Chemical Senses, 2018, Vol 43, 137 doi:10.1093/chemse/bjy011 In This Issue In This Issue for a pheromone of men’s axillary sweat, can signal threat to men to Odor blends for pathogen recognition by avoid a dominant man during a competition. Participants completed Caenorhabditis elegans twice, under androstadienone exposure and control condition, a Page 169 behavioral paradigm that measures, in the context of provocation, Caenorhabditis elegans discriminates between the odors of vari- aggressive, individualistic withdrawal and cooperative responses. ous bacterial species, yet it remains unknown which chemicals or The authors found that the steroid increased individualistic and chemical blends the worm uses for the detection and recognition of decreased cooperative responses. He authors conclude that their different microbes. It is innately attracted to and ingests the patho- data support a role of the chemical as a threatening signal of domin- genic bacterium, Serratia marcescens. which causes fatal intestinal ance that elicits avoidance and social withdrawal tendencies. infection in 2–3 days. The worm adapts to and avoids the pathogen after a few hours. By means of solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry Worthy et al iden- Route of delivery affects olfactory adaptation tified 5 volatiles released by S. marcescens, of which 2-butanone and Page 197 acetone strongly attracted the worm over a range of concentrations. Odorants can be perceived orthonasally through the nostrils or ret- Mixture experiments revealed that the two compounds represent ronasally through the mouth. The route of delivery influences the the major attractive volatiles of the pathogen. Genetic screens using ON processing of olfactory information with relevance for perception, numerous strains of mutant worms then revealed that AWC sen- pleasantness and behavioral responses. Pierce and Simons now sory neuron detects and drives attraction to the two major attract- investigated if orthonasal and retronasal odors differently impacts ive volatiles of the pathogenic bacterium. When paired with food olfactory adaptation and if cross-adaptation occurs between com- deprivation both the natural odor of S. marcensis and blend of the pounds delivered by the two pathways. To this end they adminis- synthetic volatiles become less attractive. tered to subjects vanillin and linalool via the two routes and shunted the delivery from the nostrils to the oral cavity and vice versa. They found that depending on concentrations, intensity of both volatiles Androstadienone, a compound of men’s decreased with time when delivered orthonasally. However, when sweat, affects human behavior applied retronasally adaptation was not evident for both odorants. Page 189 Irrespective of the route of delivery cross-adaptation was not obvi- Evidence increases that humans, similar to other mammals, can use ous. Nevertheless, the data suggest that olfactory processing depends chemosensory signals to communicate socially relevant informa- on the route of delivery. tion. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study Banner et al examined if androstadienone, a candidate compound Wolfgang Meyerhof © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article-abstract/43/3/137/4910412 by Ed 'DeepDyve' Gillespie user on 16 March 2018
Chemical Senses – Oxford University Press
Published: Mar 1, 2018
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