487  1773  0.579  0  0.134  1833  54.245  0  7.284  1714  0  0  0.091  1774  0  0  0.509  1834  70.458  0  4.189  1715  0  0  0.177  1775  0  0  0.149  1835  70.846  0  0.348  1716  0  0  0.148  1776  0  0  0  1836  47.786  0  8.643  1717  0  0  0.336  1777  0.185  0  0.467  1837  39.080  0  0.580  1718  0  0  0.235  1778  0  0  0.619  1838  46.866  0  0.519  1719  0  0  0.078  1779  0  0  0.045  1839  65.952  0  0.680  1720  0  0  0.040  1780  0  0  0.208  1840  71.607  0  0.648  1721  0  0  0.059  1781  0.024  0  0  1841  11.045  0  9.978  1722  0  0  0.037  1782  0  0  0.091  1842  109.006  0.487  12.492  1723  0  0  0.051  1783  0.672  0  0  1843  96.697  1.839  4.180  1724  0  0  0.052  1784  0.514  0  0  1844  121.124  0  1.222  1725  0  0  0.124  1785  0  0  0.091  1845  48.195  2.123  3.520  1726  0  0  0.025  1786  0  0  0.509  1846  46.684  3.035  2.276  1727  0  0  0.025  1787  0.325  0  0  1847  37.605  4.562  2.287  1728  0  0  0  1788  0.145  0  0.284  1848  26.779  0  1.502  1729  0  0  0  1789  0.235  0  1.294  1849  17.415  17.358  1.185  1730  0  0  0.049  1790  5.365  0  0.015          Year  SPb  Kronstadt  Rest  Year  SPb  Kronstadt  Rest  Year  SPb  Kronstadt  Rest  1671  0  0  0.074  1731  0  0  0  1791  3.942  0  0.119  1672  0  0  0.012  1732  0  0  0  1792  5.357  0  0.112  1673  0  0  0  1733  0  0  0  1793  2.978  0  0  1674  0  0  0.049  1734  0  0  0  1794  0  0  3.152  1675  0  0  0.099  1735  0  0  0.049  1795  7.627  0  0  1676  0  0  0.148  1736  0  0  0.001  1796  11.292  0  0.173  1677  0  0  0.245  1737  0  0  0  1797  0  0  0  1678  0  0  0.124  1738  0  0  0.153  1798  0  0  0.213  1679  0  0  0.198  1739  0  0  0  1799  0  0  0.100  1680  0  0  0.148  1740  0  0  0  1800  0.174  0  0  1681  0  0  0.296  1741  0  0  0  1801  0.321  0  0  1682  0  0  0.395  1742  0  0  0  1802  0.730  0  0.023  1683  0  0  0  1743  0  0  0  1803  3.131  0  1.450  1684  0  0  0.124  1744  0  0  0  1804  14.767  0  6.090  1685  0  0  0.049  1745  0  0  0.008  1805  10.951  0  0.534  1686  0  0  0.025  1746  0  0  0  1806  5.646  0  0.201  1687  0  0  0.049  1747  0  0  0  1807  1.699  0  0  1688  0  0  0.074  1748  0  0  0.097  1808  0  0  0  1689  0  0  0.074  1749  0  0  0  1809  1.230  0  0  1690  0  0  0.111  1750  0  0  0  1810  0  0  1.318  1691  0  0  0.025  1751  0  0  0.184  1811  1.322  0  0  1692  0  0  0  1752  0  0  0  1812  0  0  5.034  1693  0  0  0.098  1753  0.011  0  0.262  1813  4.121  0  0  1694  0  0  0.351  1754  0  0  0  1814  15.166  0  0.299  1695  0  0  1.544  1755  0  0  0  1815  10.662  0  0.066  1696  0  0  0  1756  0  0  0  1816  21.416  0  0.633  1697  0  0  0.012  1757  0  0  0  1817  44.341  0  0.035  1698  0  0  0.262  1758  0  0  0  1818  15.501  0  0.006  1699  0  0  0.161  1759  0  0  0  1819  24.526  0  0.110  1700  0  0  0.074  1760  0  0  0  1820  49.475  0  4.090  1701  0  0  0.099  1761  0  0  0  1821  58.884  0  0.225  1702  0  0  0.105  1762  0  0  0.052  1822  16.530  0  0.712  1703  0  0  0  1763  0  0  0.097  1823  16.891  0  6.441  1704  0  0  0.027  1764  0  0  0  1824  1.037  0  0.014  1705  0  0  0.037  1765  0  0  0  1825  29.903  0  21.055  1706  0  0  0  1766  0.247  0  0  1826  32.234  0  2.607  1707  0  0  0  1767  0.0  0  0.007  1827  3.101  0  0.079  1708  0  0  0.057  1768  0  0  0  1828  17.796  0  4.469  1709  0  0  0  1769  0.442  0  0.012  1829  98.812  0  3.441  1710  0  0  0.222  1770  0  0  0  1830  20.233  0  3.641  1711  0  0  0.127  1771  0.493  0  0.157  1831  49.499  0  8.527  1712  0  0  0.030  1772  0.172  0  0.218  1832  46.342  0  2.562  1713  0  0  0.487  1773  0.579  0  0.134  1833  54.245  0  7.284  1714  0  0  0.091  1774  0  0  0.509  1834  70.458  0  4.189  1715  0  0  0.177  1775  0  0  0.149  1835  70.846  0  0.348  1716  0  0  0.148  1776  0  0  0  1836  47.786  0  8.643  1717  0  0  0.336  1777  0.185  0  0.467  1837  39.080  0  0.580  1718  0  0  0.235  1778  0  0  0.619  1838  46.866  0  0.519  1719  0  0  0.078  1779  0  0  0.045  1839  65.952  0  0.680  1720  0  0  0.040  1780  0  0  0.208  1840  71.607  0  0.648  1721  0  0  0.059  1781  0.024  0  0  1841  11.045  0  9.978  1722  0  0  0.037  1782  0  0  0.091  1842  109.006  0.487  12.492  1723  0  0  0.051  1783  0.672  0  0  1843  96.697  1.839  4.180  1724  0  0  0.052  1784  0.514  0  0  1844  121.124  0  1.222  1725  0  0  0.124  1785  0  0  0.091  1845  48.195  2.123  3.520  1726  0  0  0.025  1786  0  0  0.509  1846  46.684  3.035  2.276  1727  0  0  0.025  1787  0.325  0  0  1847  37.605  4.562  2.287  1728  0  0  0  1788  0.145  0  0.284  1848  26.779  0  1.502  1729  0  0  0  1789  0.235  0  1.294  1849  17.415  17.358  1.185  1730  0  0  0.049  1790  5.365  0  0.015          Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). Table 10. Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound to the Baltic Sea region destinations except St Peterburg and Kronstadt, 1671–1849, in tons Year  Danzig  Copenhagen, Elsinore, Sound, Riga, Stettin  Copenhagen and St Petersburg  Rest  Year  Danzig  Copenhagen, Elsinore, Sound, Riga, Stettin  Copenhagen and St Petersburg  Rest  Year  Danzig  Copenhagen, Elsinore, Sound, Riga, Stettin  Copenhagen and St Petersburg  Rest  1671  0.074  0  0  0  1731  0  0  0  0  1791  0  0  0  0.119  1672  0.012  0  0  0  1732  0  0  0  0  1792  0  0  0  0.112  1673  0  0  0  0  1733  0  0  0  0  1793  0  0  0  0  1674  0.049  0  0  0  1734  0  0  0  0  1794  0  3.022  0  0.130  1675  0.074  0.012  0  0.012  1735  0  0  0  0.049  1795  0  0  0  0  1676  0.148  0  0  0  1736  0.001  0  0  0  1796  0  0  0  0.173  1677  0.049  0.097  0  0.099  1737  0  0  0  0  1797  0  0  0  0  1678  0.124  0  0  0  1738  0  0  0  0.153  1798  0.023  0  0  0.190  1679  0.198  0  0  0  1739  0  0  0  0  1799  0.059  0.041  0  0  1680  0.148  0  0  0  1740  0  0  0  0  1800  0  0  0  0  1681  0.296  0  0  0  1741  0  0  0  0  1801  0  0  0  0  1682  0.346  0.049  0  0  1742  0  0  0  0  1802  0  0  0  0.023  1683  0  0  0  0  1743  0  0  0  0  1803  0.023  0  0  1.427  1684  0.074  0  0  0.049  1744  0  0  0  0  1804  0  0.311  0  5.779  1685  0.049  0  0  0  1745  0  0.008  0  0  1805  0  0.383  0  0.151  1686  0.025  0  0  0  1746  0  0  0  0  1806  0  0.127  0  0.073  1687  0.049  0  0  0  1747  0  0  0  0  1807  0  0  0  0  1688  0.074  0  0  0  1748  0  0.097  0  0  1808  0  0  0  0  1689  0.074  0  0  0  1749  0  0  0  0  1809  0  0  0  0  1690  0.111  0  0  0  1750  0  0  0  0  1810  0  0  0  1.318  1691  0.025  0  0  0  1751  0.184  0  0  0  1811  0  0  0  0  1692  0  0  0  0  1752  0  0  0  0  1812  0  0  0  5.034  1693  0.049  0.012  0  0.037  1753  0.262  0  0  0  1813  0  0  0  0  1694  0.351  0  0  0  1754  0  0  0  0  1814  0  0.299  0  0  1695  1.346  0  0  0.198  1755  0  0  0  0  1815  0  0  0  0.066  1696  0  0  0  0  1756  0  0  0  0  1816  0.227  0.407  0  0  1697  0  0.012  0  0  1757  0  0  0  0  1817  0  0  0  0.035  1698  0.188  0.025  0  0.049  1758  0  0  0  0  1818  0  0.006  0  0  1699  0.037  0.074  0  0.049  1759  0  0  0  0  1819  0.110  0  0  0  1700  0.074  0  0  0  1760  0  0  0  0  1820  0.218  0.088  0  3.784  1701  0.099  0  0  0  1761  0  0  0  0  1821  0.174  0.038  0  0.013  1702  0.080  0  0  0.025  1762  0  0  0  0.052  1822  0  0.075  0  0.637  1703  0  0  0  0  1763  0  0.097  0  0  1823  0  1.096  0  5.345  1704  0.012  0.015  0  0  1764  0  0  0  0  1824  0  0.014  0  0  1705  0.025  0.012  0  0  1765  0  0  0  0  1825  0  1.428  11.026  8.601  1706  0  0  0  0  1766  0  0  0  0  1826  0  2.542  0  0.065  1707  0  0  0  0  1767  0.007  0  0  0  1827  0  0.079  0  0  1708  0.044  0.012  0  0  1768  0  0  0  0  1828  0  0.177  4.154  0.139  1709  0  0  0  0  1769  0  0  0  0.012  1829  0.890  1.970  0.436  0.145  1710  0  0.012  0  0.210  1770  0  0  0  0  1830  0  0.434  3.208  0  1711  0.100  0  0  0.027  1771  0  0.157  0  0  1831  0  2.568  5.777  0.183  1712  0  0  0  0.030  1772  0.145  0.073  0  0  1832  0.336  0.421  1.805  0  1713  0.460  0  0  0.027  1773  0.047  0.070  0  0.017  1833  0.016  5.923  1.346  0  1714  0  0  0  0.091  1774  0.193  0.263  0  0.054  1834  0.163  2.042  1.984  0  1715  0.044  0  0  0.132  1775  0.109  0.040  0  0  1835  0.038  0.311  0  0  1716  0.025  0.012  0  0.111  1776  0  0  0  0  1836  0  5.050  3.438  0.155  1717  0.336  0  0  0  1777  0.278  0  0  0.189  1837  0  0.580  0  0  1718  0.037  0  0  0.198  1778  0.169  0.139  0  0.311  1838  0  0.519  0  0  1719  0.037  0  0  0.041  1779  0  0  0  0.045  1839  0  0.665  0  0.015  1720  0.025  0  0  0.015  1780  0.054  0  0  0.154  1840  0.058  0.298  0  0.292  1721  0.037  0  0  0.022  1781  0  0  0  0  1841  0.147  9.722  0  0.109  1722  0  0  0  0.037  1782  0.068  0  0  0.023  1842  0.173  12.319  0  0  1723  0.027  0.007  0  0.017  1783  0  0  0  0  1843  0  4.180  0  0  1724  0.015  0  0  0.037  1784  0  0  0  0  1844  0  1.102  0  0.120  1725  0  0  0  0.124  1785  0  0  0  0.091  1845  0.152  3.248  0  0.121  1726  0.025  0  0  0  1786  0.032  0.452  0  0.025  1846  0.113  0.687  0  1.476  1727  0  0  0  0.025  1787  0  0  0  0  1847  0.047  2.220  0  0.020  1728  0  0  0  0  1788  0  0.235  0  0.049  1848  0.137  1.334  0  0.031  1729  0  0  0  0  1789  0  1.175  0  0.119  1849  0  1.171  0  0.014  1730  0  0  0  0.049  1790  0  0  0  0.015            Year  Danzig  Copenhagen, Elsinore, Sound, Riga, Stettin  Copenhagen and St Petersburg  Rest  Year  Danzig  Copenhagen, Elsinore, Sound, Riga, Stettin  Copenhagen and St Petersburg  Rest  Year  Danzig  Copenhagen, Elsinore, Sound, Riga, Stettin  Copenhagen and St Petersburg  Rest  1671  0.074  0  0  0  1731  0  0  0  0  1791  0  0  0  0.119  1672  0.012  0  0  0  1732  0  0  0  0  1792  0  0  0  0.112  1673  0  0  0  0  1733  0  0  0  0  1793  0  0  0  0  1674  0.049  0  0  0  1734  0  0  0  0  1794  0  3.022  0  0.130  1675  0.074  0.012  0  0.012  1735  0  0  0  0.049  1795  0  0  0  0  1676  0.148  0  0  0  1736  0.001  0  0  0  1796  0  0  0  0.173  1677  0.049  0.097  0  0.099  1737  0  0  0  0  1797  0  0  0  0  1678  0.124  0  0  0  1738  0  0  0  0.153  1798  0.023  0  0  0.190  1679  0.198  0  0  0  1739  0  0  0  0  1799  0.059  0.041  0  0  1680  0.148  0  0  0  1740  0  0  0  0  1800  0  0  0  0  1681  0.296  0  0  0  1741  0  0  0  0  1801  0  0  0  0  1682  0.346  0.049  0  0  1742  0  0  0  0  1802  0  0  0  0.023  1683  0  0  0  0  1743  0  0  0  0  1803  0.023  0  0  1.427  1684  0.074  0  0  0.049  1744  0  0  0  0  1804  0  0.311  0  5.779  1685  0.049  0  0  0  1745  0  0.008  0  0  1805  0  0.383  0  0.151  1686  0.025  0  0  0  1746  0  0  0  0  1806  0  0.127  0  0.073  1687  0.049  0  0  0  1747  0  0  0  0  1807  0  0  0  0  1688  0.074  0  0  0  1748  0  0.097  0  0  1808  0  0  0  0  1689  0.074  0  0  0  1749  0  0  0  0  1809  0  0  0  0  1690  0.111  0  0  0  1750  0  0  0  0  1810  0  0  0  1.318  1691  0.025  0  0  0  1751  0.184  0  0  0  1811  0  0  0  0  1692  0  0  0  0  1752  0  0  0  0  1812  0  0  0  5.034  1693  0.049  0.012  0  0.037  1753  0.262  0  0  0  1813  0  0  0  0  1694  0.351  0  0  0  1754  0  0  0  0  1814  0  0.299  0  0  1695  1.346  0  0  0.198  1755  0  0  0  0  1815  0  0  0  0.066  1696  0  0  0  0  1756  0  0  0  0  1816  0.227  0.407  0  0  1697  0  0.012  0  0  1757  0  0  0  0  1817  0  0  0  0.035  1698  0.188  0.025  0  0.049  1758  0  0  0  0  1818  0  0.006  0  0  1699  0.037  0.074  0  0.049  1759  0  0  0  0  1819  0.110  0  0  0  1700  0.074  0  0  0  1760  0  0  0  0  1820  0.218  0.088  0  3.784  1701  0.099  0  0  0  1761  0  0  0  0  1821  0.174  0.038  0  0.013  1702  0.080  0  0  0.025  1762  0  0  0  0.052  1822  0  0.075  0  0.637  1703  0  0  0  0  1763  0  0.097  0  0  1823  0  1.096  0  5.345  1704  0.012  0.015  0  0  1764  0  0  0  0  1824  0  0.014  0  0  1705  0.025  0.012  0  0  1765  0  0  0  0  1825  0  1.428  11.026  8.601  1706  0  0  0  0  1766  0  0  0  0  1826  0  2.542  0  0.065  1707  0  0  0  0  1767  0.007  0  0  0  1827  0  0.079  0  0  1708  0.044  0.012  0  0  1768  0  0  0  0  1828  0  0.177  4.154  0.139  1709  0  0  0  0  1769  0  0  0  0.012  1829  0.890  1.970  0.436  0.145  1710  0  0.012  0  0.210  1770  0  0  0  0  1830  0  0.434  3.208  0  1711  0.100  0  0  0.027  1771  0  0.157  0  0  1831  0  2.568  5.777  0.183  1712  0  0  0  0.030  1772  0.145  0.073  0  0  1832  0.336  0.421  1.805  0  1713  0.460  0  0  0.027  1773  0.047  0.070  0  0.017  1833  0.016  5.923  1.346  0  1714  0  0  0  0.091  1774  0.193  0.263  0  0.054  1834  0.163  2.042  1.984  0  1715  0.044  0  0  0.132  1775  0.109  0.040  0  0  1835  0.038  0.311  0  0  1716  0.025  0.012  0  0.111  1776  0  0  0  0  1836  0  5.050  3.438  0.155  1717  0.336  0  0  0  1777  0.278  0  0  0.189  1837  0  0.580  0  0  1718  0.037  0  0  0.198  1778  0.169  0.139  0  0.311  1838  0  0.519  0  0  1719  0.037  0  0  0.041  1779  0  0  0  0.045  1839  0  0.665  0  0.015  1720  0.025  0  0  0.015  1780  0.054  0  0  0.154  1840  0.058  0.298  0  0.292  1721  0.037  0  0  0.022  1781  0  0  0  0  1841  0.147  9.722  0  0.109  1722  0  0  0  0.037  1782  0.068  0  0  0.023  1842  0.173  12.319  0  0  1723  0.027  0.007  0  0.017  1783  0  0  0  0  1843  0  4.180  0  0  1724  0.015  0  0  0.037  1784  0  0  0  0  1844  0  1.102  0  0.120  1725  0  0  0  0.124  1785  0  0  0  0.091  1845  0.152  3.248  0  0.121  1726  0.025  0  0  0  1786  0.032  0.452  0  0.025  1846  0.113  0.687  0  1.476  1727  0  0  0  0.025  1787  0  0  0  0  1847  0.047  2.220  0  0.020  1728  0  0  0  0  1788  0  0.235  0  0.049  1848  0.137  1.334  0  0.031  1729  0  0  0  0  1789  0  1.175  0  0.119  1849  0  1.171  0  0.014  1730  0  0  0  0.049  1790  0  0  0  0.015            Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). Fig. 7. View largeDownload slide Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound to St Petersburg, Kronstadt and the rest of the Baltic Sea region destinations, 1671–1849, stacked, in tons. Source: Table 9. Fig. 7. View largeDownload slide Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound to St Petersburg, Kronstadt and the rest of the Baltic Sea region destinations, 1671–1849, stacked, in tons. Source: Table 9. Fig. 8. View largeDownload slide Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound to the Baltic Sea region destinations except St Peterburg and Kronstadt, 1671–1849, stacked, in tons. Source:Table 10. Fig. 8. View largeDownload slide Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound to the Baltic Sea region destinations except St Peterburg and Kronstadt, 1671–1849, stacked, in tons. Source:Table 10. Roughly speaking, much more sarsaparilla was shipped to the Baltic Sea region except St Petersburg and Kronstad in the nineteenth century than previously. The distribution over the destinations was quite erratic. Up to about 1820 the usually very light traffic was directed to about fifteen destinations of which Danzig, Königsberg and Riga were predominant with unusual jumps to ‘the Sound’ (‘Sundet’) in 1794, Lübeck in 1804, ‘The Baltic Sea’ (‘Østersøen’) in 1812 and Reval in 1820. Other destinations included Rostock, Stettin, Kolberg, Memel, Stockholm and Kalmar. The increased volume from 1821 onwards was concentrated in traffic to Copenhagen, Elsinore, ‘the Sound,’ Riga and Stettin and the combined destination of ‘Copenhagen and St Petersburg’ and the ‘rest’ which mainly involved, in 1823 and 1825, ‘the Baltic Sea’. Closer observation of the categories of ‘Copenhagen, Elsinore, “the Sound”’ (together: the Sound region), Riga and Stettin reveals that Riga is the only one of these destinations which structurally gained significance (Table 11 and Figure 9). Riga being a Russian port at the time suggests that this phenomenon represented a small part of the exceptional size of the Russian market for sarsaparilla which the huge size of the St Petersburg demand has already made clear. Table 11. Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound to the Sound region, Riga and Stettin, 1821–1849, in tons Year  Sound region  Riga  Stettin  year  Sound region  Riga  Stettin  1821  0.038  0  0  1836  4.805  0.164  0.081  1822  0  0.075  0  1837  0.277  0.303  0  1823  0.385  0.499  0.212  1838  0.099  0.420  0  1824  0.014  0  0  1839  0.009  0.543  0.113  1825  1.230  0.166  0.033  1840  0  0.298  0  1826  1.937  0.563  0.042  1841  0  5.451  4.271  1827  0  0.079  0  1842  1.493  1.087  9.739  1828  0  0  0.177  1843  0  0.840  3.340  1829  0  1.794  0.176  1844  0  1.102  0  1830  0  0.356  0.078  1845  0.057  0.782  2.409  1831  1.974  0.594  0  1846  0.062  0.625  0  1832  0  0.096  0.325  1847  0.025  2.195  0  1833  4.467  1.392  0.064  1848  0.369  0.832  0.134  1834  0.004  2.038  0  1849  0  1.171  0  1835  0  0.233  0.078          Year  Sound region  Riga  Stettin  year  Sound region  Riga  Stettin  1821  0.038  0  0  1836  4.805  0.164  0.081  1822  0  0.075  0  1837  0.277  0.303  0  1823  0.385  0.499  0.212  1838  0.099  0.420  0  1824  0.014  0  0  1839  0.009  0.543  0.113  1825  1.230  0.166  0.033  1840  0  0.298  0  1826  1.937  0.563  0.042  1841  0  5.451  4.271  1827  0  0.079  0  1842  1.493  1.087  9.739  1828  0  0  0.177  1843  0  0.840  3.340  1829  0  1.794  0.176  1844  0  1.102  0  1830  0  0.356  0.078  1845  0.057  0.782  2.409  1831  1.974  0.594  0  1846  0.062  0.625  0  1832  0  0.096  0.325  1847  0.025  2.195  0  1833  4.467  1.392  0.064  1848  0.369  0.832  0.134  1834  0.004  2.038  0  1849  0  1.171  0  1835  0  0.233  0.078          Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). Fig. 9. View largeDownload slide Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound to the Sound region, Riga and Stettin, 1821–1849, stacked, in tons. Explanation: The Sound region includes Copenhagen, Elsinore and ‘the Sound.’ Source: Table 11. Fig. 9. View largeDownload slide Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound to the Sound region, Riga and Stettin, 1821–1849, stacked, in tons. Explanation: The Sound region includes Copenhagen, Elsinore and ‘the Sound.’ Source: Table 11. The steep growth of the Baltic sarsaparilla traffic coincided with a dramatic change of the originating ports. Up to the middle of the eighteenth century, virtually all sarsaparilla was shipped to the Baltic Sea area from Amsterdam. Soon after that, London became dominant and remained so into the 1780s (Table 12). Table 12. Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound eastward according to ports of departure, 1671–1785, in tons Year  Amsterdam  London  Rest  Year  Amsterdam  London  Rest  Year  Amsterdam  London  Rest  1671  0.074  0.000  0.000  1709  0.000  0.000  0.000  1747  0.000  0.000  0.000  1672  0.012  0.000  0.000  1710  0.028  0.000  0.194  1748  0.000  0.000  0.097  1673  0.000  0.000  0.000  1711  0.127  0.000  0.000  1749  0.000  0.000  0.000  1674  0.049  0.000  0.000  1712  0.030  0.000  0.000  1750  0.000  0.000  0.000  1675  0.247  0.000  0.000  1713  0.499  0.000  0.000  1751  0.000  0.000  0.184  1676  0.148  0.000  0.000  1714  0.000  0.091  0.000  1752  0.000  0.000  0.000  1677  0.198  0.000  0.097  1715  0.177  0.000  0.000  1753  0.000  0.273  0.000  1678  0.124  0.000  0.000  1716  0.148  0.000  0.000  1754  0.000  0.000  0.000  1679  0.148  0.000  0.049  1717  0.336  0.000  0.000  1755  0.000  0.000  0.000  1680  0.346  0.000  0.000  1718  0.235  0.000  0.000  1756  0.000  0.000  0.000  1681  0.346  0.000  0.000  1719  0.078  0.000  0.000  1757  0.000  0.000  0.000  1682  0.494  0.000  0.000  1720  0.040  0.000  0.000  1758  0.000  0.000  0.000  1683  0.000  0.000  0.000  1721  0.059  0.000  0.000  1759  0.000  0.000  0.000  1684  0.124  0.000  0.000  1722  0.037  0.000  0.000  1760  0.000  0.000  0.000  1685  0.049  0.000  0.000  1723  0.051  0.000  0.000  1761  0.000  0.000  0.000  1686  0.025  0.000  0.000  1724  0.052  0.000  0.000  1762  0.000  0.052  0.000  1687  0.111  0.000  0.000  1725  0.124  0.000  0.000  1763  0.000  0.000  0.097  1688  0.173  0.000  0.000  1726  0.025  0.000  0.000  1764  0.000  0.000  0.000  1689  0.074  0.000  0.000  1727  0.025  0.000  0.000  1765  0.000  0.000  0.000  1690  0.111  0.000  0.000  1728  0.000  0.000  0.000  1766  0.247  0.000  0.000  1691  0.025  0.000  0.000  1729  0.000  0.000  0.000  1767  0.000  0.007  0.000  1692  0.000  0.000  0.000  1730  0.049  0.000  0.000  1768  0.000  0.000  0.000  1693  0.098  0.000  0.000  1731  0.000  0.000  0.000  1769  0.000  0.207  0.247  1694  0.351  0.000  0.000  1732  0.000  0.000  0.000  1770  0.000  0.000  0.000  1695  1.544  0.000  0.000  1733  0.000  0.000  0.000  1771  0.000  0.650  0.000  1696  0.000  0.000  0.000  1734  0.000  0.000  0.000  1772  0.161  0.000  0.229  1697  0.012  0.000  0.000  1735  0.049  0.000  0.000  1773  0.000  0.713  0.000  1698  0.287  0.000  0.000  1736  0.001  0.000  0.000  1774  0.000  0.509  0.000  1699  0.185  0.000  0.000  1737  0.000  0.000  0.000  1775  0.040  0.109  0.000  1700  0.074  0.000  0.000  1738  0.025  0.000  0.129  1776  0.000  0.000  0.000  1701  0.099  0.000  0.000  1739  0.000  0.000  0.000  1777  0.000  0.651  0.000  1702  0.037  0.068  0.068  1740  0.000  0.000  0.000  1778  0.062  0.557  0.000  1703  0.000  0.000  0.000  1741  0.000  0.000  0.000  1779  0.000  0.091  0.000  1704  0.027  0.000  0.000  1742  0.000  0.000  0.000  1780  0.000  0.208  0.000  1705  0.037  0.000  0.000  1743  0.000  0.000  0.000  1781  0.000  0.000  0.024  1706  0.000  0.000  0.000  1744  0.000  0.000  0.000  1782  0.000  0.091  0.000  1707  0.000  0.000  0.000  1745  0.008  0.000  0.000  1783  0.000  0.221  0.450  1708  0.057  0.000  0.000  1746  0.000  0.000  0.000  1784  0.000  0.000  0.514                  1785  0.000  0.000  0.091  Year  Amsterdam  London  Rest  Year  Amsterdam  London  Rest  Year  Amsterdam  London  Rest  1671  0.074  0.000  0.000  1709  0.000  0.000  0.000  1747  0.000  0.000  0.000  1672  0.012  0.000  0.000  1710  0.028  0.000  0.194  1748  0.000  0.000  0.097  1673  0.000  0.000  0.000  1711  0.127  0.000  0.000  1749  0.000  0.000  0.000  1674  0.049  0.000  0.000  1712  0.030  0.000  0.000  1750  0.000  0.000  0.000  1675  0.247  0.000  0.000  1713  0.499  0.000  0.000  1751  0.000  0.000  0.184  1676  0.148  0.000  0.000  1714  0.000  0.091  0.000  1752  0.000  0.000  0.000  1677  0.198  0.000  0.097  1715  0.177  0.000  0.000  1753  0.000  0.273  0.000  1678  0.124  0.000  0.000  1716  0.148  0.000  0.000  1754  0.000  0.000  0.000  1679  0.148  0.000  0.049  1717  0.336  0.000  0.000  1755  0.000  0.000  0.000  1680  0.346  0.000  0.000  1718  0.235  0.000  0.000  1756  0.000  0.000  0.000  1681  0.346  0.000  0.000  1719  0.078  0.000  0.000  1757  0.000  0.000  0.000  1682  0.494  0.000  0.000  1720  0.040  0.000  0.000  1758  0.000  0.000  0.000  1683  0.000  0.000  0.000  1721  0.059  0.000  0.000  1759  0.000  0.000  0.000  1684  0.124  0.000  0.000  1722  0.037  0.000  0.000  1760  0.000  0.000  0.000  1685  0.049  0.000  0.000  1723  0.051  0.000  0.000  1761  0.000  0.000  0.000  1686  0.025  0.000  0.000  1724  0.052  0.000  0.000  1762  0.000  0.052  0.000  1687  0.111  0.000  0.000  1725  0.124  0.000  0.000  1763  0.000  0.000  0.097  1688  0.173  0.000  0.000  1726  0.025  0.000  0.000  1764  0.000  0.000  0.000  1689  0.074  0.000  0.000  1727  0.025  0.000  0.000  1765  0.000  0.000  0.000  1690  0.111  0.000  0.000  1728  0.000  0.000  0.000  1766  0.247  0.000  0.000  1691  0.025  0.000  0.000  1729  0.000  0.000  0.000  1767  0.000  0.007  0.000  1692  0.000  0.000  0.000  1730  0.049  0.000  0.000  1768  0.000  0.000  0.000  1693  0.098  0.000  0.000  1731  0.000  0.000  0.000  1769  0.000  0.207  0.247  1694  0.351  0.000  0.000  1732  0.000  0.000  0.000  1770  0.000  0.000  0.000  1695  1.544  0.000  0.000  1733  0.000  0.000  0.000  1771  0.000  0.650  0.000  1696  0.000  0.000  0.000  1734  0.000  0.000  0.000  1772  0.161  0.000  0.229  1697  0.012  0.000  0.000  1735  0.049  0.000  0.000  1773  0.000  0.713  0.000  1698  0.287  0.000  0.000  1736  0.001  0.000  0.000  1774  0.000  0.509  0.000  1699  0.185  0.000  0.000  1737  0.000  0.000  0.000  1775  0.040  0.109  0.000  1700  0.074  0.000  0.000  1738  0.025  0.000  0.129  1776  0.000  0.000  0.000  1701  0.099  0.000  0.000  1739  0.000  0.000  0.000  1777  0.000  0.651  0.000  1702  0.037  0.068  0.068  1740  0.000  0.000  0.000  1778  0.062  0.557  0.000  1703  0.000  0.000  0.000  1741  0.000  0.000  0.000  1779  0.000  0.091  0.000  1704  0.027  0.000  0.000  1742  0.000  0.000  0.000  1780  0.000  0.208  0.000  1705  0.037  0.000  0.000  1743  0.000  0.000  0.000  1781  0.000  0.000  0.024  1706  0.000  0.000  0.000  1744  0.000  0.000  0.000  1782  0.000  0.091  0.000  1707  0.000  0.000  0.000  1745  0.008  0.000  0.000  1783  0.000  0.221  0.450  1708  0.057  0.000  0.000  1746  0.000  0.000  0.000  1784  0.000  0.000  0.514                  1785  0.000  0.000  0.091  Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). As Table 13 and Figure 10 show, Lisbon appeared on the scene during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and, soon, surpassed the combined traffic from the English ports of London and Liverpool—the latter had first appeared as a sarsaparilla exporter in 1804—throughout the first half of the nineteenth century. Most spectacular, however, was the rise of the American ports of Boston—from 1816—and New York—first in 1811, but significantly from 1831 on. These two ports combined dominated the shipping of sarsaparilla to the Baltic Sea area from 1825 to 1844. Given the dominance of St Petersburg as a port of destination, it is evident that the main routes for the Baltic sarsaparilla traffic were between the two English ports, Lisbon and the two American ports on the one hand and the Russian capital on the other—and that the relevant lines closely corresponded with those in Figure 10. Table 13. Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound eastward according to ports of departure, 1786–1849, in tons Year  Boston and New York  Lissabon  London and Liverpool  Rest  Year  Boston and New York  Lissabon  London and Liverpool  Rest  1786  0  0  0.032  0.477  1819  5.511  13.650  0.000  5.476  1787  0  0  0  0.325  1820  0  38.308  4.894  10.363  1788  0  0.235  0  0.195  1821  12.121  15.877  4.033  27.078  1789  0  1.410  0.090  0.029  1822  0.272  8.811  1.486  6.673  1790  0  2.390  1.623  1.366  1823  6.298  4.662  0.341  12.031  1791  0  0.046  2.676  1.339  1824  0  0  0  1.051  1792  0  4.219  0.112  1.138  1825  22.366  17.308  6.788  4.496  1793  0  2.978  0  0  1826  20.066  7.067  0  7.709  1794  0  0  0.138  3.014  1827  0  2.386  0.715  0.079  1795  0  0  0  7.627  1828  8.187  9.317  0.168  4.594  1796  0  0  0.161  11.305  1829  8.554  10.685  28.637  54.377  1798  0  0  0.023  0.190  1830  10.723  10.628  0  2.524  1799  0  0  0  0.100  1831  25.857  12.869  7.877  11.424  1800  0  0  0.174  0  1832  12.972  19.302  0  16.630  1801  0  0  0  0.321  1833  19.144  8.345  31.876  2.164  1802  0  0.523  0.207  0.023  1834  49.360  11.134  4.736  9.417  1803  0  3.731  0.850  0  1835  37.286  10.912  15.886  7.110  1804  0  9.393  5.453  6.010  1836  48.266  0  2.892  5.270  1805  0  4.565  6.437  0.483  1837  36.559  0.829  0.840  1.432  1806  0  5.164  0.482  0.201  1838  37.400  1.267  7.349  1.369  1807  0  0  1.699  0  1839  46.713  0  18.721  1.198  1809  0  0  0  1.230  1840  59.792  1.967  5.022  5.474  1810  0  0  0  1.318  1841  0  0  2.463  18.561  1811  1.322  0  0  0  1842  56.950  1.875  14.572  48.588  1812  0  0  5.034  0  1843  58.421  21.397  8.965  13.933  1813  0  0  4.121  0  1844  63.498  34.412  4.760  19.675  1814  0  3.756  0.299  11.410  1845  8.260  23.613  15.175  6.791  1815  0  5.918  2.782  2.028  1846  4.535  22.771  16.912  7.778  1816  0.713  8.643  0  12.694  1847  2.531  29.512  6.731  5.679  1817  0  14.478  2.333  27.565  1848  7.777  7.846  10.135  3.737  1818  0  13.297  0  2.211  1849  4.494  25.432  1.808  4.223  Year  Boston and New York  Lissabon  London and Liverpool  Rest  Year  Boston and New York  Lissabon  London and Liverpool  Rest  1786  0  0  0.032  0.477  1819  5.511  13.650  0.000  5.476  1787  0  0  0  0.325  1820  0  38.308  4.894  10.363  1788  0  0.235  0  0.195  1821  12.121  15.877  4.033  27.078  1789  0  1.410  0.090  0.029  1822  0.272  8.811  1.486  6.673  1790  0  2.390  1.623  1.366  1823  6.298  4.662  0.341  12.031  1791  0  0.046  2.676  1.339  1824  0  0  0  1.051  1792  0  4.219  0.112  1.138  1825  22.366  17.308  6.788  4.496  1793  0  2.978  0  0  1826  20.066  7.067  0  7.709  1794  0  0  0.138  3.014  1827  0  2.386  0.715  0.079  1795  0  0  0  7.627  1828  8.187  9.317  0.168  4.594  1796  0  0  0.161  11.305  1829  8.554  10.685  28.637  54.377  1798  0  0  0.023  0.190  1830  10.723  10.628  0  2.524  1799  0  0  0  0.100  1831  25.857  12.869  7.877  11.424  1800  0  0  0.174  0  1832  12.972  19.302  0  16.630  1801  0  0  0  0.321  1833  19.144  8.345  31.876  2.164  1802  0  0.523  0.207  0.023  1834  49.360  11.134  4.736  9.417  1803  0  3.731  0.850  0  1835  37.286  10.912  15.886  7.110  1804  0  9.393  5.453  6.010  1836  48.266  0  2.892  5.270  1805  0  4.565  6.437  0.483  1837  36.559  0.829  0.840  1.432  1806  0  5.164  0.482  0.201  1838  37.400  1.267  7.349  1.369  1807  0  0  1.699  0  1839  46.713  0  18.721  1.198  1809  0  0  0  1.230  1840  59.792  1.967  5.022  5.474  1810  0  0  0  1.318  1841  0  0  2.463  18.561  1811  1.322  0  0  0  1842  56.950  1.875  14.572  48.588  1812  0  0  5.034  0  1843  58.421  21.397  8.965  13.933  1813  0  0  4.121  0  1844  63.498  34.412  4.760  19.675  1814  0  3.756  0.299  11.410  1845  8.260  23.613  15.175  6.791  1815  0  5.918  2.782  2.028  1846  4.535  22.771  16.912  7.778  1816  0.713  8.643  0  12.694  1847  2.531  29.512  6.731  5.679  1817  0  14.478  2.333  27.565  1848  7.777  7.846  10.135  3.737  1818  0  13.297  0  2.211  1849  4.494  25.432  1.808  4.223  Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). Fig. 10. View largeDownload slide Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound eastward according to ports of departure, 1786–1849, in tons, stacked. Source: Table 13. Fig. 10. View largeDownload slide Volumes of sarsaparilla passing through the Sound eastward according to ports of departure, 1786–1849, in tons, stacked. Source: Table 13. The more or less fivefold structural increase of sarsaparilla imports to the Baltic Sea region except Russia in the first half of the nineteenth century must have been absorbed by an increased use of the drug by existing consumers, by an increase in the number of consumers or by a combination of both. An increase in the number of consumers can, theoretically, be explained by population growth, by the spread of the use of sarsaparilla to additional segments of the population or by a combination of these two. The population in the northern countries increased considerably between 1800 and 1850—in Denmark and Sweden by about 50 per cent, in Finland by approximately 100 per cent. Population growth in Poland was more modest and amounted to about 12.5 per cent.84 The further increase in import levels must have been triggered by some threefold rise in per capita sarsaparilla consumption, induced by a concurrent social spread of the drug and/or an increase in average individual intake. This explanation seems to be more or less in line with the suggestion repeated by Ryckbosch that in the eighteenth century ‘changes in consumer habits’ in the ‘Scandinavian and Baltic areas’ corresponded more or less with those in Western Europe before that.85 It is harder to explain why the Russian market boomed while the rest of the Baltic Sea region market developed, apparently, much more calmly. The upsurge of Russian sarsaparilla imports per se does not seem exceptional. It was not unusual—as is not unusual today—that consumer goods, including medicinal and other drugs, gained popularity very quickly. A few decades earlier, in the 1770s and 1780s, coffee imports in the Baltic Sea area as a whole had developed with comparable speed and dimensions. The bulk of that coffee wave, however, was not concentrated in one destination in the same way as sarsaparilla was directed to Russia but was shared by St Petersburg, Stettin, Copenhagen, Danzig and Stockholm, each of which absorbed large amounts of this new and popular stuff.86 What then, explains the apparently exceptional Russian sarsaparilla boom? An answer may be found in diverging developments of per capita consumption in Russia and the rest of the Baltic Sea area. Russia’s population grew by roughly 60 per cent between 1800 and 1850—at a pace comparable to that of the rest of the area.87 By 1850 Russia’s population was approximately 59.2 million, outnumbering the population of Denmark, Sweden and Finland, Poland and Prussia, at 32.3 million, by about 80 per cent.88 While Russia’s sarsaparilla imports rapidly rose to a level around ten times that of the rest of the region, the remaining difference may have been caused by a per capita level of consumption in Russia exceeding the level elsewhere in the region by a factor of five or six. This high level of consumption must have been partly the result of a relatively large degree of market penetration by the drug and/or an increase in the average individual intake. These allusions must be left unsubstantiated here. The effect of the two proposed factors might, in any case, have been mitigated by a third factor. St Petersburg may have developed into an international distribution centre for the drug. If it is true, as suggested above, that Russia re-exported rhubarb to other places in the Baltic Sea area, it may also be true that it re-exported sarsaparilla to these places. It cannot be excluded, either, that Russia re-exported sarsaparilla to other destinations, to Asia in particular. To what extend this happened cannot be underpinned with the evidence available here. It appears, in any case, that sarsaparilla did not find a ready market everywhere. There is no proof of any imports of sarsaparilla into Sweden.89 Conclusion Carrying the conclusions of Wallis’ study of England’s early modern drug trade a step or two further, one could hypothesise that countries with no direct commercial links to Asia and America began to import drugs to a significant extent only in the late seventeenth century and, by implication, began to consume exotic drugs on a substantial scale only in the eighteenth century. We have tested this hypothesis by analysing the volumes of china root, sarsaparilla, rhubarb, senna and benjamin transported through the Danish Sound as they emerge from Sound Toll Registers Online. These five commodities seem relevant as they were, in terms of value, the most prominent among the drugs England imported between 1566 and 1774. The STRs reliabiliy as a basis to test this hypothesis is established by the fact that the volume of rhubarb transported through the Sound from St Petersburg to London in the period 1753–1780 extracted from STRO tallies perfectly with the figures from English sources, partly based on Russian material, as published by Foust. The test shows that china root, senna and benjamin hardly feature in the STRs which leads to the tentative conclusion that the hypothesis is too optimistic in these cases. These three medicinal herbs did not arrive in the Baltic Sea area to any degree—at least not through the Sound and not before the middle of the nineteenth century. Only rhubarb and sarsaparilla occur in STRO in significant quantities, and—provisionally in support of the hypothesis—they do so rather late. Limiting the analysis to the Sound Toll Registers we would conclude that rhubarb began to arrive in—Russian—Baltic Sea ports only by the late 1720s and in non-Russian ports only from the 1750s. Other evidence, however, quite decisively contradicts this conclusion. Throughout the seventeenth century and in the early eighteenth century rhubarb was shipped overland from Russia to several Baltic Sea ports and was most likely subsequently distributed to other ports east of the Sound. At least some rhubarb reached some of the Baltic Sea ports from the beginning of the seventeenth century. After the Peace of Nystad (1721) the transit trade was, quite logically, generally concentrated in Russian Baltic Sea ports and almost exclusively in St Petersburg. Sarsaparilla went through the Sound to Baltic Sea destinations consistently but in only very small quantities for a long time—from at least as early as 1671. The Baltic Sea region only began to import sarsaparilla in any significant quantity in the second half of the eighteenth century—at least a hundred years later than England. In summary, it may be stated that the hypothesis that countries with no direct commercial links with Asia and America began to import drugs to a significant extent much later than countries which did have those links, like England, is supported by the evidence provided by the Sound Toll registers. It is too bold to reason, on this basis, that the development of medical services in the Baltic Sea area lagged behind northwest Europe as the quality of these services may not be considered to depend on the availability of exotic drugs. But it is certainly not unreasonable to argue that the Baltic Sea area absorbed exotic medicinal drugs much later than northwest Europe by about a century. In this respect the absorption of exotic drugs into the area seems to follow the same pattern as the development of its consumption patterns in general. These conclusions are tentative and provisional, indeed. Medicines were low-weight, low-volume and expensive commodities. They may, therefore, have been sent to the Baltic Sea area by overland routes and also, from its opening in 1784, via the Schleswig-Holstein Canal. Detailed research in additional sources must be carried out to find out to what extent this happened. Whatever the outcome of such future research, the brief exploration of the Baltic drug traffic in the present article may illustrate that the study of medical history can greatly benefit from quantitative research into the intra-European drug trade. Footnotes 1 Mary Lindemann, Medicine and Society in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 114. 2 Ibid., 116. 3 See, for example, Mark Jackson, ed., The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011); Roy Porter, ed., The Cambridge History of Medicine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006); Londa Schiebinger, Plants and Empire: Colonial Bioprospecting in the Atlantic World (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004); Roy Porter, Blood and Guts. A Short History of Medicine (London etc.; Penguin Books, 2003); Roy Porter, ed., Medicine in the Enlightenment (Amsterdam and Atlanta GA: Rodopi, 1995); Roy Porter, ed., The Popularization of Medicine 1650–1850 (London and New York: Routledge, 1992. A glimpse of medicines is offered by Miles Weatherall, ‘Drug Treatment and the Rise of Pharmacology’, in Porter, ed., The Cambridge History of Medicine , 211–37, 214–17. On the ineffectiveness of drugs see Edward Shorter, ‘Primary Care’, in Porter, ed., The Cambridge History of Medicine, 103–35, 116–17. 4 Alfons M. G. Rutten, Dutch Transatlantic Medicine Trade in the Eighteenth Century under the Cover of the West India Company (Rotterdam: Erasmus Publishing, 2000) does not study the import of medicines into Europe but into the Dutch colonies and settlements in Africa and the Americas. 5 James Shaw and Evelyn Welch, Making and Marketing Medicine in Renaissance Florence (Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2011), 237, 240, 245, 256. 6 Peter Borschberg, ‘The Euro-Asian Trade and Medicinal Usage of Radix Chinae in the Early Modern Period (ca. 1535–1800)’, Review of Culture, 2006, 20, 102–15. 7 Anna E. Winterbottom, ‘Of the China Root: A Case Study of the Early Modern Circulation of Materia Medica’, Social History of Medicine, 2015, 28, 22–44. 8 Saul Jarcho, Quinine’s Predecessor. Francesco Torti and the Early History of Cinchona (Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press, 1993). 9 Andreas Holger Maehle, Drugs on Trial: Experimental Pharmacology and Therapeutic Innovation in the Eighteenth Century (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999). 10 Jarcho, Quinine’s Predecessor, and Winterbottom, ‘Of the China Root’, for example, refer extensively to these kinds of sources. But Shaw and Welch use the detailed quantitative data included in the apothecary shop records. 11 Patrick Wallis, ‘Exotic Drugs and English Medicine: England’s Drug Trade, c. 1550– c.1800’, Social History of Medicine, 2011, 25, 20–46. 12 Clifford M. Foust, ‘Customs 3 and Russian Rhubarb. A Note on Reliability’, The Journal of European Economic History, 1986, 15, 549–62; Clifford M. Foust, Rhubarb. The Wondrous Drug (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992). See below for details. 13 Wallis, ‘Exotic Drugs’, 22–5, 28, 36–7. 14 Ibid. 15 See, for example, Jan Thomas Lindblad, Sweden’s Trade with the Dutch Republic 1738–1795 (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1982); Jonathan I. Israel, Dutch Primacy in World Trade, 1585–1740 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989); David Ormrod, The Rise of Commercial Empires. England and the Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism, 1650–1770 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). 16 Wallis, ‘Exotic Drugs’, 22–5, 28, 36–7. 17 Ibid., 28, 32. 18 Foust, ‘Customs 3; Foust, Rhubarb. 19 Foust, Rhubarb, 79. 20 John H. Parry, ‘Transport and Trade Routes’, in: E. E. Rich and C. H. Wilson eds, The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, IV, The Economy of Expanding Europe in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge Unversity Press, 1967), 155–219, 164. 21 Rutten, Dutch Transatlantic Medicine Trade, 22; Foust, Rhubarb, 79. 22 Foust, Rhubarb, 46–7. 23 Ibid., 51–2, 80–1, 85–90. 24 Ibid., 46–7, 57, 85; Jan Willem Veluwenkamp, Archangel. Nederlandse ondernemers in Rusland, 1550–1785 (Amsterdam: Balans, 2000), 67–8. 25 Foust, Rhubarb, 87. Compare Jan Willem Veluwenkamp and Joost Veenstra, ‘Early Modern English Merchant Colonies: Contexts and Functions’, in Victor N. Zakharov, Gelina. Harlaftis and Olga Katsiardi-Hering, eds, Merchant Colonies in the Early Modern Period (London: Pickering & Chatto, 2012) 11–30, 20. 26 Foust, Rhubarb, 56, 65, 87. 27 Ibid., 56–7, 64; Veluwenkamp, Archangel, 179–81. 28 Foust, Rhubarb, 56, 65, 87–8, but compare 64. 29 Ibid., 64, 87–8. 30 Ibid., 87. Foust’s figures on pages 56 and 87 do not seem completely consistent. 31 Ibid., 91, 93–5. 32 Ibid., 90, compare 69. 33 Ibid., 75, 91–2. 34 Ibid., 92, compare 75. 35 Ibid., 93–4. 36 Ibid., 91–2. 37 For a more extensive source criticism of the Sound Toll Registers, the Sound Toll Tables, and Sound Toll Registers Online, see: Jan Willem Veluwenkamp, ‘Die “Sound Toll Registers Online” als Instrument für die Erforschung des frühneuzeitlichen Ostseehandels’, in Peter Rauscher and Andrea Serles, eds, Wiegen—Zählen—Registrieren. Handelsgeschichtliche Massenquellen und die Erforschung mitteleuropäischer Märkte (13–18. Jahrhundert) (Innsbruck, Wien, Bozen: StudienVerlag, 2015), 365–84; Maarten Draper and Jan Willem Veluwenkamp, ‘Sound Toll Registers Online and the Eighteenth Century Baltic Coffee Commerce’, Groniek, 2014, 200, 279–94; Werner Scheltjens and Jan Willem Veluwenkamp, ‘Sound Toll Registers Online. Introduction and first Research Examples’, International Journal of Maritime History, 2012, 24, 301–30. 38 Nina Ellinger Bang and Knud Korst, Tabeller over skibsfart og vaeretransport gennem Oeresund 1497–1783, 7 vols ( Copenhagen and Leipzig: Gyldendal, Nordisk Forlag and Harrassowitz, 1906–1953). 39 See, e.g., Erik Gøbel,‘The Sound Toll Registers Online Project, 1497–1857’, International Journal of Maritime History, 2010, 22, 305–324; Pierre Jeannin, ‘Les comptes du Sund comme source pour la construction d’indices généraux de l’activité économique en Europe (XVIe–XVIIe siècle)’, in Pierre Jeannine, ed., Marchands du Nord: Espaces et trafics à l’époque modern (Paris: Presses de l’École Normale Supérieure, 1996) 1–62. 40 Gøbel, ‘The Sound Toll Registers’, 321. 41 Jeannin, ‘Les comptes du Sund’, 9–10. 42 For more information about STRO see Gøbel, ‘The Sound Toll Registers’; Scheltjens and Veluwenkamp, ‘Sound Toll Registers Online’, 301–30. 43 Gøbel, ‘The Sound Toll Registers’, 319–21; Jeannin, ‘Les comptes du Sund’, 4–6, 12, 21, 33, 37–40; Milja van Tielhof, The ‘Mother of all Trades’: The Baltic Grain Trade in Amsterdam from the Late 16th to the Early 19th Century (Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, 2002), 42. 44 Gøbel, ‘The Sound Toll Registers, 319–20—Gøbel mentions that toll registers of the Little Belt have been preserved for the years 1816–1857; Jeannin, ‘Les comptes du Sund’, 12. 45 Gøbel, ‘The Sound Toll Registers’, 319; Jeannin, ‘Les comptes du Sund’, 12. 46 Jeannin, ‘Les comptes du Sund’, 4, 6, 12. 47 Gøbel, ‘The Sound Toll Registers’, 319–20. 48 Jeannin, ‘Les comptes du Sund’, 4–5. 49 Gøbel, ‘The Sound Toll Registers Online’, 319. 50 Ibid., 320–1. 51 Jeannin, ‘Les comptes du Sund’, 21, 33, 37–9; Van Tielhof, The ‘Mother of all Trades’, 42. 52 Ibid., 39–40. 53 Gøbel, ‘The Sound Toll Registers’, 319; Jan Willem Veluwenkamp, Sound Toll Registers: Concise Source Criticism, www.soundtoll.nl (2011), 3. 54 Foust, ‘Customs 3’. 55 Ibid., 549, 554–7, 559, 561. 56 Ibid., 561. 57 We downloaded the passages and cargoes tables from www.soundtoll.nl on 25–27 June 2013 and worked with that database to produce the relevant graphs and tables in this article. The database includes all passages and cargoes of the period 1670–1856. We first standardised all variants of the designations for rhubarb and sarsaparilla. Subsequently, for all records involving rhubarb and sarsaparilla, we standardised the names of the ports of departure and destination. The conversion of the original measures into metric tons demanded additional scrutiny. The quantities of rhubarb and sarsaparilla are usually measured in pounds in the STRs. We equate a pound of rhubarb shipped from St Petersburg to London, for example, with 0.4094 kilogram, and a pound of Sarsaparilla shipped from Boston to St Petersburg with 0.45355 kilogram. We used the following method to realize this. Cargo items in the Sound were registered on the basis of freight letters. The toll officials translated cargo items and their measures into Danish, copied registered quantities and calculated the customs amount due separately for each cargo item. The customs were calculated according to a number of rules described in various customs treaties, but there is no mention of any conversion of weights and measures used in the freight letters to local (Danish) equivalents. On the contrary, several tax treaties indicate that the measure of goods upon which custom payments are due is that of the place where the good had been loaded. This means that the registered point of departure of the ship is the point of reference for establishing the metric equivalents of the weights and measures declared at the Sound customs office. Conversion of STRO data into metric equivalents was achieved by converting combinations of good, measure and port of departure of the good. The original ‘raw’ data of the STRO were prepared accordingly. The amount of variation in the ‘raw’ data was reduced by means of a process of homogenisation; complex cargo descriptions in STRO were simplified by dividing them into their constituent parts, with the isolation of the main product denominator as its aim. The homogenisation of weights and measures and of quantities in the ‘raw’ STRO data was dealt with in a similar way. In the case of quantities, descriptions written in full text, roman numbers, fractions or a combination of these, were converted to their decimal equivalent. Any variations in the weights and measures were removed via a dual process. First, variant spellings were homogenised; then, denominations of equivalent weights and measures in different languages were linked with each other. The process of adding metric equivalents to all product–measure–origin combinations in the STRO data consisted of several consecutive matching procedures between STRO and the metric data in Horace Doursther, Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes (Antwerp 1840). The consecutive matching procedures were: Boolean matching; matching based on identical measure and location, with product similarity (using type of good as matching category); matching based on identical measure and product, with geographical similarity (using region as matching category); matching based on an identical measure, with location selected according to a pre-defined set of rules and product specifications either missing, similar or considered irrelevant; matching based on measurement similarity; standardization and conversion of non-weights and non-measures. With regard to the latter, certain results are clearly open to debate, since they require specialist knowledge that has proven to be extremely hard to find. 58 Wallis, ‘Exotic Drugs,’ 31. 59 Winterbottom, ‘Of the China Root’, 23, 36; Harold J. Cook and Timothy D. Walker, ‘Circulation of Medicine in the Early Modern Atlantic World’, Social History of Medicine, 2013, 26, 337–51, 340; Rutten, Dutch Transatlantic Medicine Trade, 47, 92; Denis Leigh, ‘Medicine, the City and China’, Medical History,1974, 18, 51–67, 56. Chinaroot is smilax china according to www.henriettesherbal.com. Winterbottom, ‘Of the China Root’, discusses the problematic identification of China root with individual species. 60 Borschberg, ‘The Euro-Asian Trade’, 104. 61 Cook and Walker, ‘Circulation of Medicine,’ 340; Rutten, Dutch Transatlantic Medicine Trade, 21, 28, 38, 53, 58, 60, 113, 120; Winterbottom, ‘Of the China Root,’ discusses the problematic identification of Sarsaparilla with individual species. 62 Timothy D. Walker, ‘The Medicines Trade in the Portuguese Atlantic World: Acquisition and Dissemination of Healing Knowledge from Brazil (c. 1580–1800)’, Social History of Medicine, 2013, 26, 403–31, 430; Rutten, Dutch Transatlantic Medicine Trade, 19, 22, 36, 120. 63 Winterbottom, ‘Of the China Root’, 39–40. 64 Parry, ‘Transport,’ 164; G. B. Masefield, ‘Crops and livestock’, in E. E. Rich and C. H. Wilson eds, The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, IV, The Economy of Expanding Europe in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge Unversity Press, 1967) 275–301, 275; Foust, Rhubarb, xv, 4–5, 14, 16–17. 65 ‘Senna’, in Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th edn, Edinburgh: A & C Black, 1886); Rutten, Dutch Transatlantic Medicine Trade, 36, 54. 66 <http://www.ildis.org>, accessed 8 October 2015. 67 ‘Senna’, in Encyclopaedia Brittanica; ‘Senna’, in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia (new edn, London: George Newnes, 1959); Rutten, Dutch Transatlantic Medicine Trade, 36, 54. 68 ‘Senna’, in Encyclopaedia Brittanica; ‘Senna’, in Chambers’s Encyclopaedia. 69 ‘Bejoin’, in La Grande Encyclopédie (Paris: H. Lamirault, 1886–1902); Nederlandsche reizen tot bevordering van den koophandel, volume 1 (Amsterdam: Petrus Conradi, 1784), 303–4; <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Styrax>, acccessed 8 October 2015. 70 Jan Thomas Lindblad and Fredriek C. Dufour-Briët, Dutch Entries in the Pound-Toll Registers of Elbing 1585–1700 (Den Haag: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis, 1995) at <www.historici.nl>, accessed 8 October 2015 > Bronnen > Pondtolregisters Elbing 1585–1700, 493–498. 71 Arnold Soom, Der Handel Revals im Siebzehnten Jahrhundert (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1969), 25–45. 72 Ibid., 43. 73 Ibid., 38, 43. 74 Jarmo T. Kotilaine, Russia’s Foreign Trade and Economic Expansion in the Seventeenth Century. Windows on the World (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2005), 317–20. 75 Lindblad, Sweden’s Trade, 64, 156. 76 On Linnaeus’ relevant ideas see Lisbet Koerner, Linnaeus: Nature and Nation (Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 1999) in particular 2 and 128–9 . 77 For the alternative designations, including radix chinae , see Borschberg, ‘The Euro-Asian Trade’, 103. 78 <http://www.ntbg.org>, accessed 8 October 2015. 79 VOC glossary at <http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/pdf/vocglossarium/VOCGlossarium.pdf.; http://www.ntbg.org>, accessed 8 October 2015. 80 J. Seidemann, ‘Beitrag zur mikroskopischen Untersuchung der Rinde von Cassia lignea’, Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und Forschung, 1961, 116, 24–6, 24; Flora of China at <http://www.efloras.org; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamomum_cassia>, accessed 8 October 2015; VOC glossary at<http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/pdf/vocglossarium/VOCGlossarium.pdf; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinnamomum_cassia>, accessed 8 October 2015. 81 Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). 82 The figure for 1695 includes ‘1325 lb salsaparilla og foli’ (www.soundtoll.nl, passage id 659155). Assuming that half of that shipment consisted of sarsaparilla, the total for the year 1695 would be 1.2 tons instead of the 1.5 tons we have used in the analysis. 83 Wallis, ‘Exotic drugs,’ 28. 84 Ilja Mieck, ‘Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Europas von 1650 bis 1850’, in Ilja Mieck, ed., Handbuch der Europäischen Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte, Vol. 4, Europäische Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte von der Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1993) 54. 85 Wouter Ryckbosch, ‘Early Modern Consumption History. Current Challenges and Future Perspectives’, BMGN—Low Countries Historical Review, 2015, 130, 57–84, 68. 86 Draper and Veluwenkamp, ‘Sound Toll Registers Online’, 288–9. 87 Mieck, ‘Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Europas’, 54. 88 Mieck, ‘Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Europas’, 54. For Prussia, see Wolfgang Köllmann, ‘Demografische “Konsequenzen” der Industrialisierung in Preussen’, in: Otto Büsch and Wolfgang Neugebauer, eds, Moderne Preusische Geschichte 1648–1947, Vol. 1 (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1981) 447–65, 461. 89 Lindblad, Sweden’s Trade, 156. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for the Social History of Medicine. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Social History of Medicine Oxford University Press

Baltic Drugs Traffic, 1650–1850. Sound Toll Registers Online as a Source for the Import of Exotic Medicines in the Baltic Sea Area

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Abstract

Summary The analysis of the shipping of five key Asian, African and American drugs through the Danish Sound in the period 1650–1850 suggests that the Baltic Sea area absorbed exotic medicinal drugs in significant quantities only from the second half of the eighteenth century—at least about a century later than northwest Europe. This may be an indication that the area differed significantly from northwest Europe in the development of medical services. We have analysed the shipping of five medicinal drugs: china root, sarsaparilla, rhubarb, senna and benjamin. The main source for this analysis is the Danish Sound Toll Registers (STRs), accessed via Sound Toll Registers Online, the STRs electronic database at www.soundtoll.nl. international medicine trade, early modern Europe, Baltic Sea area, Sound Toll Registers Online, rhubarb, sarsaparilla Introduction While discussing the European reception of eye-witness accounts of the availability and use of medicinal herbs in early modern indigenous American societies, Mary Lindemann argues that it is still unclear to what extent knowledge of these plants influenced European medicine.1 The same is true for the knowledge of Asian herbal drugs, even if contacts with India and China were much older and some relevant Asian commodities—Lindemann lists coffee, tea, camphor and opium—were applied as medicinal drugs in Europe.2 Indeed, the supply and availability of drugs seem to be taken for granted or simply ignored in many a textbook, monograph and collection of articles on the history of medicine—perhaps because the medicines were so desperately ineffective.3 This does not mean that historians lack an interest in exotic—non-European—medicines and their supply and use in early modern Europe. The issue has been discussed in many other books and articles dealing with more specific topics. A few examples may illustrate this.4 Shaw and Welch have written a critical retail business history of a late fifteenth-century Florence apothecary establishment which sold, among other things, medicines which regularly featured ingredients with exotic simples such as pudding pipe (cassia fistula), rhubarb and senna.5 Peter Borschberg and Anna Winterbottom have studied the China root. Borschberg focuses on the European supply of this Asian drug by the Dutch East India Company and its medicinal use in Europe.6 Winterbottom more broadly discusses the spread of China root from China over the rest of the world and into Europe in the course of the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and its replacement by sarsaparilla as a remedy against syphilis in eighteenth century Europe.7 Jarcho presents a history of peruvian bark and its introduction and spread in Western Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.8 Maehle extensively discusses the empirical testing of opium and peruvian bark in the eighteenth century.9 These studies are mainly based on qualitative information from literary sources such as the discussion of medicines in learned books and reports.10 But there are also quantitative analyses based on sources of a more serial character, mainly involving international trade. Wallis’ discussion of the import of exotic drugs into England is based on English port and customs books.11 Foust studies several aspects of the history of rhubarb, including the relevant London trade, on the basis of figures from English and Russian customs books.12 Wallis stresses the value of the history of the drug commerce for medical history arguing that the quantitative development of the import of medicinal drugs into a country could serve as a gauge of the development of the consumption of drugs there and, consequently, as an indication of the development of the country’s medical services.13 His own study involves the import of exotic drugs from other continents into England but his observation is, no doubt, also true for the intra-European distribution of these medicines. Indeed, a weak spot in the knowledge of the use of exotic drugs in Europe concerns the development of the geographical and social spread of these substances. Research into the intra-European drugs trade in general and into the distribution of exotic drugs within Europe in particular would certainly contribute to the development of that knowledge.14 Conventional intra-European commercial history is not of much help here as it is overwhelmingly dominated by the study of the great staples—grain, timber, fish, wine, salt and textiles—and hardly mentions medicines at all.15 Wallis’ article mentioned above, on ‘England’s drug trade’ hardly tackles the problem either but is a better starting point. Wallis argues that imports of drugs into English expanded substantially in both the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, that the increase in the seventeenth century was mainly absorbed by growing demand in the domestic market and that the continued increase during the eighteenth century coincided with a marked rise of re-export and was therefore driven by foreign demand. Consequently, the greatest growth of English drugs consumption occurred in the seventeenth century but had ended by 1700.16 Most imported drugs, according to Wallis, came to England from Asia and the Americas, either directly or via the Dutch Republic, which re-exported Asian drugs imported by the Dutch East India Company, and from southern European countries re-exporting imports from the Levant and South and Central America. Wallis does not mention or discuss the composition and the destinations of England’s re-export of drugs. His analysis suggests that it gained momentum only by the end of the seventeenth century.17 If this is true and indicative of the re-export by other colonial powers, we may expect that European countries with no direct commercial links with Asia and America began to import drugs only in the late seventeenth century and, by implication, began to consume exotic drugs to a substantial extent only in the eighteenth century. Foust’s studies on rhubarb, too, provide useful stepping stones for the study of the internal European distribution of medicines.18 Foust shows that there were roughly three routes by which rhubarb, a popular cathartic in early modern Europe, came from China to Western Europe in the seventeenth century: via the Levant, via Cape of Good Hope and via Russia. The ancient Asian overland routes and the connected sea routes to the Levant were the oldest and were used for this purpose from at least the late Middle Ages.19 The Venetians shipped the merchandise further into Europe.20 The sea route via Cape of Good Hope had been used since its opening in about 1500.21 The way overland via Siberia and European Russia to the ports of Reval, Riga and, predominantly, Archangel and further across the sea was exploited from the beginning of the seventeenth century.22 Foust’s intriguing monograph on ‘the wondrous drug’ is—as far as figures are concerned—hard to follow and not very precise. He focuses his argument on the trade of London. Due to a lack of available sources he is almost silent about the rhubarb business of other parties, such as the Dutch—apart from their Russia trade—French, Danes and Swedes. He argues that relatively small quantities of rhubarb were imported into Britain throughout the seventeenth century and into the first three decades of the eighteenth century. Most of that rhubarb came via the Levant while only small quantities were shipped in via Cape of Good Hope with a brief flurry in the first decade of the eighteenth century. Direct imports of rhubarb from Russia to London probably did not occur before 1698 and after that only in small amounts into the 1720s.23 Throughout the seventeenth century, export from Archangel was dominated by Dutch merchants, who sent the rhubarb mainly to Amsterdam, the hub from where it was distributed to the rest of Europe, including, in any case in the early eighteenth century, England.24 The big change began in the early 1720s, when the rhubarb supply from the Levant suddenly ceased almost completely, perhaps as a consequence of the disruption of the Asian caravan route by regional political and military turmoil.25 London’s rhubarb imports were at a low ebb for a few years but picked up when the average annual amount of rhubarb imported into London directly from Russia jumped to nearly 9,500 pounds in the four years 1728–1731 and 4,500 pounds in the years 1732–1735.26 By that time the rhubarb was no longer exported from Russia via old Archangel but, since about 1720, via newly-founded St Petersburg.27 The London’s rhubarb imports from Russia wilted after 1735 once again to almost nil but this interruption coincided with an increase of London rhubarb imports from the Dutch Republic to an annual average of about 2,500 pounds.28 It may be assumed, as Foust reasons, that much of this was ‘Russian’ rhubarb. Apparently, the route of direct Russian rhubarb exports shifted from London to Amsterdam.29 The increase of direct and indirect imports into London of Russian rhubarb coincided with a rapid rise of imports by the East India Company up to an annual average of 4,700 pounds in 1728–1731, after which it dropped to an annual average of over 1,000 pounds for the rest of 1730s.30 This was just a modest foreboding of things to come, the beginning of ‘rhubarb mania’ and the rise of a mass market in Europe in the second half of the eighteenth century.31 Throughout the 1740s, the Company imported more than 10,000 pounds on average per year—almost 80 per cent of the total rhubarb imports.32 The rise continued and London imported an annual average of more than 18,000 pounds in the 1750s and double that amount in the 1760s. In the 1750s more than 93 per cent of rhubarb in London markets was supplied by the East India Company, the rest coming from Russia, the Dutch Republic—probably supplying Russian rhubarb—and the Levant. In the 1760s the East India Company’s portion decreased to slightly over 80 per cent as direct Russian exports to London picked up, amounting to an annual average of 6,000 pounds (15 per cent of the total imports)—and 4,500 pounds between 1762 and 1780. The rest—Russian rhubarb, too—came from Amsterdam.33 In the 1770s, London rhubarb imports suddenly declined to about 10,000 pounds per year on average, of which, again, 83 per cent was supplied by the East India Company and 16 per cent came from Russia.34 More than 13,500 pounds a year on average were re-exported—evidently partly from the stockpiles accumulated in the preceding years. Holland and Flanders together took 40 per cent, German ports about 20 per cent and the Mediterranean, mainly Italy, 35 per cent. In the 1780s and 1790s London rhubarb imports seems to have picked up again to a level of about 40,000 pounds per year.35 By the 1740s Great Britain re-exported about half of its rhubarb imports—mainly to the continent. The East India Company, Foust asserts, had become the leading rhubarb dealer of both Great Britain and the continent. In the 1750s Great Britain re-exported 73 per cent of its rhubarb imports—mainly to the Mediterranean markets and Holland and Flanders, and small quantities to the German lands and Ireland. In the 1760s re-export amounted to 63 per cent, mainly destined, again, to the Mediterranean countries and, more than half, to Amsterdam, which continued to be the leading distributor of rhubarb to Western Europe.36 Some general conclusions from Foust’s and Wallis’ studies could be that Europe, or, at any rate, England, imported increasing quantities of exotic drugs throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The import increases accelerated in the eighteenth century, apparently because it was only at that point in time that countries with no direct commercial links to Asia and America began to import drugs from countries that had those links. Both Foust’s and Wallis’ studies do not discuss the composition and the destinations of the re-export of exotic drugs in any detail. But they make it very evident that further quantitative research into the intra-European drug trade will make a valuable contribution to the study of medical and commercial history. The Sound Toll Registers One of the main sources available to study the intra-European drug trade are the Sound Toll Registers (STRs), which are kept at the Danish National Archives in Copenhagen and contain detailed records of the tolls levied by the king of Denmark in the town of Elsinore on ships passing through the Sound, the strait between Denmark and Sweden connecting the North and Baltic Seas.37 Holding information on about 1.8 million passages executed between 1497 and 1857, when the toll was abolished, the STRs constitute one of the great sources of European commercial history. Their size and detail make the STRs virtually impossible to handle; as a result they are hardly used. As a partial solution to this problem, in the first half of the twentieth century, Ellinger Bang and Korst published a monumental abridged version of the STRs, which is commonly known as the Sound Toll Tables (STT).38 Since then, these seven large volumes of tabular summaries of STRs data have been used in most major studies of early modern European trade. Their enormous significance, however, should not conceal their shortcomings, which have been amply discussed in the historiography.39 The STT only cover the years 1497–1783 and do not include the period 1784 to 1857. Data are presented only at a high level of aggregation; individual passages, shipmasters and cargoes have disappeared from sight.40 Information on complete transport routes is missing, even though the STRs provide this information for every passage from 1669 onwards. Commodities are combined in arbitrary, often useless categories.41 As a result, the STT are useless as an instrument for the study of both the trade in individual medicines and the traffic of drugs in general. Since 2009, the University of Groningen and Tresoar, the Frisian Historical and Literary Centre in Leeuwarden, have been engaged in a groundbreaking effort to make the STRs available for direct and easy use in an electronic database containing the complete data of all 1.8 million passages through the Sound. The database, Sound Toll Registers Online, or STRO, is instantly accessible for all via the internet: www.soundtoll.nl.42 Of course, both the STRs and STRO may not be used uncritically. As always, the researcher must be aware of the limitations of the source.43 First, there were other routes to the Baltic, including the Little Belt, the Great Belt, overland routes, the route to Russia via North Cape and, from 1784 on, the Schleswig-Holstein Canal. Individually, each of these routes may not have offered a serious alternative for the Sound, but taken together they should not be omitted. Traffic through the Little Belt is largely unknown, but seems to have been significant only for local transport.44 The Great Belt was used only by a minor regional group of shipmasters predominantly connecting Lübeck and Rostock with Danish and Norwegian ports. Like the Little Belt, it was much harder to navigate than the Sound while the same toll tariffs were applied in both straits.45 Overland routes to the Baltic Sea area were only relevant for the transportation of low-volume and high-value commodities.46 The Schleswig-Holstein Canal between Tönning on the North Sea and Kiel on the Baltic was opened in 1784, but it never attracted a lot of traffic, because only small ships could pass through it.47 Lastly, the sea route to Russia via the White Sea port of Archangel was the main gateway to Russia during the long seventeenth century, when Russia had been pushed back from the Baltic coast by the Swedes. Archangel was the preferred alternative for Russia’s transit trade via the Swedish and other possessions lying between the Baltic Sea and Russia. Vital as it was to Russia, it usually involved well below 10 per cent of the Sound traffic.48 The second issue regarding the reliability of the STRs involves fraud. It is widely accepted that all ships passing the Sound in the years covered by the STRs are recorded in it.49 But shipmasters certainly evaded payment of the total toll due by making false declarations of the commodities carried on board. Comparisons with other sources, especially customs accounts of individual ports, which suffer from the same issue of reliability, has shown that the information on cargoes in the STRs is generally correct but not complete.50 In particular, small volumes of expensive commodities were always subject to fraud.51 A third reason for handling the STRs with care lies in the toll exemption that was applied throughout to Danish ships and goods and Swedish vessels and commodities between 1650 and, practically, 1710.52 Alternative routes, fraud and exemptions cannot alter the fact that the STRs are a great source for trade and transport. Even to the highly critical historian, they are a very rich starting point for the analysis of European trade and transport in the period they cover.53 Despite all its general merits it remains to be seen to what extent the STRs are a reliable source for studying the movement of drugs. Medicines may generally be regarded as low-weight, low-volume and expensive commodities and therefore may have been transported to the Baltic Sea area overland and may have been smuggled through the Sound. It is therefore, almost by definition, hard to assess to what extent this happened, but Foust’s fine article on ‘Russian rhubarb’ published in 1986 and referred to in the previous section of the article may serve as a starting point to find out if the STRs can be used as a source for the study of Baltic drugs traffic at all.54 Foust compares figures from—among other places—two separate sources for the rhubarb traffic between St Petersburg and London in the period 1753–1804. The first source involves the British Inspector General’s Ledgers of Imports and Exports for the years 1697–1780 (Customs 3). The other source is a list published by Joshua Jepson Oddy, a member of the British Russia and Levant Companies and is most likely based on the customs ledger books of St Petersburg which do not seem to have survived. The relevant figures are included here in Figure 1 which is basically a repetition of the graph that Foust presents.55 With Foust we observe that both time series all but coincide, except for the year 1765. Foust discusses the 1765 difference at length and concludes that the high British figure must be right and that—‘wild speculation’—Oddy’s low figure could be the result of a ‘scribal error in a single digit in the original Russian customs register’.56 Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide Volumes of rhubarb exported from St Petersburg to London (Oddy) and imported in London from St Petersburg (Customs 3), 1753–1780, in pounds avoirdupois. Source: Foust, ‘Customs 3’, 556–7. Fig. 1. View largeDownload slide Volumes of rhubarb exported from St Petersburg to London (Oddy) and imported in London from St Petersburg (Customs 3), 1753–1780, in pounds avoirdupois. Source: Foust, ‘Customs 3’, 556–7. To test the reliability of the STRs with respect to the drugs traffic, we may now assess the volume of the rhubarb traffic from St Petersburg to London in the period 1753–1780 as recorded in the STRs (Table 1) and compare them with the figures presented by Foust and included in graph 1.57 The comparison is presented in Figure 2, where two things stand out. Table 1. Volumes of rhubarb passing through the Sound from St Petersburg to London, 1753–1780, in pounds avoirdupois Year    Year    Year    1753  0  1762  2170.7  1771  0  1754  0  1763  4762.0  1772  121.8  1755  0  1764  5912.8  1773  0  1756  0  1765  30759.8  1774  2052.5  1757  0  1766  0  1775  3615.6  1758  0  1767  3637.4  1776  3066.1  1759  0  1768  4386.5  1777  900.8  1760  180.5  1769  0  1778  842.1  1761  1464.0  1770  2450.5  1779  3218.8          1780  5629.4  Year    Year    Year    1753  0  1762  2170.7  1771  0  1754  0  1763  4762.0  1772  121.8  1755  0  1764  5912.8  1773  0  1756  0  1765  30759.8  1774  2052.5  1757  0  1766  0  1775  3615.6  1758  0  1767  3637.4  1776  3066.1  1759  0  1768  4386.5  1777  900.8  1760  180.5  1769  0  1778  842.1  1761  1464.0  1770  2450.5  1779  3218.8          1780  5629.4  Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide Volumes of rhubarb exported from St Petersburg to London (Oddy), passing the Sound, departing from St Petersburg and destined to London (STRO) and imported in London from St Petersburg (Customs 3), 1753–1780, in pounds avoirdupois. Sources: Foust, ‘Customs 3’, 556–7 for Customs 3 and Oddy; Table 1 for STRO. Fig. 2. View largeDownload slide Volumes of rhubarb exported from St Petersburg to London (Oddy), passing the Sound, departing from St Petersburg and destined to London (STRO) and imported in London from St Petersburg (Customs 3), 1753–1780, in pounds avoirdupois. Sources: Foust, ‘Customs 3’, 556–7 for Customs 3 and Oddy; Table 1 for STRO. First, Foust’s feeling that the Customs 3 figure for 1765 is correct and Oddy’s figure is wrong seems to be confirmed by the Danish figure. Second, all three time series tally very nicely. It seems safe to conclude that the STRs figures as extracted from STRO are—making due allowance for all necessary source criticism—reliable for the study of the rhubarb traffic through the Sound. By extension, it may be maintained that the STRs can give an indication of the development of the transport of other drugs, too. This does not mean that the figures presented here reflect all rhubarb traffic. The correspondence of the three time series does not prove that there was no fraud. It is conceivable that all figures are based on the same bills of lading or other commercial papers. Moreover, the extent to which rhubarb was transported overland remains unknown. The same reservations must be applied when analysing STRs figures for the traffic in other medicines. The Baltic Drug Traffic With all this in mind, STRO would indeed allow us to scrutinise the development of the size and the structure of the export and import of medicinal drugs by the Baltic Sea countries—to the extent that they were transported via the Sound—and to test the assumption that European countries with no or little direct commercial links with Asia and America began to import drugs only in the late seventeenth century and, by implication, began to consume exotic drugs to a substantial extent only in the eighteenth century. To keep this endeavour to a manageable size, we limit the analysis to china root, sarsaparilla, rhubarb, senna and benjamin. These five stand out among the drugs imported into England in the greatest quantities, measured by value as listed by Wallis; they are the ones which occurred in at least six of the eight periods between 1566 and 1774 Wallis distinguishes.58 China root is generally identified as the dried root of a creeper known as smilax chinensis. It was imported from China and applied in Europe as a medicine to treat syphilis throughout the sixteenth, seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.59 Import into Europe and, by implication, its medicinal use, had virtually ceased by the beginning of the nineteenth century.60 Sarsaparilla is generally considered to be the dried root of several vines of the genus smilax indigenous to Middle America, akin to China root. It was imported into Europe from the West Indies throughout the early modern period.61 It was used within Europe as a medicine to cure syphilis and rheumatism and as a blood purifier.62 Sarsaparilla was a sought-after alternative for China root and had superseded it in England by the mid-eighteenth century and probably displaced it on the continent, too, by the nineteenth century.63 Rhubarb involves the dried roots and rhizomes of rheum officinale, a rhubarb variant the highest quality of which was grown in China. In Europe, processed to a powder, it was a sought-after and very expensive effective but mild cathartic for the treatment of many afflictions.64 Senna was a purgative prepared from the leaves of cassia acutifolia and cassia angustifolia.65 The currently accepted name of both species is senna alexandrina, indicating a perennial non-climbing shrub.66 The cassia acutifolia senna came from the upper Nile territories and was shipped to Europe via Alexandria.67 The cassia angustifolia senna originated from Somalia, the Arabian peninsula and South India.68 It came to Europe probably via the Cape of Good Hope. Benjamin or benzoin was the fragrant resin of styrax tonkinensis and styrax benzoin, grown, respectively, in Thailand and Java and Sumatra. Due to its apparently antibiotic qualities, it may have been used to treat bronchitis. It was also used as a perfume.69 Before we dive again into the STRs we should have a closer look at the historiography on the matter which, as mentioned above, does pay some attention to the import of medicinal drugs from Asia and America into Europe but barely touches upon the intra-European drugs trade. Discussions of the foreign trade of the Baltic Sea countries hardly mention the ‘Wallis five’. The seventeenth-century pound-toll registers of Elbing as published by Thomas Lindblad do not mention any of the drugs listed by Wallis, including sarsaparilla, china root, rhubarb, senna and benjamin. Nor do these registers include any commodities which might be associated directly with drugs. Only the sundry categories of ‘kramerey’ and ‘kaufmanschaft’ might have included medicines.70 Arnold Soom has used the Reval records of duty payments to analyse the town’s export to and import from Western Europe in the seventeenth century. These registers include medicinal drugs much more decisively.71 Commodities that may be identified as medicinal drugs were not exported from Reval but they certainly appear among the town’s imports. Soom does not provide any relevant time series but briefly touches on the import of the small category of ‘pharmacist wares, dyes and chemicals’. He observes that individual medicinal drugs as ‘Galgant’, ‘Zitfer Saat und wurzeln’, ‘Violen Wurzeln’, ‘Scheidewasser’, ‘Driakel’ and ‘Jeres Wurzeln’ are seldom mentioned in the toll registers. Medicines were usually hidden in categories as ‘Apothekereien und Materialien’, ‘trockene Kreuter’, ‘Balbirer Sachen und medicamenten’ and ‘Drogereyen, Farbereyen und Apothekereyen’.72 Soom does not discuss the broad categories of pedlary and general merchandise and is silent on the question of whether these categories do or do not occur in the Reval toll registers. He only mentions ‘Riselse Krämerei’, which he identifies as textile pedlary of the town of Lille.73 We may conclude that in the Reval toll registers individual medicinal drugs are only sparsely mentioned in the seventeenth century and usually included in broader categories of commodities. Reval clearly imported drugs in the seventeenth century but nothing decisive can be said about the volume, the composition and the development of this business. This conclusion remains unaffected by the evidence produced by Foust and Kotilaine. As mentioned above, Foust points out that Russia exported rhubarb overland to Reval and Riga from the beginning of the seventeenth century. And Kotilaine shows that the Reval and Narva transit trade in the middle of the seventeenth century included imports of rhubarb from Russia—apparently over land from Moscow, Novgorod and Pskov.74 This suggests that rhubarb was consumed in Narva, Reval, Riga and—by extension—Estonia and Livonia and may have been re-exported to other Baltic Sea destinations. But we do not know how large and regular this consumption and the related trade were. On the admittedly narrow basis of the literature on Elbing, Reval—and although there is even less documentation—Narva and Riga, it may be concluded that Baltic Sea countries with no direct commercial links with Asia and America did import exotic drugs in the seventeenth century but that it seems unlikely that this happened in significant quantities. There are, in any case, hardly any drugs visible in the relevant sources. The same observation is true for eighteenth-century Sweden. Lindblad analyses Sweden’s imports in great detail for the years 1738, 1765 and 1792 on the basis of contemporary official Swedish statistics. Among the Swedish imports, the value of the category of ‘oils and drugs’ amounted to less than 5 per cent while that category was heavily dominated by vegetable oils such as linseed-oil. Of the Wallis five, only senna was registered with a tiny total value varying from 39 to 108 rix-dollars per year (about 0.1 promille of the total import value).75 The famous Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) may have advocated the production of exotic herbal medicines like opium and rhubarb at home but this Cameralist inclination can hardly have been a reaction to any large-scale Swedish importing and consumption of these drugs.76 Accepting the reliability of the STRs, we may explore its potential for the study of the Baltic drugs traffic and assess how volumes of the Wallis five transported through the Sound developed. It turns out that only sarsaparilla and rhubarb occur regularly in the STRO, 1124 and 915 times respectively in the period 1670–1849. Benjamin (as benzoin), china root (as radix chinae) and senna barely appear. This can hardly be attributed to the possibility that these commodities may be found under alternative designations in the STRs. Chinawurzel, pockenwurzel and their variants, names under which china root was also known, are absent in the STRs too.77 Senna’s modern scientific names, cassia acutifolia and cassia angustifolia do not appear either. Cas(s)ia fistula and cas(s)ia lignea do appear, but they are not the shrub senna alexandrina and, therefore, are not senna. Cassia fistula is a tree native to Southeast Asia that grows to ten meters tall and is today commonly known as ‘golden shower’.78 Its legumes were used to prepare a laxative in the early modern period, and still are today.79Cassia lignea is the bark of cinnamomum aromaticum, which is also called cinnamomum cassia, a medium-sized tree cultivated in tropical and subtropical South and Southeast Asia, the dried bark of which is used as a cinnamon-like spice.80 The virtual absence of senna, benjamin and china root may be theoretically explained in several ways. First, these commodities may have been registered after all—under names we have not yet identified. Secondly, their absence may reflect an actual situation, as they might have passed through the Sound only very rarely. In that case either there was very little relevant Baltic traffic or it was carried out via overland routes. Thirdly, their absence may obscure an other situation where there was substantial traffic through the Sound but where the commodities mentioned were not recorded at all or were included in general terms such as ‘medikamenter’ and ‘medicin(alier)’ (medicines), ‘drogerier’ (drugs), ‘apotekervarer’ (pharmacist wares) or even—less likely—‘kramery’ (pedlary) and ‘købmandskab’ (general merchandise). Provisionally, we would suppose that senna, benjamin and china root passed the Sound very rarely. There seems to be no reason why rhubarb and sarsaparilla would have been transported through the Sound and explicitly registered in Elsinore while other drugs passing in comparable volumes were not. The Baltic Rhubarb Traffic The STRs do enable us to expand the statistics Foust provides on the rhubarb traffic. Table 2 and Figure 3 make clear that the east to west rhubarb flow through the Sound showed hesitant and intermittent beginnings from 1681 and picked suddenly up in the late 1720s. Table 2. Total volumes of rhubarb passing through the Sound eastward and westward, 1681–1849, in tons Year  E–W  W–E  Year  E–W  W–E  Year  E–W  W–E  year  E–W  W–E  1681  0.123  0  1723  1.570  0  1765  18.521  0  1807  0.917  0.085  1682  0  0  1724  0  0  1766  0  0  1808  0  0  1683  0.381  0  1725  0  0  1767  4.265  0.133  1809  0  0  1684  0.205  0  1726  0  0  1768  2.022  0.094  1810  0.046  0  1685  0  0  1727  0  0  1769  0.112  0.088  1811  0  0.058  1686  0  0  1728  4.460  0  1770  1.181  0.087  1812  0  0  1687  0  0  1729  25.068  0  1771  0  0.051  1813  0  0.050  1688  0  0  1730  7.218  0  1772  0.055  0.200  1814  0.129  1.126  1689  0  0  1731  4.702  0  1773  0.033  0.005  1815  0.338  0.015  1690  0  0  1732  0  0  1774  0.934  0.161  1816  3.243  0.056  1691  0  0  1733  0.614  0  1775  0  0  1817  0.311  0.081  1692  0  0  1734  0.505  0  1776  1.391  0.0614  1818  2.801  0.314  1693  0  0  1735  2.343  0  1777  0.701  0.0424  1819  0.575  0.067  1694  0  0  1736  1.740  0  1778  0.382  0.4396  1820  3.424  0.037  1695  0  0  1737  0.491  0  1779  1.602  0.0042  1821  2.769  0.441  1696  0  0  1738  2.795  0  1780  3.385  0.1213  1822  2.895  0.124  1697  0.050  0  1739  1.474  0.021  1781  3.152  0.3043  1823  2.500  0.128  1698  0.175  0  1740  0.620  0  1782  1.785  0.0827  1824  0  0  1699  0  0  1741  0  0.021  1783  3.509  0  1825  2.489  0  1700  0  0  1742  0  0  1784  0.002  0.306  1826  0.057  0.167  1701  0  0  1743  0  0  1785  0.521  0.097  1827  1.175  0.057  1702  0  0  1744  0  0  1786  1.619  0.349  1828  1.650  0.298  1703  0  0  1745  0  0  1787  4.277  1.704  1829  7.115  0.197  1704  0  0  1746  2.436  0  1788  0.870  1.587  1830  0.083  0.132  1705  0  0  1747  0  0  1789  1.344  1.386  1831  3.534  0.376  1706  0  0  1748  0  0.017  1790  0.816  1.022  1832  0.252  0.347  1707  0  0  1749  1.275  0  1791  1.858  0.453  1833  3.653  0.124  1708  0.085  0  1750  0  0  1792  0.547  0.622  1834  3.279  0.851  1709  0  0  1751  1.007  0  1793  0.246  0.186  1835  4.950  0.094  1710  0  0  1752  0.328  0.059  1794  0.204  0.289  1836  4.437  0.122  1711  0.601  0.138  1753  0  0.108  1795  0.364  0.283  1837  2.779  0  1712  0  0  1754  0.004  0.021  1796  1.411  3.655  1838  0.165  0.062  1713  0.042  0  1755  0  0.021  1797  0.538  2.486  1839  26.706  0.237  1714  0  0  1756  0  0.008  1798  4.268  1.616  1840  3.691  0.180  1715  0  0  1757  0  0.060  1799  1.404  0.071  1841  1.232  0.067  1716  0.164  0  1758  0  0.017  1800  0.007  0.107  1842  1.602  0.119  1717  0  0  1759  0  0  1801  0  0.118  1843  4.005  0.858  1718  0  0  1760  0.082  0.008  1802  0.692  0.301  1844  1.367  1.066  1719  0  0  1761  0.706  0.169  1803  1.411  0.026  1845  1.566  0.891  1720  0  0  1762  1.148  0.158  1804  1.426  1.332  1846  1.511  0.351  1721  0  0  1763  3.586  0.234  1805  1.403  0.142  1847  1.998  0.079  1722  0  0  1764  13.499  2.039  1806  1.026  0.530  1848  4.056  0.780                    1849  8.374  0.687  Year  E–W  W–E  Year  E–W  W–E  Year  E–W  W–E  year  E–W  W–E  1681  0.123  0  1723  1.570  0  1765  18.521  0  1807  0.917  0.085  1682  0  0  1724  0  0  1766  0  0  1808  0  0  1683  0.381  0  1725  0  0  1767  4.265  0.133  1809  0  0  1684  0.205  0  1726  0  0  1768  2.022  0.094  1810  0.046  0  1685  0  0  1727  0  0  1769  0.112  0.088  1811  0  0.058  1686  0  0  1728  4.460  0  1770  1.181  0.087  1812  0  0  1687  0  0  1729  25.068  0  1771  0  0.051  1813  0  0.050  1688  0  0  1730  7.218  0  1772  0.055  0.200  1814  0.129  1.126  1689  0  0  1731  4.702  0  1773  0.033  0.005  1815  0.338  0.015  1690  0  0  1732  0  0  1774  0.934  0.161  1816  3.243  0.056  1691  0  0  1733  0.614  0  1775  0  0  1817  0.311  0.081  1692  0  0  1734  0.505  0  1776  1.391  0.0614  1818  2.801  0.314  1693  0  0  1735  2.343  0  1777  0.701  0.0424  1819  0.575  0.067  1694  0  0  1736  1.740  0  1778  0.382  0.4396  1820  3.424  0.037  1695  0  0  1737  0.491  0  1779  1.602  0.0042  1821  2.769  0.441  1696  0  0  1738  2.795  0  1780  3.385  0.1213  1822  2.895  0.124  1697  0.050  0  1739  1.474  0.021  1781  3.152  0.3043  1823  2.500  0.128  1698  0.175  0  1740  0.620  0  1782  1.785  0.0827  1824  0  0  1699  0  0  1741  0  0.021  1783  3.509  0  1825  2.489  0  1700  0  0  1742  0  0  1784  0.002  0.306  1826  0.057  0.167  1701  0  0  1743  0  0  1785  0.521  0.097  1827  1.175  0.057  1702  0  0  1744  0  0  1786  1.619  0.349  1828  1.650  0.298  1703  0  0  1745  0  0  1787  4.277  1.704  1829  7.115  0.197  1704  0  0  1746  2.436  0  1788  0.870  1.587  1830  0.083  0.132  1705  0  0  1747  0  0  1789  1.344  1.386  1831  3.534  0.376  1706  0  0  1748  0  0.017  1790  0.816  1.022  1832  0.252  0.347  1707  0  0  1749  1.275  0  1791  1.858  0.453  1833  3.653  0.124  1708  0.085  0  1750  0  0  1792  0.547  0.622  1834  3.279  0.851  1709  0  0  1751  1.007  0  1793  0.246  0.186  1835  4.950  0.094  1710  0  0  1752  0.328  0.059  1794  0.204  0.289  1836  4.437  0.122  1711  0.601  0.138  1753  0  0.108  1795  0.364  0.283  1837  2.779  0  1712  0  0  1754  0.004  0.021  1796  1.411  3.655  1838  0.165  0.062  1713  0.042  0  1755  0  0.021  1797  0.538  2.486  1839  26.706  0.237  1714  0  0  1756  0  0.008  1798  4.268  1.616  1840  3.691  0.180  1715  0  0  1757  0  0.060  1799  1.404  0.071  1841  1.232  0.067  1716  0.164  0  1758  0  0.017  1800  0.007  0.107  1842  1.602  0.119  1717  0  0  1759  0  0  1801  0  0.118  1843  4.005  0.858  1718  0  0  1760  0.082  0.008  1802  0.692  0.301  1844  1.367  1.066  1719  0  0  1761  0.706  0.169  1803  1.411  0.026  1845  1.566  0.891  1720  0  0  1762  1.148  0.158  1804  1.426  1.332  1846  1.511  0.351  1721  0  0  1763  3.586  0.234  1805  1.403  0.142  1847  1.998  0.079  1722  0  0  1764  13.499  2.039  1806  1.026  0.530  1848  4.056  0.780                    1849  8.374  0.687  Source: www.soundtoll.nl (see note 57). Table 3. Main westward rhubarb routes through the Sound, 1681–1849, in tons Year  St Petersburg - London  St Petersburg - Amsterdam  Rest - rest westward  Year  St Petersburg - London  St Petersburg - Amsterdam  Rest - rest westward  Year  St Petersburg - London  St Petersburg - Amsterdam  Rest - rest westward  1681  0  0  0.123  1737  0  0.491  0  1793  0.229  0  0.017  1682  0  0  0  1738  0  2.795  0  1794  0.196  0  0.008  1683  0  0  0.381  1739  0  1.474  0  1795  0.354  0  0.010  1684  0  0  0.205  1740  0  0  0.620  1796  1.365  0  0.046  1685  0  0  0  1741  0  0  0  1797  0.452  0.082  0.004  1686  0  0  0  1742  0  0  0  1798  4.029  0.100  0.139  1687  0  0  0  1743  0  0  0  1799  1.404  0  0  1688  0  0  0  1744  0  0  0  1800  0  0  0.007  1689  0  0  0  1745  0  0  0  1801  0  0  0  1690  0  0  0  1746  0.642  1.310  0.483  1802  0.327  0  0.365  1691  0  0  0  1747  0  0  0  1803  0.751  0.655  0.005  1692  0  0  0  1748  0  0  0  1804  1.310  0  0.117  1693  0  0  0  1749  0  0.368  0.907  1805  1.236  0  0.166  1694  0  0  0  1750  0  0  0  1806  0.985  0  0.041  1695  0  0  0  1751  1.007  0  0  1807  0.917  0  0  1696  0  0  0  1752  0  0.328  0  1808  0  0  0  1697  0  0  0.050  1753  0  0  0  1809  0  0  0  1698  0  0  0.175  1754  0  0  0.004  1810  0  0  0.046  1699  0  0  0  1755  0  0  0  1811  0  0  0  1700  0  0  0  1756  0  0  0  1812  0  0  0  1701  0  0  0  1757  0  0  0  1813  0  0  0  1702  0  0  0  1758  0  0  0  1814  0  0  0.129  1703  0  0  0  1759  0  0  0  1815  0  0.098  0.239  1704  0  0  0  1760  0.082  0  0  1816  3.080  0  0.164  1705  0  0  0  1761  0.664  0  0.0419  1817  0    0.311  1706  0  0  0  1762  0.985  0.164  0  1818  2.489  0  0.312  1707  0  0  0  1763  2.160  0.998  0.428  1819  0  0.104  0.471  1708  0  0  0.085  1764  2.682  2.113  8.703  1820  2.904  0  0.520  1709  0  0  0  1765  13.952  4.569  0  1821  2.235  0.532  0.002  1710  0  0  0  1766  0  0  0  1822  2.846  0.049  0  1711  0  0  0.601  1767  1.650  1.858  0.757  1823  2.029  0.472  0  1712  0  0  0  1768  1.990  0.033  0  1824  0  0  0  1713  0  0  0.042  1769  0  0  0.112  1825  1.923  0  0.566  1714  0  0  0  1770  1.112  0.016  0.053  1826  0  0.008  0.049  1715  0  0  0  1771  0  0  0  1827  1.175  0  0  1716  0  0  0.164  1772  0.055  0  0  1828  1.650  0  0  1717  0  0  0  1773  0  0.033  0  1829  4.426  0.754  1.935  1718  0  0  0  1774  0.931  0  0.003  1830  0  0  0.083  1719  0  0  0  1775  0  0  0  1831  3.282  0  0.252  1720  0  0  0  1776  1.391  0  0  1832  0  0.168  0.084  1721  0  0  0  1777  0.409  0  0.292  1833  3.551  0  0.102  1722  0  0  0  1778  0.382  0  0  1834  3.263  0  0.017  1723  0  0.528  1.042  1779  1.451  0  0.151  1835  4.918  0  0.033  1724  0  0  0  1780  2.553  0.688  0.144  1836  4.338  0.016  0.084  1725  0  0  0  1781  3.152  0  0  1837  2.616  0  0.164  1726  0  0  0  1782  1.752  0  0.033  1838  0  0.085  0.079  1727  0  0  0  1783  3.275  0.233  0  1839  26.625  0.081  0  1728  0.911  1.692  1.858  1784  0  0  0.002  1840  3.516  0  0.175  1729  4.730  19.416  0.922  1785  0.518  0  0.002  1841  0.655  0  0.577  1730  2.607  3.349  1.262  1786  1.617  0  0.002  1842  1.569  0  0.033  1731  0.749  3.754  0.199  1787  4.113  0.165  0  1843  3.964  0  0.041  1732  0  0  0  1788  0.870  0  0  1844  0.605  0  0.763  1733  0.614  0  0  1789  0.637  0.396  0.311  1845  0.221  0  1.268  1734  0  0  0.505  1790  0.212  0  0.604  1846  0.747  0  0.764  1735  1.228  1.115  0  1791  0.843  0  1.015  1847  1.998  0  0  1736  0  1.740  0  1792  0.352  0  0.195  1848  3.083  0  0.973                  1849  3.888  0  4.485  Year  St Petersburg - London  St Petersburg - Amsterdam  Rest - rest westward  Year  St Petersburg - London  St Petersburg - Amsterdam  Rest - rest westward  Year  St Petersburg - London  St Petersburg - Amsterdam  Rest - rest westward  1681  0  0  0.123  1737  0  0.491  0  1793  0.229  0  0.017  1682  0  0  0  1738  0  2.795  0  1794  0.196  0  0.008  1683  0  0  0.381  1739  0  1.474  0  1795  0.354  0  0.010  1684  0  0  0.205  1740  0  0  0.620  1796  1.365  0  0.046  1685  0  0  0  1741  0  0  0  1797  0.452  0.082  0.004  1686  0  0  0  1742  0  0  0  1798  4.029  0.100  0.139  1687  0  0  0  1743  0  0  0  1799  1.404  0  0  1688  0  0  0  1744  0  0  0  1800  0  0  0.007  1689  0  0  0  1745  0  0  0  1801  0  0  0  1690  0  0  0  1746  0.642  1.310  0.483  1802  0.327  0  0.365  1691  0  0  0  1747  0  0  0  1803  0.751  0.655  0.005  1692  0  0  0  1748  0  0  0  1804  1.310  0  0.117  1693  0  0  0  1749  0  0.368  0.907  1805  1.236  0  0.166  1694  0  0  0  1750  0  0  0  1806  0.985  0  0.041  1695  0  0  0  1751  1.007  0  0  1807  0.917  0  0  1696  0  0  0  1752  0  0.328  0  1808  0  0  0  1697  0  0  0.050  1753  0  0  0  1809  0  0  0  1698  0  0  0.175  1754  0  0  0.004  1810  0  0  0.046  1699  0  0  0  1755  0  0  0  1811  0  0  0  1700  0  0  0  1756  0  0  0  1812  0  0  0  1701  0  0  0  1757  0  0  0  1813  0  0  0  1702  0  0  0  1758  0  0  0  1814  0  0  0.129  1703  0  0  0  1759  0  0  0  1815  0  0.098  0.239  1704  0  0  0  1760  0.082  0  0  1816  3.080  0  0.164  1705  0  0  0  1761  0.664  0  0.0419  1817  0    0.311  1706  0  0  0  1762  0.985  0.164  0  1818  2.489  0  0.312  1707  0  0  0  1763  2.160  0.998  0.428  1819  0  0.104  0.471  1708  0  0  0.085  1764  2.682  2.113  8.703  1820  2.904  0  0.520  1709  0  0  0  1765  13.952  4.569  0  1821  2.235  0.532  0.002  1710  0  0  0  1766  0  0  0  1822  2.846  0.049  0  1711  0  0  0.601  1767  1.650  1.858  0.757  1823  2.029  0.472  0  1712  0  0  0  1768  1.990  0.033  0  1824  0  0  0  1713  0  0  0.042  1769  0  0  0.112  1825  1.923  0  0.566  1714  0  0  0  1770  1.112  0.016  0.053  1826  0  0.008  0.049  1715  0  0  0  1771  0  0  0  1827  1.175  0  0  1716  0  0  0.164  1772  0.055  0  0  1828  1.650  0  0  1717  0  0  0  1773  0  0.033  0  1829  4.426  0.754  1.935  1718  0  0  0  1774  0.931  0  0.003  1830  0  0  0.083  1719  0  0  0  1775  0  0  0  1831  3.282  0  0.252  1720  0  0  0  1776  1.391  0  0  1832  0  0.168  0.084  1721  0  0  0  1777  0.409  0  0.292  1833  3.551  0  0.102  1722  0  0  0  1778  0.382  0  0  1834  3.263  0  0.017  1723  0  0.528  1.042  1779  1.451  0  0.151  1835  4.918  0  0.033  1724  0  0  0  1780  2.553  0.688  0.144  1836  4.338  0.016  0.084  1725  0  0  0  1781  3.152  0  0  1837  2.616  0  0.164  1726  0  0  0  1782  1.752  0  0.033  1838  0  0.085  0.079  1727  0  0  0  1783  3.275  0.233  0  1839  26.625  0.081  0  1728  0.911  1.692