Abstracts from the 51th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association for the Study of Taste and Smell, JASTS-2017, 25–27 September 2017, Kobe International Conference Center, Hyogo, Japan (The president of the meeting was Dr. Mamiko Ozaki, Kobe University)

Abstracts from the 51th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association for the Study of Taste and... P-002 How do sweet taste inhibitors having the O-phenyllactic acid skeleton interact with transmembrane domain of T1R3? Tomoya Nakagita1, Akiko Ishida2, Takuya Kobayashi1, Takatsugu Hirokawa3, Makoto Hashimoto2, Takumi Misaka4 1Grad. Sch. Med., Kyoto Univ., Kyoto 606–8501, 2Grad. Sch. Agri., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo 060-8589, 3AIST., Tokyo 135-0064, 4Dept. Appl. Biol. Chem., The Univ. Tokyo, Tokyo, 113–8567 Lactisole, a sweet taste inhibitor containing the O-phenyllactic acid skeleton is known to interact with the transmembrane domain (TMD) of T1R3 subunit. On the other hand, 2,4-DP, originally developed as herbicide, also contains the O-phenyllactic acid skeleton and interacts with T1R3-TMD, with 10-fold higher affinity than lactisole does. However, little is known about the molecular basis of the different specificities for TMD. In this study, based on the results of point mutational assay, docking simulation of these compounds for T1R3 TMD homology model was performed. Then, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out. From the results, we newly discovered that in both of lactisole and 2,4-DP, (S)-isomer had higher inhibitory ability than (R)-isomer. This was thought that (R)-O-phenyllactic acid skeletons could not interact with one of the most important residues Gln7947.38. In addition, it was appeared that 2,4-DP had more hydrophobic interactions via o-Cl group compared to lactisole. Residues that forming bottom of binding pocket such as Leu7987.42 were thought to be important to their difference. Thus, we succeeded in elucidating the details of how O-phenyllactic acid inhibitors work on T1R3-TMD. P-008 Optical topographic analysis of parcellation within human prefrontal cortex activated by different taste qualities Yasuko Kawauchi1, Natsumi Kamakura2, Rena Hayashi2, Yuka Nakazato2, Hanae Nakano2, Takayuki Sako3, Takenori Miyamoto1,2 1Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, Division of Material and Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Japan Women’s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112–8681 Japan 2Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Japan Women’s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112–8681 Japan 3Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Human Science and Design, Japan Women’s University, Tokyo, Japan Our previous study using sensory evaluation and optical topographic analysis (fNIRS) showed that the prominent increase of cerebral blood flow rate appeared at the left lateral region of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in negative correlation with pleasantness of gustatory stimuli, and it shifted to medial regions of PFC, by increasing taste pleasantness e.g. addition of inositol monophosphate (IMP) to slightly bitter substance, arginine or monopotassium glutamate (MPG). These findings suggest that unpleasant component of the gustatory stimuli may mainly activate the lateral region of PFC, whereas the medial region is activated by increasing taste pleasantness. To confirm this assumption, we conducted experiment using an artificial sweetener, aspartame, which is basically pleasant, but becomes unpleasant at the higher concentration. In the present experiment, the amount of oxyhemoglobin change (Δoxy-Hb) in the left lateral region of the PFC was significantly increased by gustatory stimulation with high concentration of aspartame as well as citric acid. On the other hand, the Δoxy-Hb in the more medial region of PFC, which roughly correspond to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), was significantly increased by gustatory stimulation with low concentration of aspartame as well as sucrose. A positive correlation between Δoxy-Hb and taste pleasantness was observed in the OFC region, but a negative correlation appeared in the left lateral region of PFC. Thus, the present experiment could confirm the assumption proposed by our previous studies. The present results also suggest that fNIRS is an useful tool for the evaluation of the central processing pathway related to the taste preference. P-012 Relationship between sweetener preference and increasing process of blood glucose level after ingestion in food-restricted mice Misato Hiraiwa1, Yuri Kihara1, Yu Kamigashima1, Yasunobu Yasoshima2, Takenori Miyamoto1 1Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Japan Women’s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112–8681 Japan 2Division of Behavioral Physiology, Department of Behavioral Sciences, Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University, 1–2 Yamadaoka, Suita 565–0871, Japan When food-deprived mice received alternate access to a caloric sucrose (Suc) solution (1.0 M) on odd days and a non-caloric saccharin (Sac) solution (2.5 mM) on even days, the intake of Suc, but not Sac, significantly increased during the alternate procedure. After the procedure, preference for Suc over Sac was developed. The alternate access to 1.0 M glucose (Glu) or 1.0 M fructose (Fru) instead of Suc significantly increased the intake of Glu, but not Fru. We assumed that blood glucose elevation after digestion of the disaccharide Suc (Glu + Fru) in the gut is crucial for acquisition of Suc preference. To examine the assumption, we examined blood glucose level (BGL) after Glu or Fru intake. BGL peaked 20 min after ingestion of 1.0 M Glu or 1.0 M Fru; however, increasing rate of BGL in mice with Glu was significantly greater than that in mice with Fru. The findings suggest that rapid blood glucose elevation with Suc or Glu intake is potent to produce the selective preference for Suc over Sac. Our previous work showed that lesions of the basolateral amygdala failed to develop the Suc preference, suggesting that the basolateral amygdala is involved in association between the taste of Suc and postingestive effects derived from compensatory blood glucose elevation after the Suc intake under food deprivation condition. The present findings also suggest that rapid increase of BGL following to arrival of the gustatory information to the basolateral amygdala is critical for the acquisition of Suc preference. P-015 Effect of oral sweet sensation with aspartame on digestive-absorptive activities in humans Hideaki Kashima, Kana Taniyama, Masaki Fujimoto, Masako Yamaoka Endo, Yoshiyuki Fukuba School of Health Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 1-1-71 Ujina-higashi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734–8558, Japan We reported that oral stimulation using Gymnema sylvestre (GS), which selectively suppresses oral sweet taste sensations (i.e. activates sweet taste receptors) in humans, delayed gastric emptying and gut blood flow and blood glucose and plasma insulin responses during/after oral glucose ingestion. Our results suggested that oral glucose sweet-sensing contributes in initiating multiple physiological responses. However, it is unclear whether these physiological alternations were triggered by oral sweet-sensing. We tested the effects of oral sweet-sensing using artificial sweeteners (e.g. aspartame) on gastric emptying, superior mesenteric artery blood flow (SMABF) and blood glucose and plasma insulin responses during/after prandial phases. Nine participants ingested 200 g (50 g × four times) of either 0.09% aspartame or 15% glucose solution containing 100 mg of 13C-sodium acetate after rinsing with 25 ml of either water (control) or 2.5% GS solution (GS). During each trial, gastric emptying and SMABF were measured using 13C-sodium acetate breath test and ultrasonography, respectively. A decreased subjective sweet taste intensity was observed in all participants in the GS condition of both trials. In the aspartame trial, the measurements showed no significant differences between both conditions. In the glucose trial, gastric emptying and SMABF responses were delayed in the GS condition compared with the control condition. At the initial phase during/after glucose solution ingestion, blood glucose and plasma insulin responses were lower in the GS condition than in the control condition. These results suggested that oral sweet-sensing does not offer substantial implication in controlling gastrointestinal activities and glycemic metabolism during/after prandial phases. P-24 Expression and functions of TRPM8 channels in the superior laryngeal nerve innervating the laryngeal region Hiroshi Ando1, Mohammad Zakir Hossain2, Shunpei Unno2, Yuji Masuda3, Junichi Kitagawa2 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Oral Physiology, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Biology, Graduate School of Oral Medicine, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Japan The primary afferent nerves innervating the laryngeal region show strange responses to chemical stimulations, differ from the responses of the taste nerves innervating the tongue. It is possible that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are involved in these characteristic responses to chemical stimulations. TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a member of the TRP channel family and is known to be activated by menthol and be able to detect cold temperature. In the present study, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of the TRPM8 channels in the nodose, petrosal and jugular ganglionic complex (NPJc) containing the cell bodies of the afferents of superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) innervating the laryngeal region and investigated the functions of the TRPM8 channels in the laryngeal region. The cell bodies stained by a neuronal retrograde tracer fluoro-gold (FG) were observed scattered all over in the NPJc following the FG-injection to the laryngeal region. TRPM8-immunoreactive (IR) cell bodies were abundantly observed in the NPJc. In addition, most of the TRPM8-IR cell bodies were in non-myelinated neurons of the SLN, whereas, scarcely TRPM8-IR cells expressed in myelinated neurons. Menthol applied into the laryngeal region evoked SLN response in a dose-dependent manner and a TRPM8 antagonist blocked the menthol-evoked SLN response. Moreover, menthol applied into the laryngeal region facilitated the swallowing reflex and the TRPM8 antagonist attenuated the facilitation of the reflex. These results suggest that TRPM8 channels in non-myelinated nerves of the SLN innervating regions play a significant role in regulating food palatability and in controlling food intake. P-036 Histone methyltransferase G9a regulates the starvation-induced behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster Kouhei Shimaji1,2, Toru Maeda3, Mamiko Ozaki3, Hideki Yoshida1,2, Yasuyuki Ohkawa4, Tetsuya Sato5, Mikita Suyama5, Masamitsu Yamaguchi1,2 1Department of Applied Biology, 2The Center for Advanced Insect Research Promotion, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606–8585, Japan 3Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe, 657–8501, Japan, 4Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medicine, 5Division of Bioinformatics, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Maidashi, Fukuoka, 812–8582, Japan Organisms have developed behavioral strategies to defend themselves from starvation stress. Despite of their importance in nature, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Previous studies reported that several epigenetic factors are relevant to behaviors included in learning/memory, neurodevelopmental disorders, drug addiction, parenting and stress responses in mammals. Some of these relationships have also been found in Drosophila melanogaster, this model organism extensively used for genetic studies because of its short life span and the high homology of human genome. Here, we show that Drosophila G9a (dG9a), one of the histone H3 Lys 9-specific histone methyltransferases, functions as a key regulator for the starvation-induced behaviors. RNA-sequence analyses utilizing dG9a null mutant flies revealed that the expressions of some genes relating to gustatory perception are regulated by dG9a under starvation conditions. Reverse transcription quantitative-PCR analyses showed that the expressions of gustatory receptor genes for behavioral sensing sugar are up-regulated in starved dG9a null mutant. In consistent with this, proboscis extension reflex tests indicated that dG9a depletion increased the sensitivity to sucrose under starvation conditions. Furthermore, the locomotion activity was promoted in starved dG9a null mutant. We also found that dG9a depletion down-regulates the expression of insulin-like peptide genes that are required for the suppression of starvation-induced hyperactivity. These data indicate that dG9a functions as a key regulator for the decision of feeding or foraging strategies under starvation conditions. P-041 Factors affecting flavor learning associated with umami in weanling rats Kayoko Ueji, Takashi Yamamoto Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Science, Kio University, Nara 635–0832, Japan Our previous study showed that weanling rats could establish conditioned flavor preferences when a mixture of 0.05M MSG and 0.01M IMP, but not each component, was used as an associative rewarding stimulus, and surprisingly this acquired preferences continued to adulthood. The present study examined whether these animals are able to acquire a flavor preference when MSG with amiloride or dextrin was used. Three-week-old Wistar male rats were trained in a flavor learning task. Half of the rats received grape-flavored water on odd-numbered days and cherry-flavored umami solution (0.3M MSG and amiloride, 10% dextrin, 0.1M MSG and dextrin) on even-numbered days. The remaining rats received grape-flavored umami solution on odd-numbered days and cherry-flavored water on even-numbered days. During this acquisition session, the liquid was presented to each rat for 15 min daily for 6 consecutive days. In the following test session, each rat was presented with cherry-flavored water and grape-flavored water simultaneously for 15 min daily for 4 consecutive days. The rats showed significant aversions for the flavor previously associated with the mixture of 0.3M MSG and amiloride as well as 0.3M MSG, indicating that strong umami taste itself, but not Na ions, is aversive in weanling rats. Interestingly, these rats showed flavor preferences when tested at the age of 20 weeks. The rats failed to acquire preferences for the flavor previously associated with MSG or dextrin, but showed significant flavor preferences when a mixture of MSG and dextrin was used. The present study suggests that weanling rats acquire immediate conditioned flavor preferences on the basis of oral factors; but long-lasting preferences, on the basis of post-oral factors. P-045 Development of a simplified whole-mouth taste test Misako Kawai1, Akiko Watanabe1, Lili Cao2, Takeshi Kikutani3 1Institute for Innovation, Ajinomoto Co., Inc. 1-1 Suzuki-cho, Kawasaki-ku Kawasaki, 210–8681, Japan, 2Institute of Food Science & Technologies, Ajinomoto Co., Inc. 1-1 Suzuki-cho, Kawasaki-ku Kawasaki, 210–8681, Japan, 3Division of Oral Rehabilitation, The Nippon Dental University Graduate School of Life Dentistry, Tokyo, 2-3-16 Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102–8158, Japan [Background and Aim] We have developed an easy whole-mouth tasting test (WMTt) for sweet, salty, and umami sensitivities using five-level supra-threshold taste solutions. In WMTt, the subject tastes a test solution, and then answers questions on the quality of the perceived taste and the certainty of the perception. Scores (0–3) were assigned to each solution and the sum of the scores was regarded as the taste sensitivity. The aim of the study was to reduce the number of test solutions from five to make the testing time shorter. [Method] We selected two-level taste solutions according to the WMTt results using five-level solutions (5-WMTt) provided by healthy elderly subjects (Chem. Senses, 40, p.591 (2015)) in order to meet the following criteria: 1) the sum of scores of the two solutions correlated with the sum of the five original solutions, and 2) the scores of the two solutions were significantly different from each other. Then, the performance of WMTt with the two solutions was examined using healthy elderly subjects (n = 32). [Result] We selected two-level supra-threshold taste solutions from the 5-WMTt test solutions: sweet (15–96-mM sucrose), salty (15–77-mM NaCl), and umami (2.2–11-mM MSG), and performed WMTt with the two solutions. The test time was ~10 min. The score of each solution for sweetness and saltiness of two-solution WMTt was almost the same as those of 5-WMTt. However, the score for high-level umami solution of two-solution WMTt was significantly higher than that of 5-WMTt, probably because adaptation of long-lasting umami taste did not occur due to reduction in the number of test solution. P-050 Responsivity to bitter substances, amino acids in human salivary gland tumor cell line A253 Tetsuya Takao1, Nanami Sakakibara1, Mieko Aoki2, Kyoichi Takao3 1Fac. Human Life Enviro. Sci., Showa Women’s Univ., Tokyo 154–8533, 2Food Nut., Sanyo Gakuen College, Okayama, 703–8501, 3Med. Sch., Nihon Univ., Tokyo 173–8610 Hyposalivation is associated with advancing age and diseases such as diabetes and results in impaired food intake and malnutrition. If it is possible to stimulate the salivary glands and increase the amount of saliva in humans, their quality of life will be improved. Human salivary gland tumor cell line A253 expressed all the 25 types of hTAS2R isoforms. In this study, using the A253, we examined the responsiveness to some taste substances and coffee extract. 5x104 cells of A253 strain were incubated in McCoy’s 5A medium containing 10% FBS, 5% CO2 for 24 hours at 37ºC. The cell response was recorded by calcium imaging with Fluo8 as a fluorescent probe. Fluo8 was loaded into the cells at 37ºC for 30 min and at room temperature for another 30 min. After the loading, the cells were stimulated with Quinine, Papaverine, Yohimbine, Sucrose, amino acids and coffee extract. This stimulation and measurement was done using an inverted fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results were as follows: A253 responded to bitter tastants dose dependently for 0.025-100mM Quinine, 1.3-13mM Papaverine, 0.32-13mM Yohimbine, 3.5-72mM Histidine, 1.0-20mM Methionine, 1.2-12mM Phenylalanine, and 0.125–1.0 concentrations of coffee extract. No response to sweet or umami tastants such as Sucrose, Serine, and Na-Glutamate was found. The result that A253 responded to some bitter substances, amino acids and coffee extract, might be a fundamental finding for salivary gland stimulus. This work was supported by Showa Women’s University Grant-in-Aid for Research Projects. P-053 Effects of attentive eating on postprandial appetite Naomi Sano, Hideaki Kashima Department of Health Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 1-1-71 Ujina-higashi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734–8558, Japan The inability to pay attention to food during meals because of giving divided attention to, for example, watching TV, is related to concurrent food consumption increase. However, the attention extent paid to food during meals has not been quantitatively evaluated. Therefore, it remains unclear whether attention paid to food during meals can affect the ability to control one’s appetite. To examine the influence of attention paid to food on appetite control, we measured the duration of the participant’s gaze using a glass-type eye tracking device during eating. The participants were nine healthy adults, engaged in two conditions (having the meal with or without watching television). They were fitted with eye tracking devices as they consumed 511 kcal of serial and milk, followed by a two-hour rest. The attention extent paid to food was calculated by dividing the time spent looking at the meal by the total time taken to complete it. The hunger, desire to eat, fullness and prospective consumption levels of the participants were evaluated using a visual analogue scale before and after the consumption of meals. No significant difference was found in the duration taken to complete the meal between the two conditions. When the participants consumed their food without watching television, the attention extent paid to food was higher than that when watching it. The condition in which food was consumed without television displayed lower hunger and desire to eat scores than those after. These results suggest that attentiveness to food during meals affects the ability to regulate postprandial appetite. P-055 Interaction of orexin-A and glucagon-like peptide-1 on swallowing reflex in anesthetized rats Motoi Kobashi1, Yuichi Shimatani2, Yoshihiro Mitoh1, Masako Fujita1, Ryuji Matsuo1 1Dept. Oral Physiol., Okayama Univ. Grad. Sch. of Med., Dent., Pharma. Sci., Okayama 700–8525, Japan, 2Biomed. Engin., Fac. Engin., Tokyo City Univ., Tokyo 158–8557, Japan; mkobashi@md.okayama-u.ac.jp, Fax +81-86-235-6644 Orexin-A has an appetite enhancing effect, and GLP-1, which is incretin hormone, has an anorectic effect. Our previous study revealed that orexin-A and GLP-1 independently suppress swallowing reflex by way of dorsal medulla. It seems to be inconsistent that both appetite-enhancing peptide and anorectic peptide suppress reflex swallowing. It is however possible that appetite-enhancing peptide and anorectic peptide interact antagonistically. Our previous study revealed that orexin-A suppressed GLP-1-response of the reflex swallowing by way of orexin-1 receptors situated in the cNTS. In the present study, we examine whether GLP-1 affects the suppressive response of the reflex swallowing induced by orexin-A in urethane-chloralose anaesthetized rats. Swallowing was elicited by repeated electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and was identified by the electromyogram lead penetrated the mylohyoide muscle through bipolar electrodes. Pre-administration of GLP-1 abolished the suppressive response of the reflex swallowing induced by the administration of orexin-A. The effect of pre-administration of exendin (5–39), GLP-1 receptor antagonist, was evaluated. The administration of the small dose of orexin-A, which did not affect the reflex swallowing, induced the suppression of swallowing reflex after the administration of exendin (5–39). Taken together, it was suggested that GLP-1 and orexin-A mutually inhibit the suppressive effect on swallowing reflex. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Gant Number 15K00818. P-056 Exploring the cause of spontaneous abnormal bitter taste Saori Funayama1, Kayoko Ito1, Makoto Inoue1,2 1Oral Rehabilitation, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Niigata, Japan, 2Division of Dysphagia Rehabilitation, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences 2-5274 Gakkocho-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata 951–8514, Japan Phantogeusia is a perception of taste that occurs in the absence of a tastant. The most common complaint is bitterness. The etiology of bitter phantogeusia is unknown, but the presence of a bitter substance in saliva, as well as psychological stress, may induce bitter phantom taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of bitter phantogeusia. The study enrolled 15 patients (13 females and 2 males, 50–81 years old) with bitter phantom taste and 19 normal adults as control (11 females and 8 males, 23–44 years old). Questionnaires including medical history, medication and bitter taste sensation, and psychological test using the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were performed. Magnesium, cortisol and chromogranin A in unstimulated saliva and magnesium, copper, iron, vitamin B12 and zinc in serum were also measured. Mean values of all parameters were compared between patient and control groups. Ten patients took medication with adverse effects of dysgeusia. There were 8 participants with allergy to pollen dust in the patient group and one in the control group. Total SDS score was significantly higher in the patient group compared with the control group. Magnesium level in saliva was significantly higher in patients, although serum magnesium level was equivalent to controls. Based on these findings, salivary magnesium level, medication with adverse effects of dysgeusia, and medical history of allergy may be factors that influence the phantom sensation of bitterness. Furthermore, various psychological tests may be useful for the diagnosis of phantogeusia. P-060 Development of the taste sensor for uncharged drugs with quartz crystal microbalance Yoshiaki Fujita1, Yuko Tsubakida1, Ayumi Yago1, Risako Yamada1, Michiru Wagatsuma2, Nobuhiro Murayama1, Tsutomu Harada1, Akihiro Nakamura1 1Dept.Pharm. Showa Univ. Hatanodai 1-5-8, Tokyo, 2ULVAC, Inc.; 2500 Hagisono, Chigasaki The taste of a medicine is one of the key prerequisites for the therapeutic success concerning drug compliance. For ethical reasons, the role of artificial taste sensor is growing in the development of oral drug formulations with drug candidate substances, especially, for pediatric use. Current taste sensors that are used in practice have been developed based on changes in the lipid/polymer membrane potentials as transducers, which convert taste information to electric signals. However, it is difficult to detect the bitterness of uncharged drugs due to the principle of measurement. In this study, we developed a new sensor using lipid-coated quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) for uncharged drugs to overcome this problem. Two uncharged drugs, prednisolone and itraconazole, which have a bitter taste creating problems with compliance, were selected as model drugs and were evaluated using this QCM-based sensor. The results revealed that specific adsorptions of both the drugs on a lipid-coated sensor chip were detected by observing frequency changes on QCM in a concentration-dependent manner. Diffusion constants of these drugs could be calculated quantitatively and the estimated values showed higher score than the value of quinine, a typical bitter substance. These results indicate that the lipid-coated QCM acts as a sensitive sensor for bitter taste. This QCM-based biosensor has great potential to be used as a valuable tool for bitter taste detection in the development of a new medicine. P-75 Localization of innexins in the antennae of the Japanese carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus and its putative involvement in the chemosensory mechanism for nestmate-nonnestmate discrimination Tatsuya Uebi1, Yusuke Takeichi1, Kouji Yasuyama2, Naoyuki Miyazaki3, Kazuyoshi Murata4, Satoshi Kurihara5, Eichi Takaya5, Hideo Kubo6, Toshiaki Omori7, Mamiko Ozaki1 1Dept. of biol., Grad. School Sci., Kobe Univ., 1-1, Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657–8501, Japan, 2Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan, 3Inst. for Protein Research, Osaka Univ., Osaka, Japan, 4National Inst. for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan, 5Dept. of Social Intelligence and Informatics, Grad. School of Info. Systems, Univ. of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Japan, 6Dept. of Math., Faculty of Sci., Hokkaido Univ. Sapporo, Japan, 7Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Eng., Grad. School of Eng., Kobe Univ., Kobe, Japan Innexin, which is the invertebrate gap junction component, functions as an electrical synapse or a hemichannel. Although it is categorized into eight subtypes in insect, the Japanese carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus, has five of them in the antenna as we previously reported by RNA sequencing analysis. However, the roles of those innexins functioning in the antenna have been little known. In order to understand the roles of innexins in the sensory system of the antennae, we tried to identify the localization of the innexins in the antenna by using anti-Cjap innexin antisera against subtype specific epitopes. The results showed that Cjap innexin 2 was localized around cell bodies of sensory neurons, Cjap innexin 8 was localized at the base of cheatic sensilla for mechanoreception, and Cjap innexin 3 was localized in basiconic sensilla for nestmate recognition. Thus, every subtypes of innexins exhibiting appropriate subcellular distribution were suggested to have particular functions, respectively. A basiconic sensillum of C. japonicus houses >100 dendritic possesses of the hydrocarbon-sensitive receptor neurons. Those dendritic processes have swelling structures, the cell membranes of which are closely adjacent with each other, forming complicated border lines. Thus, we suspected that there were gap-junctions making electrical connection among dendritic processes. Cjap innexin 3, which seems to be localized in the dendritic processes, may concerned with a sort of sensory network formation in the basiconic sensillum. Such an information network within a sensory unit might be involved in clear discrimination between cuticular hydrocarbon patterns of nestmates and non-nestmates. P-084 Analyzing the effects of volatiles emitted from wood essential oil on human psychophysiological responses Eri Matsubara Department of Wood-based Materials, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305–8687, Japan Wood is one of the familiar materials for humans and is used since ancient times as a building material worldwide. The difference in aroma compounds depending on the wood species is related to human palatability and can also be an important factor during selection of interior materials for housings and public buildings. In previous studies, aroma compounds extracted from wood chips and essential oils were observed to produce relaxing effects on the autonomic nervous system. However, knowledge on the relationship between psychophysiological influences and characteristic wood aroma compounds is limited. This study aimed to confirm the effects of aroma compounds from different wood species. Evaluation indices of participants were subjective assessments of aroma compounds and changes in the cerebral blood flow determined using functional near intrared spectroscopy. The five wood species Hiba (Thujopsis dolabrata), Himekomatsu (Pinus pentaphylla), Sawara (Chamaecyparis pisifera), Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), and Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) were selected as experimental materials. Some of the essential oils from the materials were purchased and the others were extracted using the water distillation method. All essential oils were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. We found that the inhalation of air containing aroma compounds emitted from Hiba and Hinoki were subjectively preferred. Differences in temporal changes in the cerebral blood flow with the wood species were obvious, and aroma compounds emitted from Sawara and Hinoki were found to reduce the cerebral blood flow. Therefore, we suggest that aroma compounds and their composition have influence to psychophysiological influences. P-087 Facial skin blood flow response and prefrontal oxygenation during exposures to emotionally charged negative and positive olfactory stimulation Endo Kana1, Yoshikawa Miho1, Matsukawa Kanji1, Nakamura Akio2, Nakamura Tetsuya2 1Department of Integrative Physiology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 11-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734–8551, Japan, 2T. HASEGAWA CO., LTD, 229-7, Kariyado, Nakahara-ku, Kawasaki-shi, 211-0022, Japan We examined the responses in facial skin blood flow and prefrontal oxygenation during olfactory-elicited emotional stimulation for 12 sec (Peach flavoring, Butyric acid flavoring, and Placebo) in humans. The concentrations of oxygenated-hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) and deoxygenated-hemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) in bilateral prefrontal cortices were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy to monitor regional cerebral blood flow. Simultaneously, regional facial skin blood flows were assessed with noninvasive two-dimensional laser speckle flowmetry, and hand skin blood flows were measured with laser-Doppler flowmetry. The extents of pleasantness and consciousness for each emotional stimulus were estimated by the subjective ratings of pleasantness and consciousness from -5 (the most unpleasant; the most unconscious) to +5 (the most pleasant; the most conscious). As soon as butyric acid flavoring was exposed, the Oxy-Hb of bilateral prefrontal cortices increased without changing the Deoxy-Hb. Facial skin blood flow was also increased during exposure to butyric acid flavoring. The increase in the prefrontal oxygenation had a significant correlation with the increase in facial skin blood flow. On the other hand, the prefrontal Oxy-Hb did not change during exposure peach flavoring. The time courses and magnitudes of the prefrontal Oxy and Deoxy-Hb responses matched on both sides. The present findings suggest that negative emotion induces an increase in prefrontal oxygenation, which may in turn elicit an increase in facial skin blood flow. P-098 Effects of congruent and incongruent labeling on the odor perception and descriptors of Sotolon Chiori Ijichi1, Chinatsu Kasamatsu1, Yuko Kodama1, Katsumi Watanabe2 1Institute for Innovation, Ajinomoto Co., Inc. 1-1, Suzuki-cho, Kawasaki, Kawasaki 210–8681, Japan, 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ookubo, Shinjyuku, Tokyo 169–8555, Japan Cognitive, semantic information affects olfactory perception. Specifically, language labels representing possible interpretations of a presented odor drastically change both categorical and affective perception of the odor. Japanese participants typically perceive Sotolon, a lactone aroma compound, as caramel or curry. It is of particular interest because the typical odors stay in the same category (i.e., food) but differ qualitatively without much change of affective evaluation. We examined the effect of congruency between written labels and descriptors of the odors of Sotolon. Participants rated the confidence of the perceived odor of Sotolon solution (400 ppm) with or without of a written label that was either congruent or incongruent and also gave descriptors of the orders as many as possible. We found that a congruent label (e.g., “curry” for a participant who initially described it as curry) increased the confidence of the solely matched (i.e., “curry”) statement and decreased that of the unmatched (i.e., “caramel”) statement. An incongruent label (e.g., “caramel”, “lemon”, “rubber”) decreased the confidence of the unmatched (i.e., “curry”) statement. Thus, the congruency effect was mainly due to the direct matching between label and perceived odor. We also found that the number of possible odors in food category increased in the presence of the typical labels (i.e., “caramel” and “curry”) but not with the non-typical food label (“lemon”) or the non-food label (“rubber”). These results suggest that language labels have strong and multiple influences on the perception and naming of odor of Sotolon. P-100 The influence of shape and color on impression evaluation of odors Yinan Jiang, Kaiji Yamamichi, Nobuyuki Sakai Depertment of Psychology, Tohoku University, Kawauchi, Sendai 980–8576, Japan The preceding studies suggest that the visual stimuli, consisting of colors and/or shapes, affect on olfactory perception. Also the preceding study suggests that the information processing of color is different from that of shapes. Thus, this study aimed to reveal the difference between the effect of colors on the olfactory information processes and that of shapes. Thirty-one university students participated in this study. Participants were asked to smell the olfactory stimulus presented with the visual stimulus, and to evaluate the intensity and the hedonics of olfactory stimuli, and congruity between olfactory stimuli and visual stimuli with 11-point scales. The visual stimuli consisted of color factors and shape factors. The colors of the visual stimuli were yellow, violet and gray. The shapes of the visual stimuli were lemon shape, lavender shape, and quadrangle. The olfactory stimuli were lemon odor and lavender odor, and were presented by a computer-controlled aroma-ejecting device named Aroma Shooter (Aromajoin corporation). The result showed the significant correlation between congruity ratings and hedonic ratings (r=0.33). There are also significant, but weak correlation between congruity ratings and intensity ratings (r=0.17). These results are consistent with those of preceding studies. On the results about congruity ratings, participants tend to set more importance on the color of the visual stimuli than the shapes; participants evaluate the congruity ratings higher when the lemon (lavender) odors were presented with yellow (violet) visual stimuli than with lemon (lavender) shapes. These results suggested that the color processing of visual stimuli had stronger effect on the olfactory processing than the shape processing. P-103 The effect of repeated olfactory training using food odors on olfactory ability of the elderly. - The results of olfactory identification test using food odors- Yumi Ando1, Fumino Okutani2, Kayo Sugimoto2, Yuki Okabe1, Eriko Sugiyama1, Yuko Miyake1 1Institute of Food Sciences & Technologies, Ajinomoto Co., Inc., 1-1 Suzuki-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 210–8681, Japan, 2Dept. Occupational Health, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku, Kochi 783–8505, Japan Age-related olfactory impairment causes reduced palatability and appetite in the elderly. Olfactory training using various odors is reported to be helpful for treatment of post-traumatic and post-infectious olfactory dysfunction. However, effects of this training on age-related olfactory impairment remain unclear. In this study, we investigated if repeated olfactory training using food odors was effective in healthy elderly adults. A total of 49 healthy elderly adults (age, 80.1 ± 6.8 years) participated in this study. They were trained using 5 kinds of food odors twice a day for 12 weeks. These included the odors of lemon, caramel, dried bonito flakes, corn soup, and grilled fish. Olfactory identification tests with 16 kinds of food odors were performed and questionnaire regarding appetite were administered before and after the training. The number of correct answers to the identification tests was used as the olfactory score. Olfactory scores after the training were significantly higher than those observed before the training (before: 8.9 ± 4.6, after: 11.2 ± 3.4, p < 0.001). Olfactory scores of 5 kinds of odors used in the training significantly increased (before: 2.6 ± 1.7, after: 4.1 ± 1.3, p < 0.001). Furthermore, olfactory scores of the other 11 kinds of odors that were not used in the training significantly increased (before: 6.3 ± 3.2, after: 7.1 ± 2.5, p < 0.01). Appetite scores tended to increase in accordance with the increase in olfactory scores. This study suggests that olfactory training using food odors could potentially help to prevent age-related olfactory impairment in the elderly. P-106 Crossmodal interaction between flavor and temperature. Shiori Ando, Yasutaka Shoji, Toshio Miyazawa Tsukuba Research Center, Ogawa & Co., Ltd., 7 Oaza Hoshinosato Amimachi Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300–0326 Flavor is composed of olfaction, gustation, and somatosensation (e.g., irritation or thermal sensation). Many studies have focused on individual sensory modalities, but the modalities interact extensively. Therefore, to understand flavor, we must understand crossmodal interactions. In this report, we focus on the impact of temperature on coffee flavor, a key interaction since some coffee beverages are intended to be consumed hot, whereas others are intended to be consumed cold. Stimuli were presented to the mouth using a olfactometer-gustometer, which injected a liquid (black coffee base) simultaneously with odorized air (each of 23 volatile components of coffee aroma). Aroma concentrations were selected to be moderate (according to intensity ratings on the Labeled Magnitude Scale) for each individual. The device controlled temperature, so that all 23 combinations of coffee base and aroma were presented chilled (10 °C), at room temperature (23 °C) and hot (50 °C). Twenty panelists rated liking using a LAM scale, and profiled flavor using eight key descriptors. Both flavor profiles and liking were significantly affected by temperature. Indeed, some combinations of coffee base and aroma were given positive liking ratings when presented hot, but negative liking when presented chilled. The results support the practice of formulating flavors for specific temperature ranges. Further work will be required to understand the exact nature of these interactions (e.g., whether the observed temperature effects were due to modulation of taste, odor, odor-taste interactions, odor-odor interactions, or some combination of these). P-114 Effects of odor generated from the glycine/glucose Maillard reaction on autonomic nerve activity and central nerve activity in human Motoko Ohata1, Issei Yokoyama2, Lanxi Zhou2, Yukihiro Yada3, Keizo Arihara2 1Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition Science of Food, Department of Food Bioscience & Biotechnology, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252–0880, Japan, 2Laboratory of Food Function and Safety, Department of Animal Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, 35-1 Higashi-23, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan, 3School of Integrative and Global Majors, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305–8577, Japan The Maillard reaction is a non-enzymatic browning reaction between carbonyl compounds and amino compounds, and this reaction produces hundreds of low-molecular weight odors that play an important role in determining the characteristic flavor of processed food. Odors from herb, spice, tea, and so on have been demonstrated to affect mood, physiology, and behavior, due to their interaction with the limbic, autonomic, and immune systems. However, few studies have focused on the odors generated by the Maillard reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of odor generated by the glycine/glucose Maillard reaction on human using integrative physiological methods. Pupil diameter and peripheral fingertip temperature (FT) were used to evaluate the autonomic nerve activity, while the activity of the central nervous system was evaluated by near-infrared spectroscopic tomography. Miosis rate, i.e. the ratio of the pupil diameter before relative to after light stimulation and FT increased significantly following the presentation of the odor, suggesting that the parasympathetic nervous system became dominant, and it was caused by a suppression of the sympathetic nerve activity. Inhalation of the odor generated by the Maillard reaction decreased oxy-hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal region. Two odorants, which contributed the most to the odor profile of the glycine/glucose Maillard reaction sample, were determined by aroma-extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Inhalation of both odorants increased miosis rate and FT significantly and decreased oxy-hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal region. These observations suggest that these two potent odorants may suppress cortical activation and induce a relaxing effect in the central nervous system. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Chemical Senses Oxford University Press

Abstracts from the 51th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association for the Study of Taste and Smell, JASTS-2017, 25–27 September 2017, Kobe International Conference Center, Hyogo, Japan (The president of the meeting was Dr. Mamiko Ozaki, Kobe University)

Chemical Senses , Volume Advance Article (5) – Mar 12, 2018

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P-002 How do sweet taste inhibitors having the O-phenyllactic acid skeleton interact with transmembrane domain of T1R3? Tomoya Nakagita1, Akiko Ishida2, Takuya Kobayashi1, Takatsugu Hirokawa3, Makoto Hashimoto2, Takumi Misaka4 1Grad. Sch. Med., Kyoto Univ., Kyoto 606–8501, 2Grad. Sch. Agri., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo 060-8589, 3AIST., Tokyo 135-0064, 4Dept. Appl. Biol. Chem., The Univ. Tokyo, Tokyo, 113–8567 Lactisole, a sweet taste inhibitor containing the O-phenyllactic acid skeleton is known to interact with the transmembrane domain (TMD) of T1R3 subunit. On the other hand, 2,4-DP, originally developed as herbicide, also contains the O-phenyllactic acid skeleton and interacts with T1R3-TMD, with 10-fold higher affinity than lactisole does. However, little is known about the molecular basis of the different specificities for TMD. In this study, based on the results of point mutational assay, docking simulation of these compounds for T1R3 TMD homology model was performed. Then, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out. From the results, we newly discovered that in both of lactisole and 2,4-DP, (S)-isomer had higher inhibitory ability than (R)-isomer. This was thought that (R)-O-phenyllactic acid skeletons could not interact with one of the most important residues Gln7947.38. In addition, it was appeared that 2,4-DP had more hydrophobic interactions via o-Cl group compared to lactisole. Residues that forming bottom of binding pocket such as Leu7987.42 were thought to be important to their difference. Thus, we succeeded in elucidating the details of how O-phenyllactic acid inhibitors work on T1R3-TMD. P-008 Optical topographic analysis of parcellation within human prefrontal cortex activated by different taste qualities Yasuko Kawauchi1, Natsumi Kamakura2, Rena Hayashi2, Yuka Nakazato2, Hanae Nakano2, Takayuki Sako3, Takenori Miyamoto1,2 1Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, Division of Material and Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Japan Women’s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112–8681 Japan 2Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Japan Women’s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112–8681 Japan 3Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Human Science and Design, Japan Women’s University, Tokyo, Japan Our previous study using sensory evaluation and optical topographic analysis (fNIRS) showed that the prominent increase of cerebral blood flow rate appeared at the left lateral region of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in negative correlation with pleasantness of gustatory stimuli, and it shifted to medial regions of PFC, by increasing taste pleasantness e.g. addition of inositol monophosphate (IMP) to slightly bitter substance, arginine or monopotassium glutamate (MPG). These findings suggest that unpleasant component of the gustatory stimuli may mainly activate the lateral region of PFC, whereas the medial region is activated by increasing taste pleasantness. To confirm this assumption, we conducted experiment using an artificial sweetener, aspartame, which is basically pleasant, but becomes unpleasant at the higher concentration. In the present experiment, the amount of oxyhemoglobin change (Δoxy-Hb) in the left lateral region of the PFC was significantly increased by gustatory stimulation with high concentration of aspartame as well as citric acid. On the other hand, the Δoxy-Hb in the more medial region of PFC, which roughly correspond to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), was significantly increased by gustatory stimulation with low concentration of aspartame as well as sucrose. A positive correlation between Δoxy-Hb and taste pleasantness was observed in the OFC region, but a negative correlation appeared in the left lateral region of PFC. Thus, the present experiment could confirm the assumption proposed by our previous studies. The present results also suggest that fNIRS is an useful tool for the evaluation of the central processing pathway related to the taste preference. P-012 Relationship between sweetener preference and increasing process of blood glucose level after ingestion in food-restricted mice Misato Hiraiwa1, Yuri Kihara1, Yu Kamigashima1, Yasunobu Yasoshima2, Takenori Miyamoto1 1Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Japan Women’s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112–8681 Japan 2Division of Behavioral Physiology, Department of Behavioral Sciences, Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University, 1–2 Yamadaoka, Suita 565–0871, Japan When food-deprived mice received alternate access to a caloric sucrose (Suc) solution (1.0 M) on odd days and a non-caloric saccharin (Sac) solution (2.5 mM) on even days, the intake of Suc, but not Sac, significantly increased during the alternate procedure. After the procedure, preference for Suc over Sac was developed. The alternate access to 1.0 M glucose (Glu) or 1.0 M fructose (Fru) instead of Suc significantly increased the intake of Glu, but not Fru. We assumed that blood glucose elevation after digestion of the disaccharide Suc (Glu + Fru) in the gut is crucial for acquisition of Suc preference. To examine the assumption, we examined blood glucose level (BGL) after Glu or Fru intake. BGL peaked 20 min after ingestion of 1.0 M Glu or 1.0 M Fru; however, increasing rate of BGL in mice with Glu was significantly greater than that in mice with Fru. The findings suggest that rapid blood glucose elevation with Suc or Glu intake is potent to produce the selective preference for Suc over Sac. Our previous work showed that lesions of the basolateral amygdala failed to develop the Suc preference, suggesting that the basolateral amygdala is involved in association between the taste of Suc and postingestive effects derived from compensatory blood glucose elevation after the Suc intake under food deprivation condition. The present findings also suggest that rapid increase of BGL following to arrival of the gustatory information to the basolateral amygdala is critical for the acquisition of Suc preference. P-015 Effect of oral sweet sensation with aspartame on digestive-absorptive activities in humans Hideaki Kashima, Kana Taniyama, Masaki Fujimoto, Masako Yamaoka Endo, Yoshiyuki Fukuba School of Health Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 1-1-71 Ujina-higashi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734–8558, Japan We reported that oral stimulation using Gymnema sylvestre (GS), which selectively suppresses oral sweet taste sensations (i.e. activates sweet taste receptors) in humans, delayed gastric emptying and gut blood flow and blood glucose and plasma insulin responses during/after oral glucose ingestion. Our results suggested that oral glucose sweet-sensing contributes in initiating multiple physiological responses. However, it is unclear whether these physiological alternations were triggered by oral sweet-sensing. We tested the effects of oral sweet-sensing using artificial sweeteners (e.g. aspartame) on gastric emptying, superior mesenteric artery blood flow (SMABF) and blood glucose and plasma insulin responses during/after prandial phases. Nine participants ingested 200 g (50 g × four times) of either 0.09% aspartame or 15% glucose solution containing 100 mg of 13C-sodium acetate after rinsing with 25 ml of either water (control) or 2.5% GS solution (GS). During each trial, gastric emptying and SMABF were measured using 13C-sodium acetate breath test and ultrasonography, respectively. A decreased subjective sweet taste intensity was observed in all participants in the GS condition of both trials. In the aspartame trial, the measurements showed no significant differences between both conditions. In the glucose trial, gastric emptying and SMABF responses were delayed in the GS condition compared with the control condition. At the initial phase during/after glucose solution ingestion, blood glucose and plasma insulin responses were lower in the GS condition than in the control condition. These results suggested that oral sweet-sensing does not offer substantial implication in controlling gastrointestinal activities and glycemic metabolism during/after prandial phases. P-24 Expression and functions of TRPM8 channels in the superior laryngeal nerve innervating the laryngeal region Hiroshi Ando1, Mohammad Zakir Hossain2, Shunpei Unno2, Yuji Masuda3, Junichi Kitagawa2 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Oral Physiology, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Biology, Graduate School of Oral Medicine, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Japan The primary afferent nerves innervating the laryngeal region show strange responses to chemical stimulations, differ from the responses of the taste nerves innervating the tongue. It is possible that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are involved in these characteristic responses to chemical stimulations. TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a member of the TRP channel family and is known to be activated by menthol and be able to detect cold temperature. In the present study, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of the TRPM8 channels in the nodose, petrosal and jugular ganglionic complex (NPJc) containing the cell bodies of the afferents of superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) innervating the laryngeal region and investigated the functions of the TRPM8 channels in the laryngeal region. The cell bodies stained by a neuronal retrograde tracer fluoro-gold (FG) were observed scattered all over in the NPJc following the FG-injection to the laryngeal region. TRPM8-immunoreactive (IR) cell bodies were abundantly observed in the NPJc. In addition, most of the TRPM8-IR cell bodies were in non-myelinated neurons of the SLN, whereas, scarcely TRPM8-IR cells expressed in myelinated neurons. Menthol applied into the laryngeal region evoked SLN response in a dose-dependent manner and a TRPM8 antagonist blocked the menthol-evoked SLN response. Moreover, menthol applied into the laryngeal region facilitated the swallowing reflex and the TRPM8 antagonist attenuated the facilitation of the reflex. These results suggest that TRPM8 channels in non-myelinated nerves of the SLN innervating regions play a significant role in regulating food palatability and in controlling food intake. P-036 Histone methyltransferase G9a regulates the starvation-induced behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster Kouhei Shimaji1,2, Toru Maeda3, Mamiko Ozaki3, Hideki Yoshida1,2, Yasuyuki Ohkawa4, Tetsuya Sato5, Mikita Suyama5, Masamitsu Yamaguchi1,2 1Department of Applied Biology, 2The Center for Advanced Insect Research Promotion, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606–8585, Japan 3Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe, 657–8501, Japan, 4Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Faculty of Medicine, 5Division of Bioinformatics, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Maidashi, Fukuoka, 812–8582, Japan Organisms have developed behavioral strategies to defend themselves from starvation stress. Despite of their importance in nature, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. Previous studies reported that several epigenetic factors are relevant to behaviors included in learning/memory, neurodevelopmental disorders, drug addiction, parenting and stress responses in mammals. Some of these relationships have also been found in Drosophila melanogaster, this model organism extensively used for genetic studies because of its short life span and the high homology of human genome. Here, we show that Drosophila G9a (dG9a), one of the histone H3 Lys 9-specific histone methyltransferases, functions as a key regulator for the starvation-induced behaviors. RNA-sequence analyses utilizing dG9a null mutant flies revealed that the expressions of some genes relating to gustatory perception are regulated by dG9a under starvation conditions. Reverse transcription quantitative-PCR analyses showed that the expressions of gustatory receptor genes for behavioral sensing sugar are up-regulated in starved dG9a null mutant. In consistent with this, proboscis extension reflex tests indicated that dG9a depletion increased the sensitivity to sucrose under starvation conditions. Furthermore, the locomotion activity was promoted in starved dG9a null mutant. We also found that dG9a depletion down-regulates the expression of insulin-like peptide genes that are required for the suppression of starvation-induced hyperactivity. These data indicate that dG9a functions as a key regulator for the decision of feeding or foraging strategies under starvation conditions. P-041 Factors affecting flavor learning associated with umami in weanling rats Kayoko Ueji, Takashi Yamamoto Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Science, Kio University, Nara 635–0832, Japan Our previous study showed that weanling rats could establish conditioned flavor preferences when a mixture of 0.05M MSG and 0.01M IMP, but not each component, was used as an associative rewarding stimulus, and surprisingly this acquired preferences continued to adulthood. The present study examined whether these animals are able to acquire a flavor preference when MSG with amiloride or dextrin was used. Three-week-old Wistar male rats were trained in a flavor learning task. Half of the rats received grape-flavored water on odd-numbered days and cherry-flavored umami solution (0.3M MSG and amiloride, 10% dextrin, 0.1M MSG and dextrin) on even-numbered days. The remaining rats received grape-flavored umami solution on odd-numbered days and cherry-flavored water on even-numbered days. During this acquisition session, the liquid was presented to each rat for 15 min daily for 6 consecutive days. In the following test session, each rat was presented with cherry-flavored water and grape-flavored water simultaneously for 15 min daily for 4 consecutive days. The rats showed significant aversions for the flavor previously associated with the mixture of 0.3M MSG and amiloride as well as 0.3M MSG, indicating that strong umami taste itself, but not Na ions, is aversive in weanling rats. Interestingly, these rats showed flavor preferences when tested at the age of 20 weeks. The rats failed to acquire preferences for the flavor previously associated with MSG or dextrin, but showed significant flavor preferences when a mixture of MSG and dextrin was used. The present study suggests that weanling rats acquire immediate conditioned flavor preferences on the basis of oral factors; but long-lasting preferences, on the basis of post-oral factors. P-045 Development of a simplified whole-mouth taste test Misako Kawai1, Akiko Watanabe1, Lili Cao2, Takeshi Kikutani3 1Institute for Innovation, Ajinomoto Co., Inc. 1-1 Suzuki-cho, Kawasaki-ku Kawasaki, 210–8681, Japan, 2Institute of Food Science & Technologies, Ajinomoto Co., Inc. 1-1 Suzuki-cho, Kawasaki-ku Kawasaki, 210–8681, Japan, 3Division of Oral Rehabilitation, The Nippon Dental University Graduate School of Life Dentistry, Tokyo, 2-3-16 Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102–8158, Japan [Background and Aim] We have developed an easy whole-mouth tasting test (WMTt) for sweet, salty, and umami sensitivities using five-level supra-threshold taste solutions. In WMTt, the subject tastes a test solution, and then answers questions on the quality of the perceived taste and the certainty of the perception. Scores (0–3) were assigned to each solution and the sum of the scores was regarded as the taste sensitivity. The aim of the study was to reduce the number of test solutions from five to make the testing time shorter. [Method] We selected two-level taste solutions according to the WMTt results using five-level solutions (5-WMTt) provided by healthy elderly subjects (Chem. Senses, 40, p.591 (2015)) in order to meet the following criteria: 1) the sum of scores of the two solutions correlated with the sum of the five original solutions, and 2) the scores of the two solutions were significantly different from each other. Then, the performance of WMTt with the two solutions was examined using healthy elderly subjects (n = 32). [Result] We selected two-level supra-threshold taste solutions from the 5-WMTt test solutions: sweet (15–96-mM sucrose), salty (15–77-mM NaCl), and umami (2.2–11-mM MSG), and performed WMTt with the two solutions. The test time was ~10 min. The score of each solution for sweetness and saltiness of two-solution WMTt was almost the same as those of 5-WMTt. However, the score for high-level umami solution of two-solution WMTt was significantly higher than that of 5-WMTt, probably because adaptation of long-lasting umami taste did not occur due to reduction in the number of test solution. P-050 Responsivity to bitter substances, amino acids in human salivary gland tumor cell line A253 Tetsuya Takao1, Nanami Sakakibara1, Mieko Aoki2, Kyoichi Takao3 1Fac. Human Life Enviro. Sci., Showa Women’s Univ., Tokyo 154–8533, 2Food Nut., Sanyo Gakuen College, Okayama, 703–8501, 3Med. Sch., Nihon Univ., Tokyo 173–8610 Hyposalivation is associated with advancing age and diseases such as diabetes and results in impaired food intake and malnutrition. If it is possible to stimulate the salivary glands and increase the amount of saliva in humans, their quality of life will be improved. Human salivary gland tumor cell line A253 expressed all the 25 types of hTAS2R isoforms. In this study, using the A253, we examined the responsiveness to some taste substances and coffee extract. 5x104 cells of A253 strain were incubated in McCoy’s 5A medium containing 10% FBS, 5% CO2 for 24 hours at 37ºC. The cell response was recorded by calcium imaging with Fluo8 as a fluorescent probe. Fluo8 was loaded into the cells at 37ºC for 30 min and at room temperature for another 30 min. After the loading, the cells were stimulated with Quinine, Papaverine, Yohimbine, Sucrose, amino acids and coffee extract. This stimulation and measurement was done using an inverted fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results were as follows: A253 responded to bitter tastants dose dependently for 0.025-100mM Quinine, 1.3-13mM Papaverine, 0.32-13mM Yohimbine, 3.5-72mM Histidine, 1.0-20mM Methionine, 1.2-12mM Phenylalanine, and 0.125–1.0 concentrations of coffee extract. No response to sweet or umami tastants such as Sucrose, Serine, and Na-Glutamate was found. The result that A253 responded to some bitter substances, amino acids and coffee extract, might be a fundamental finding for salivary gland stimulus. This work was supported by Showa Women’s University Grant-in-Aid for Research Projects. P-053 Effects of attentive eating on postprandial appetite Naomi Sano, Hideaki Kashima Department of Health Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 1-1-71 Ujina-higashi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734–8558, Japan The inability to pay attention to food during meals because of giving divided attention to, for example, watching TV, is related to concurrent food consumption increase. However, the attention extent paid to food during meals has not been quantitatively evaluated. Therefore, it remains unclear whether attention paid to food during meals can affect the ability to control one’s appetite. To examine the influence of attention paid to food on appetite control, we measured the duration of the participant’s gaze using a glass-type eye tracking device during eating. The participants were nine healthy adults, engaged in two conditions (having the meal with or without watching television). They were fitted with eye tracking devices as they consumed 511 kcal of serial and milk, followed by a two-hour rest. The attention extent paid to food was calculated by dividing the time spent looking at the meal by the total time taken to complete it. The hunger, desire to eat, fullness and prospective consumption levels of the participants were evaluated using a visual analogue scale before and after the consumption of meals. No significant difference was found in the duration taken to complete the meal between the two conditions. When the participants consumed their food without watching television, the attention extent paid to food was higher than that when watching it. The condition in which food was consumed without television displayed lower hunger and desire to eat scores than those after. These results suggest that attentiveness to food during meals affects the ability to regulate postprandial appetite. P-055 Interaction of orexin-A and glucagon-like peptide-1 on swallowing reflex in anesthetized rats Motoi Kobashi1, Yuichi Shimatani2, Yoshihiro Mitoh1, Masako Fujita1, Ryuji Matsuo1 1Dept. Oral Physiol., Okayama Univ. Grad. Sch. of Med., Dent., Pharma. Sci., Okayama 700–8525, Japan, 2Biomed. Engin., Fac. Engin., Tokyo City Univ., Tokyo 158–8557, Japan; mkobashi@md.okayama-u.ac.jp, Fax +81-86-235-6644 Orexin-A has an appetite enhancing effect, and GLP-1, which is incretin hormone, has an anorectic effect. Our previous study revealed that orexin-A and GLP-1 independently suppress swallowing reflex by way of dorsal medulla. It seems to be inconsistent that both appetite-enhancing peptide and anorectic peptide suppress reflex swallowing. It is however possible that appetite-enhancing peptide and anorectic peptide interact antagonistically. Our previous study revealed that orexin-A suppressed GLP-1-response of the reflex swallowing by way of orexin-1 receptors situated in the cNTS. In the present study, we examine whether GLP-1 affects the suppressive response of the reflex swallowing induced by orexin-A in urethane-chloralose anaesthetized rats. Swallowing was elicited by repeated electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and was identified by the electromyogram lead penetrated the mylohyoide muscle through bipolar electrodes. Pre-administration of GLP-1 abolished the suppressive response of the reflex swallowing induced by the administration of orexin-A. The effect of pre-administration of exendin (5–39), GLP-1 receptor antagonist, was evaluated. The administration of the small dose of orexin-A, which did not affect the reflex swallowing, induced the suppression of swallowing reflex after the administration of exendin (5–39). Taken together, it was suggested that GLP-1 and orexin-A mutually inhibit the suppressive effect on swallowing reflex. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Gant Number 15K00818. P-056 Exploring the cause of spontaneous abnormal bitter taste Saori Funayama1, Kayoko Ito1, Makoto Inoue1,2 1Oral Rehabilitation, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Niigata, Japan, 2Division of Dysphagia Rehabilitation, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences 2-5274 Gakkocho-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata 951–8514, Japan Phantogeusia is a perception of taste that occurs in the absence of a tastant. The most common complaint is bitterness. The etiology of bitter phantogeusia is unknown, but the presence of a bitter substance in saliva, as well as psychological stress, may induce bitter phantom taste. The aim of this study was to investigate the cause of bitter phantogeusia. The study enrolled 15 patients (13 females and 2 males, 50–81 years old) with bitter phantom taste and 19 normal adults as control (11 females and 8 males, 23–44 years old). Questionnaires including medical history, medication and bitter taste sensation, and psychological test using the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) were performed. Magnesium, cortisol and chromogranin A in unstimulated saliva and magnesium, copper, iron, vitamin B12 and zinc in serum were also measured. Mean values of all parameters were compared between patient and control groups. Ten patients took medication with adverse effects of dysgeusia. There were 8 participants with allergy to pollen dust in the patient group and one in the control group. Total SDS score was significantly higher in the patient group compared with the control group. Magnesium level in saliva was significantly higher in patients, although serum magnesium level was equivalent to controls. Based on these findings, salivary magnesium level, medication with adverse effects of dysgeusia, and medical history of allergy may be factors that influence the phantom sensation of bitterness. Furthermore, various psychological tests may be useful for the diagnosis of phantogeusia. P-060 Development of the taste sensor for uncharged drugs with quartz crystal microbalance Yoshiaki Fujita1, Yuko Tsubakida1, Ayumi Yago1, Risako Yamada1, Michiru Wagatsuma2, Nobuhiro Murayama1, Tsutomu Harada1, Akihiro Nakamura1 1Dept.Pharm. Showa Univ. Hatanodai 1-5-8, Tokyo, 2ULVAC, Inc.; 2500 Hagisono, Chigasaki The taste of a medicine is one of the key prerequisites for the therapeutic success concerning drug compliance. For ethical reasons, the role of artificial taste sensor is growing in the development of oral drug formulations with drug candidate substances, especially, for pediatric use. Current taste sensors that are used in practice have been developed based on changes in the lipid/polymer membrane potentials as transducers, which convert taste information to electric signals. However, it is difficult to detect the bitterness of uncharged drugs due to the principle of measurement. In this study, we developed a new sensor using lipid-coated quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) for uncharged drugs to overcome this problem. Two uncharged drugs, prednisolone and itraconazole, which have a bitter taste creating problems with compliance, were selected as model drugs and were evaluated using this QCM-based sensor. The results revealed that specific adsorptions of both the drugs on a lipid-coated sensor chip were detected by observing frequency changes on QCM in a concentration-dependent manner. Diffusion constants of these drugs could be calculated quantitatively and the estimated values showed higher score than the value of quinine, a typical bitter substance. These results indicate that the lipid-coated QCM acts as a sensitive sensor for bitter taste. This QCM-based biosensor has great potential to be used as a valuable tool for bitter taste detection in the development of a new medicine. P-75 Localization of innexins in the antennae of the Japanese carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus and its putative involvement in the chemosensory mechanism for nestmate-nonnestmate discrimination Tatsuya Uebi1, Yusuke Takeichi1, Kouji Yasuyama2, Naoyuki Miyazaki3, Kazuyoshi Murata4, Satoshi Kurihara5, Eichi Takaya5, Hideo Kubo6, Toshiaki Omori7, Mamiko Ozaki1 1Dept. of biol., Grad. School Sci., Kobe Univ., 1-1, Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657–8501, Japan, 2Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan, 3Inst. for Protein Research, Osaka Univ., Osaka, Japan, 4National Inst. for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan, 5Dept. of Social Intelligence and Informatics, Grad. School of Info. Systems, Univ. of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Japan, 6Dept. of Math., Faculty of Sci., Hokkaido Univ. Sapporo, Japan, 7Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Eng., Grad. School of Eng., Kobe Univ., Kobe, Japan Innexin, which is the invertebrate gap junction component, functions as an electrical synapse or a hemichannel. Although it is categorized into eight subtypes in insect, the Japanese carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus, has five of them in the antenna as we previously reported by RNA sequencing analysis. However, the roles of those innexins functioning in the antenna have been little known. In order to understand the roles of innexins in the sensory system of the antennae, we tried to identify the localization of the innexins in the antenna by using anti-Cjap innexin antisera against subtype specific epitopes. The results showed that Cjap innexin 2 was localized around cell bodies of sensory neurons, Cjap innexin 8 was localized at the base of cheatic sensilla for mechanoreception, and Cjap innexin 3 was localized in basiconic sensilla for nestmate recognition. Thus, every subtypes of innexins exhibiting appropriate subcellular distribution were suggested to have particular functions, respectively. A basiconic sensillum of C. japonicus houses >100 dendritic possesses of the hydrocarbon-sensitive receptor neurons. Those dendritic processes have swelling structures, the cell membranes of which are closely adjacent with each other, forming complicated border lines. Thus, we suspected that there were gap-junctions making electrical connection among dendritic processes. Cjap innexin 3, which seems to be localized in the dendritic processes, may concerned with a sort of sensory network formation in the basiconic sensillum. Such an information network within a sensory unit might be involved in clear discrimination between cuticular hydrocarbon patterns of nestmates and non-nestmates. P-084 Analyzing the effects of volatiles emitted from wood essential oil on human psychophysiological responses Eri Matsubara Department of Wood-based Materials, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305–8687, Japan Wood is one of the familiar materials for humans and is used since ancient times as a building material worldwide. The difference in aroma compounds depending on the wood species is related to human palatability and can also be an important factor during selection of interior materials for housings and public buildings. In previous studies, aroma compounds extracted from wood chips and essential oils were observed to produce relaxing effects on the autonomic nervous system. However, knowledge on the relationship between psychophysiological influences and characteristic wood aroma compounds is limited. This study aimed to confirm the effects of aroma compounds from different wood species. Evaluation indices of participants were subjective assessments of aroma compounds and changes in the cerebral blood flow determined using functional near intrared spectroscopy. The five wood species Hiba (Thujopsis dolabrata), Himekomatsu (Pinus pentaphylla), Sawara (Chamaecyparis pisifera), Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), and Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) were selected as experimental materials. Some of the essential oils from the materials were purchased and the others were extracted using the water distillation method. All essential oils were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. We found that the inhalation of air containing aroma compounds emitted from Hiba and Hinoki were subjectively preferred. Differences in temporal changes in the cerebral blood flow with the wood species were obvious, and aroma compounds emitted from Sawara and Hinoki were found to reduce the cerebral blood flow. Therefore, we suggest that aroma compounds and their composition have influence to psychophysiological influences. P-087 Facial skin blood flow response and prefrontal oxygenation during exposures to emotionally charged negative and positive olfactory stimulation Endo Kana1, Yoshikawa Miho1, Matsukawa Kanji1, Nakamura Akio2, Nakamura Tetsuya2 1Department of Integrative Physiology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 11-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, 734–8551, Japan, 2T. HASEGAWA CO., LTD, 229-7, Kariyado, Nakahara-ku, Kawasaki-shi, 211-0022, Japan We examined the responses in facial skin blood flow and prefrontal oxygenation during olfactory-elicited emotional stimulation for 12 sec (Peach flavoring, Butyric acid flavoring, and Placebo) in humans. The concentrations of oxygenated-hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) and deoxygenated-hemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) in bilateral prefrontal cortices were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy to monitor regional cerebral blood flow. Simultaneously, regional facial skin blood flows were assessed with noninvasive two-dimensional laser speckle flowmetry, and hand skin blood flows were measured with laser-Doppler flowmetry. The extents of pleasantness and consciousness for each emotional stimulus were estimated by the subjective ratings of pleasantness and consciousness from -5 (the most unpleasant; the most unconscious) to +5 (the most pleasant; the most conscious). As soon as butyric acid flavoring was exposed, the Oxy-Hb of bilateral prefrontal cortices increased without changing the Deoxy-Hb. Facial skin blood flow was also increased during exposure to butyric acid flavoring. The increase in the prefrontal oxygenation had a significant correlation with the increase in facial skin blood flow. On the other hand, the prefrontal Oxy-Hb did not change during exposure peach flavoring. The time courses and magnitudes of the prefrontal Oxy and Deoxy-Hb responses matched on both sides. The present findings suggest that negative emotion induces an increase in prefrontal oxygenation, which may in turn elicit an increase in facial skin blood flow. P-098 Effects of congruent and incongruent labeling on the odor perception and descriptors of Sotolon Chiori Ijichi1, Chinatsu Kasamatsu1, Yuko Kodama1, Katsumi Watanabe2 1Institute for Innovation, Ajinomoto Co., Inc. 1-1, Suzuki-cho, Kawasaki, Kawasaki 210–8681, Japan, 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ookubo, Shinjyuku, Tokyo 169–8555, Japan Cognitive, semantic information affects olfactory perception. Specifically, language labels representing possible interpretations of a presented odor drastically change both categorical and affective perception of the odor. Japanese participants typically perceive Sotolon, a lactone aroma compound, as caramel or curry. It is of particular interest because the typical odors stay in the same category (i.e., food) but differ qualitatively without much change of affective evaluation. We examined the effect of congruency between written labels and descriptors of the odors of Sotolon. Participants rated the confidence of the perceived odor of Sotolon solution (400 ppm) with or without of a written label that was either congruent or incongruent and also gave descriptors of the orders as many as possible. We found that a congruent label (e.g., “curry” for a participant who initially described it as curry) increased the confidence of the solely matched (i.e., “curry”) statement and decreased that of the unmatched (i.e., “caramel”) statement. An incongruent label (e.g., “caramel”, “lemon”, “rubber”) decreased the confidence of the unmatched (i.e., “curry”) statement. Thus, the congruency effect was mainly due to the direct matching between label and perceived odor. We also found that the number of possible odors in food category increased in the presence of the typical labels (i.e., “caramel” and “curry”) but not with the non-typical food label (“lemon”) or the non-food label (“rubber”). These results suggest that language labels have strong and multiple influences on the perception and naming of odor of Sotolon. P-100 The influence of shape and color on impression evaluation of odors Yinan Jiang, Kaiji Yamamichi, Nobuyuki Sakai Depertment of Psychology, Tohoku University, Kawauchi, Sendai 980–8576, Japan The preceding studies suggest that the visual stimuli, consisting of colors and/or shapes, affect on olfactory perception. Also the preceding study suggests that the information processing of color is different from that of shapes. Thus, this study aimed to reveal the difference between the effect of colors on the olfactory information processes and that of shapes. Thirty-one university students participated in this study. Participants were asked to smell the olfactory stimulus presented with the visual stimulus, and to evaluate the intensity and the hedonics of olfactory stimuli, and congruity between olfactory stimuli and visual stimuli with 11-point scales. The visual stimuli consisted of color factors and shape factors. The colors of the visual stimuli were yellow, violet and gray. The shapes of the visual stimuli were lemon shape, lavender shape, and quadrangle. The olfactory stimuli were lemon odor and lavender odor, and were presented by a computer-controlled aroma-ejecting device named Aroma Shooter (Aromajoin corporation). The result showed the significant correlation between congruity ratings and hedonic ratings (r=0.33). There are also significant, but weak correlation between congruity ratings and intensity ratings (r=0.17). These results are consistent with those of preceding studies. On the results about congruity ratings, participants tend to set more importance on the color of the visual stimuli than the shapes; participants evaluate the congruity ratings higher when the lemon (lavender) odors were presented with yellow (violet) visual stimuli than with lemon (lavender) shapes. These results suggested that the color processing of visual stimuli had stronger effect on the olfactory processing than the shape processing. P-103 The effect of repeated olfactory training using food odors on olfactory ability of the elderly. - The results of olfactory identification test using food odors- Yumi Ando1, Fumino Okutani2, Kayo Sugimoto2, Yuki Okabe1, Eriko Sugiyama1, Yuko Miyake1 1Institute of Food Sciences & Technologies, Ajinomoto Co., Inc., 1-1 Suzuki-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 210–8681, Japan, 2Dept. Occupational Health, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku, Kochi 783–8505, Japan Age-related olfactory impairment causes reduced palatability and appetite in the elderly. Olfactory training using various odors is reported to be helpful for treatment of post-traumatic and post-infectious olfactory dysfunction. However, effects of this training on age-related olfactory impairment remain unclear. In this study, we investigated if repeated olfactory training using food odors was effective in healthy elderly adults. A total of 49 healthy elderly adults (age, 80.1 ± 6.8 years) participated in this study. They were trained using 5 kinds of food odors twice a day for 12 weeks. These included the odors of lemon, caramel, dried bonito flakes, corn soup, and grilled fish. Olfactory identification tests with 16 kinds of food odors were performed and questionnaire regarding appetite were administered before and after the training. The number of correct answers to the identification tests was used as the olfactory score. Olfactory scores after the training were significantly higher than those observed before the training (before: 8.9 ± 4.6, after: 11.2 ± 3.4, p < 0.001). Olfactory scores of 5 kinds of odors used in the training significantly increased (before: 2.6 ± 1.7, after: 4.1 ± 1.3, p < 0.001). Furthermore, olfactory scores of the other 11 kinds of odors that were not used in the training significantly increased (before: 6.3 ± 3.2, after: 7.1 ± 2.5, p < 0.01). Appetite scores tended to increase in accordance with the increase in olfactory scores. This study suggests that olfactory training using food odors could potentially help to prevent age-related olfactory impairment in the elderly. P-106 Crossmodal interaction between flavor and temperature. Shiori Ando, Yasutaka Shoji, Toshio Miyazawa Tsukuba Research Center, Ogawa & Co., Ltd., 7 Oaza Hoshinosato Amimachi Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300–0326 Flavor is composed of olfaction, gustation, and somatosensation (e.g., irritation or thermal sensation). Many studies have focused on individual sensory modalities, but the modalities interact extensively. Therefore, to understand flavor, we must understand crossmodal interactions. In this report, we focus on the impact of temperature on coffee flavor, a key interaction since some coffee beverages are intended to be consumed hot, whereas others are intended to be consumed cold. Stimuli were presented to the mouth using a olfactometer-gustometer, which injected a liquid (black coffee base) simultaneously with odorized air (each of 23 volatile components of coffee aroma). Aroma concentrations were selected to be moderate (according to intensity ratings on the Labeled Magnitude Scale) for each individual. The device controlled temperature, so that all 23 combinations of coffee base and aroma were presented chilled (10 °C), at room temperature (23 °C) and hot (50 °C). Twenty panelists rated liking using a LAM scale, and profiled flavor using eight key descriptors. Both flavor profiles and liking were significantly affected by temperature. Indeed, some combinations of coffee base and aroma were given positive liking ratings when presented hot, but negative liking when presented chilled. The results support the practice of formulating flavors for specific temperature ranges. Further work will be required to understand the exact nature of these interactions (e.g., whether the observed temperature effects were due to modulation of taste, odor, odor-taste interactions, odor-odor interactions, or some combination of these). P-114 Effects of odor generated from the glycine/glucose Maillard reaction on autonomic nerve activity and central nerve activity in human Motoko Ohata1, Issei Yokoyama2, Lanxi Zhou2, Yukihiro Yada3, Keizo Arihara2 1Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition Science of Food, Department of Food Bioscience & Biotechnology, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252–0880, Japan, 2Laboratory of Food Function and Safety, Department of Animal Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University, 35-1 Higashi-23, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan, 3School of Integrative and Global Majors, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305–8577, Japan The Maillard reaction is a non-enzymatic browning reaction between carbonyl compounds and amino compounds, and this reaction produces hundreds of low-molecular weight odors that play an important role in determining the characteristic flavor of processed food. Odors from herb, spice, tea, and so on have been demonstrated to affect mood, physiology, and behavior, due to their interaction with the limbic, autonomic, and immune systems. However, few studies have focused on the odors generated by the Maillard reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of odor generated by the glycine/glucose Maillard reaction on human using integrative physiological methods. Pupil diameter and peripheral fingertip temperature (FT) were used to evaluate the autonomic nerve activity, while the activity of the central nervous system was evaluated by near-infrared spectroscopic tomography. Miosis rate, i.e. the ratio of the pupil diameter before relative to after light stimulation and FT increased significantly following the presentation of the odor, suggesting that the parasympathetic nervous system became dominant, and it was caused by a suppression of the sympathetic nerve activity. Inhalation of the odor generated by the Maillard reaction decreased oxy-hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal region. Two odorants, which contributed the most to the odor profile of the glycine/glucose Maillard reaction sample, were determined by aroma-extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Inhalation of both odorants increased miosis rate and FT significantly and decreased oxy-hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal region. These observations suggest that these two potent odorants may suppress cortical activation and induce a relaxing effect in the central nervous system. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

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Chemical SensesOxford University Press

Published: Mar 12, 2018

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