An E-liquid Flavor Wheel: A Shared Vocabulary based on Systematically Reviewing E-liquid Flavor Classifications in Literature

An E-liquid Flavor Wheel: A Shared Vocabulary based on Systematically Reviewing E-liquid Flavor... Abstract Introduction E-liquids are available in a high variety of flavors. A systematic classification of e-liquid flavors is necessary to increase comparability of research results. In the food, alcohol and fragrance industry, flavors are classified using flavor wheels. We systematically reviewed literature on flavors related to e-cigarette use, to investigate how e-liquid flavors have been classified in research, and propose an e-liquid flavor wheel to classify e-liquids based on marketing descriptions. Methods The search was conducted in May 2017 using PubMed and Embase databases. Keywords included terms associated with e-cigarettes, flavors, liking, learning, and wanting in articles. Results were independently screened and reviewed. Flavor categories used in the articles reviewed were extracted. Results Searches yielded 386 unique articles of which 28 were included. Forty-three main flavor categories were reported in these articles (e.g., tobacco, menthol, mint, fruit, bakery/dessert, alcohol, nuts, spice, candy, coffee/tea, beverages, chocolate, sweet flavors, vanilla, unflavored). Flavor classifications of e-liquids in literature showed similarities and differences across studies. Our proposed e-liquid flavor wheel contains 13 main categories and 90 subcategories, which summarize flavor categories from literature to find a shared vocabulary. For classification of e-liquids using our flavor wheel, marketing descriptions should be used. Conclusions We have proposed a flavor wheel for classification of e-liquids. Further research is needed to test the flavor wheels’ empirical value. Consistently classifying e-liquid flavors using our flavor wheel in research (e.g., experimental, marketing, or qualitative studies) minimizes interpretation differences and increases comparability of results. Implications We reviewed e-liquid flavors and flavor categories used in research. A large variation in the naming of flavor categories was found and e-liquid flavors were not consistently classified. We developed an e-liquid flavor wheel and provided a guideline for systematic classification of e-liquids based on marketing descriptions. Our flavor wheel summarizes e-liquid flavors and categories used in literature in order to create a shared vocabulary. Applying our flavor wheel in research on e-liquids will improve data interpretation, increase comparability across studies, and support policy makers in developing rules for regulation of e-liquid flavors. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Nicotine and Tobacco Research Oxford University Press

An E-liquid Flavor Wheel: A Shared Vocabulary based on Systematically Reviewing E-liquid Flavor Classifications in Literature

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Publisher
Oxford University Press
Copyright
© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.
ISSN
1462-2203
eISSN
1469-994X
D.O.I.
10.1093/ntr/nty101
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Introduction E-liquids are available in a high variety of flavors. A systematic classification of e-liquid flavors is necessary to increase comparability of research results. In the food, alcohol and fragrance industry, flavors are classified using flavor wheels. We systematically reviewed literature on flavors related to e-cigarette use, to investigate how e-liquid flavors have been classified in research, and propose an e-liquid flavor wheel to classify e-liquids based on marketing descriptions. Methods The search was conducted in May 2017 using PubMed and Embase databases. Keywords included terms associated with e-cigarettes, flavors, liking, learning, and wanting in articles. Results were independently screened and reviewed. Flavor categories used in the articles reviewed were extracted. Results Searches yielded 386 unique articles of which 28 were included. Forty-three main flavor categories were reported in these articles (e.g., tobacco, menthol, mint, fruit, bakery/dessert, alcohol, nuts, spice, candy, coffee/tea, beverages, chocolate, sweet flavors, vanilla, unflavored). Flavor classifications of e-liquids in literature showed similarities and differences across studies. Our proposed e-liquid flavor wheel contains 13 main categories and 90 subcategories, which summarize flavor categories from literature to find a shared vocabulary. For classification of e-liquids using our flavor wheel, marketing descriptions should be used. Conclusions We have proposed a flavor wheel for classification of e-liquids. Further research is needed to test the flavor wheels’ empirical value. Consistently classifying e-liquid flavors using our flavor wheel in research (e.g., experimental, marketing, or qualitative studies) minimizes interpretation differences and increases comparability of results. Implications We reviewed e-liquid flavors and flavor categories used in research. A large variation in the naming of flavor categories was found and e-liquid flavors were not consistently classified. We developed an e-liquid flavor wheel and provided a guideline for systematic classification of e-liquids based on marketing descriptions. Our flavor wheel summarizes e-liquid flavors and categories used in literature in order to create a shared vocabulary. Applying our flavor wheel in research on e-liquids will improve data interpretation, increase comparability across studies, and support policy makers in developing rules for regulation of e-liquid flavors. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Journal

Nicotine and Tobacco ResearchOxford University Press

Published: May 18, 2018

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