14. Northeast Asia: A. Japan

14. Northeast Asia: A. Japan (1) Introduction In 2016, one of the most important environmental issues in Japan was the ratification and domestic implementation of the Paris Agreement, which was adopted in December 2015 (Doc. FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1). Another issue that attracted the attention of policy makers as well as the general public was energy policy design. Insofar as the Fukushima accident has not yet been settled, even six years after the accident, the re-commissioning of existing nuclear power plants has encountered difficulties—in particular, mistrust among inhabitants. Since it took longer than expected to re-commission the existing nuclear power plants, and renewable electricity did not yet make up for nuclear, utility companies are planning to construct coal-fired power plants. The following sections of this report focus on Japan’s practices in the domain of climate as well as energy policies and, to a lesser extent, on ozone protection policies related to the development of international environmental law. (2) Climate Policies (A) Global Warming Prevention Plan In order to implement the Paris Agreement adopted on 12 December 2015 at the twenty-first Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to achieve the intended nationally determined commitments (INDC) submitted to the Secretariat of the UNFCCC in July 2015—a 26 percent greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction by 2030 relative to 2013 levels and 25.4 percent in comparison to the levels in 2005—the Cabinet Office adopted the Plan for Global Warming Countermeasures on 13 May 2016. The plan specifies measures taken by individuals as well as national and local governments to achieve the 26 percent GHG reduction target. The plan also serves as the basis on which Japan implements various global warming measures, with the ultimate aim of reducing GHG emissions by 80 percent by 2050 as a long-term target. In addition to measures implementing Japan’s own emission reductions, the plan also includes measures addressing Japan’s contributions to global emission reductions. Basic ideas included in the plan are: (1) integrated improvements of the environment, the economy, and society; (2) the steady implementation of measures specified in Japan’s INDCs; (3) the implementation of measures addressing Paris Agreement commitments; (4) support for research and development as well as contributions to global GHG reductions through advanced technologies; (5) awareness-raising measures for all actors, calls for action, and strengthening of partnerships; and (6) prioritizing the process of plan-do-check-action (PDCA). The duration of the plan is from 13 May 2016 to 31 March 2031. While the Paris Agreement calls for regular reviews every five years, Japan’s domestic policy is to review implementation every three years. (B) Revision of the Law Concerning the Promotion of Measures to Cope with Global Warming In relation to adopting the Global Warming Prevention Plan, Japan amended its Law Concerning the Promotion of Measures to Cope with Global Warming on 8 March 2016 (the original was adopted in June 1998). In order to achieve the 26 percent GHG reductions in 2030 compared to 2013 levels committed to in the INDC, the revised law specifies the promotion of global warming prevention measures through international cooperation and local government requirements to draft and submit plans designed to promote global warming prevention measures. (C) Japan’s GHG Emissions in 2014 Japan’s GHG emissions in 2014, which were reported to the UNFCCC in 2016, amounted to 1,364 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, which was 3.1 percent lower than 2013 levels (reductions of forty-four metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent), 2.4 percent lower than 2005 levels and 7.3 percent higher than 1990 levels. The decrease in emissions relative to 2013 levels resulted mainly from declines in electricity consumption and a reduction in carbon dioxide related to electricity production due to improvements in emissions per unit produced in the power sector. The reasons for emissions reductions relative to 2005 levels were that energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in the industry and transportation sectors declined, while emissions from hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), with high global warming effects, largely increased as a result of the replacement of ozone-depleting substances in refrigerants. More details are summarized in Table 1. GHG emissions relative to the gross domestic product are 2.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent/million yen; this is a 2.2 percent reduction from 2013, a 5.6 percent reduction from 2005, and a 13.5 percent reduction from 1990. GHG emissions per capita are 10.73 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent/person, which is a 3.0 percent reduction from 2013, and a 1.9 percent reduction from 2005, but a 4 percent increase from 1990. Table 1. GHG Emissions   Metric tonnes  Relative to the 2005 levels (%)  Relative to 2013 levels (%)  Energy-related carbon dioxide  1,189  –2.4  –3.7  Non-energy-related carbon dioxide  762  –12.3  –0.4  Methane  355  –8.9  –1.6  Nitrous oxide  208  –15.0  –2.9  Perfluorinated chemicals  34  –61.0  +2.5  HFCs  358  +180.0  +11.5  Sulphur hexafluoride  21  –59.1  –1.8  Nitrogen trifluoride  8  –33.5  –39.0  Total  1,364  –2.4  –3.1    Metric tonnes  Relative to the 2005 levels (%)  Relative to 2013 levels (%)  Energy-related carbon dioxide  1,189  –2.4  –3.7  Non-energy-related carbon dioxide  762  –12.3  –0.4  Methane  355  –8.9  –1.6  Nitrous oxide  208  –15.0  –2.9  Perfluorinated chemicals  34  –61.0  +2.5  HFCs  358  +180.0  +11.5  Sulphur hexafluoride  21  –59.1  –1.8  Nitrogen trifluoride  8  –33.5  –39.0  Total  1,364  –2.4  –3.1  Source: Japan’s 2014 GHG Inventory. Table 1. GHG Emissions   Metric tonnes  Relative to the 2005 levels (%)  Relative to 2013 levels (%)  Energy-related carbon dioxide  1,189  –2.4  –3.7  Non-energy-related carbon dioxide  762  –12.3  –0.4  Methane  355  –8.9  –1.6  Nitrous oxide  208  –15.0  –2.9  Perfluorinated chemicals  34  –61.0  +2.5  HFCs  358  +180.0  +11.5  Sulphur hexafluoride  21  –59.1  –1.8  Nitrogen trifluoride  8  –33.5  –39.0  Total  1,364  –2.4  –3.1    Metric tonnes  Relative to the 2005 levels (%)  Relative to 2013 levels (%)  Energy-related carbon dioxide  1,189  –2.4  –3.7  Non-energy-related carbon dioxide  762  –12.3  –0.4  Methane  355  –8.9  –1.6  Nitrous oxide  208  –15.0  –2.9  Perfluorinated chemicals  34  –61.0  +2.5  HFCs  358  +180.0  +11.5  Sulphur hexafluoride  21  –59.1  –1.8  Nitrogen trifluoride  8  –33.5  –39.0  Total  1,364  –2.4  –3.1  Source: Japan’s 2014 GHG Inventory. (D) G7 Summit in Ise-Shima On 26–7 May, Japan hosted the forty-second G7 summit in Ise-Shima, located south of Kyoto. Climate and energy were among the most important issues included in the G7 Leaders’ Declaration. Concerning climate policy, the Leaders’ Declaration includes the following points: (1) the G7, continuing to take a leadership role, commits to taking the necessary steps to secure ratification, acceptance, or approval of the Paris Agreement as soon as possible and calls on all parties to do so, striving for a goal of entry into force in 2016; (2) the G7 commits to take the lead by early, transparent, and robust implementation of the INDCs and promote increased ambition over time; and (3) the G7 commits to formulate and communicate ambitions for mid-century, long-term, low GHG emission development strategies well ahead of the 2020 deadline. (D) Ratification of the Paris Agreement While the G7 Ministers’ Declaration endorsed the early ratification of the Paris Agreement, it was not at the top of the political agenda in Japan. Japan’s National Diet, the Kokkai, was occupied with the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Industries were also concerned that Japan would ratify the agreement before other parties. On 3 September, just before the G20 summit was held in Hangzou, China, the United States and China announced that they would both ratify the Paris Agreement; other parties subsequently also rushed to ratify it. By 5 October, seventy-three countries and the European Union, which together account for more than 55 percent of GHG emissions worldwide, had ratified the agreement, fulfilling the conditions for the agreement to enter into force. As a result, the first Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement was to be held in conjunction with the twenty-second Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and the twelfth Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. Under these circumstances, Japan also attempted to ratify the agreement in time to participate as a party in the first Meeting of the Parties to the agreement, but failed. Since Japan ratified the agreement only on 8 November with consent in the National Diet, the country was unable to participate in the meeting as a party but, rather, as an observer only. Japan participated in the twenty-second Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, the twelfth Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol, and the first Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement on 7–18 November in Marrakesh, Morocco (<http://www.mofa.go.jp/ic/ch/page25e_000102.html>). At the high-level segment, Minister of the Environment Yoshio Mochizuki delivered a speech, in which he welcomed the early entry into force of the Paris Agreement and stressed that Japan had already submitted its instrument of acceptance of the agreement to the United Nations. He also stated that ‘Japan is going to play a central role’ for the world to ‘shift its course towards the goal of achieving a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century’ and to ‘build a prosperous and resilient society in cooperation with the international community by promoting integrated measures towards this goal.’ He also emphasized that ‘it is the Cabinet’s top priority to take countermeasures against global warming’ and that ‘Japan will lead the international community so that major emitters undertake emission reductions in the light of respective capabilities, and aim to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 as a long-term goal, while pursuing economic growth.’ Regarding financial contributions, he said that Japan would work towards delivering on its pledge of 1.3 trillion yen (approximately US $11.7 billion) by 2020 to support developing countries in their efforts to tackle climate change. (3) Energy Policy In order to drastically reduce GHG emissions while still ensuring the energy supply and, thus, sustaining economic growth, reform of energy policy is an urgent agenda item in Japan. The country’s current long-term energy plan expects an energy mix in 2030 of nuclear at 20–2 percent, renewables at 22–4 percent, liquefied natural gas (LNG) at 27 percent, coal at 26 percent, and oil at 3 percent. However, the country has faced difficulty re-commissioning existing nuclear power plants—as of December 2016, only three nuclear power plants were in operation—and expanding the capacity of renewable energy. In order to make up for reduced capacities, utility companies have proposed the construction of new coal-fired power plants. Although they are state-of-the-art technology, they would not be the best technologies to achieve Japan’s INDCs. (A) Revision of Feed-In Prices One of the important pillars in energy policy is the promotion of renewable electricity production. The Act on Special Measures Concerning the Procurement of Renewable Electric Energy by Operators of Electric Utilities (30 August 2011, no. 108) established what is known as the Procurement Price Calculation Committee under the Ministry of the Economic Affairs, Trade and Industry (METI) on 10 November 2011 (see the 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016 editions of this Yearbook). The feed-in price and its duration are reviewed by the Procurement Price Calculation Committee established under the METI every year, reflecting the recommendations of the committee. Following the 2015 review, the prices for all renewable energies were to be reduced again in 2016 (see Table 2). The rates for photovoltaics were further reduced. In particular, the rate for photovoltaics exceeding ten kilowatts dropped by 43 percent from 42 yen in 2012 to 24 yen in 2016. Table 2. Feed-in Prices (from 1 July 2012 to 31 March 2017)   Feed-in price (1 July 2012 – 31 March 2013)  Feed-in price (1 April 2013 – 31 March 2014)  Feed-in price (1 April 2014 – 31 March 2015)  Feed-in price (1 April 2015 – 31 March 2016)  Feed-in price (1 April 2016 – 31 March 2017)  Photovoltaics            ≥ 10 kilowatts (kW)  42 yen (20 years)  37.8 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  27 yen (20 years from 1 July)  < 10 kW  42 yen (10 years)  38 yen (10 years)  37 yen (10 years)  33 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  31 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  37 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  33 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  < 10 kW (double power production)  34 yen (10 years)  31 yen (10 years)  30 yen (10 years)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  25 yen (10 years without obligations to install output control device)  29 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  Wind            ≥ 20 kW  23.1 yen (20 years)  23.1 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  < 20 kW  57.75 yen (20 years)  57.75 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  Onshore Hydropower      36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)              1,000 kW – 30,000 kW  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW  30.45 yen (20 years)  30.45 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW  35.7 yen (20 years)  35.7 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  Small and medium hydropower (utilising existing channels)  1,000 kW – 30,000 kW      14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW      21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW      25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  Geothermal            ≤ 15,000 kW  27.3 yen (15 years)  27.3 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  > 15,000 kW  42 yen (15 years)  42 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  Biomass            Methane fermentation  40.95 yen (20 years)  40.95 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  Unused wood  33.6 yen (20 years)  33.6 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  < 2000 kw    40 yen (20 years)  40 yen (20 years)          ≥ 2000 kw    32 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  Wood in general  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  Waste  17.85 yen (20 years)  17.85 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  Recycled  13.65 yen (20 years)  13.65 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20years)    Feed-in price (1 July 2012 – 31 March 2013)  Feed-in price (1 April 2013 – 31 March 2014)  Feed-in price (1 April 2014 – 31 March 2015)  Feed-in price (1 April 2015 – 31 March 2016)  Feed-in price (1 April 2016 – 31 March 2017)  Photovoltaics            ≥ 10 kilowatts (kW)  42 yen (20 years)  37.8 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  27 yen (20 years from 1 July)  < 10 kW  42 yen (10 years)  38 yen (10 years)  37 yen (10 years)  33 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  31 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  37 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  33 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  < 10 kW (double power production)  34 yen (10 years)  31 yen (10 years)  30 yen (10 years)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  25 yen (10 years without obligations to install output control device)  29 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  Wind            ≥ 20 kW  23.1 yen (20 years)  23.1 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  < 20 kW  57.75 yen (20 years)  57.75 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  Onshore Hydropower      36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)              1,000 kW – 30,000 kW  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW  30.45 yen (20 years)  30.45 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW  35.7 yen (20 years)  35.7 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  Small and medium hydropower (utilising existing channels)  1,000 kW – 30,000 kW      14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW      21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW      25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  Geothermal            ≤ 15,000 kW  27.3 yen (15 years)  27.3 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  > 15,000 kW  42 yen (15 years)  42 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  Biomass            Methane fermentation  40.95 yen (20 years)  40.95 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  Unused wood  33.6 yen (20 years)  33.6 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  < 2000 kw    40 yen (20 years)  40 yen (20 years)          ≥ 2000 kw    32 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  Wood in general  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  Waste  17.85 yen (20 years)  17.85 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  Recycled  13.65 yen (20 years)  13.65 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20years)  Table 2. Feed-in Prices (from 1 July 2012 to 31 March 2017)   Feed-in price (1 July 2012 – 31 March 2013)  Feed-in price (1 April 2013 – 31 March 2014)  Feed-in price (1 April 2014 – 31 March 2015)  Feed-in price (1 April 2015 – 31 March 2016)  Feed-in price (1 April 2016 – 31 March 2017)  Photovoltaics            ≥ 10 kilowatts (kW)  42 yen (20 years)  37.8 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  27 yen (20 years from 1 July)  < 10 kW  42 yen (10 years)  38 yen (10 years)  37 yen (10 years)  33 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  31 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  37 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  33 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  < 10 kW (double power production)  34 yen (10 years)  31 yen (10 years)  30 yen (10 years)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  25 yen (10 years without obligations to install output control device)  29 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  Wind            ≥ 20 kW  23.1 yen (20 years)  23.1 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  < 20 kW  57.75 yen (20 years)  57.75 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  Onshore Hydropower      36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)              1,000 kW – 30,000 kW  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW  30.45 yen (20 years)  30.45 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW  35.7 yen (20 years)  35.7 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  Small and medium hydropower (utilising existing channels)  1,000 kW – 30,000 kW      14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW      21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW      25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  Geothermal            ≤ 15,000 kW  27.3 yen (15 years)  27.3 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  > 15,000 kW  42 yen (15 years)  42 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  Biomass            Methane fermentation  40.95 yen (20 years)  40.95 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  Unused wood  33.6 yen (20 years)  33.6 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  < 2000 kw    40 yen (20 years)  40 yen (20 years)          ≥ 2000 kw    32 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  Wood in general  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  Waste  17.85 yen (20 years)  17.85 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  Recycled  13.65 yen (20 years)  13.65 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20years)    Feed-in price (1 July 2012 – 31 March 2013)  Feed-in price (1 April 2013 – 31 March 2014)  Feed-in price (1 April 2014 – 31 March 2015)  Feed-in price (1 April 2015 – 31 March 2016)  Feed-in price (1 April 2016 – 31 March 2017)  Photovoltaics            ≥ 10 kilowatts (kW)  42 yen (20 years)  37.8 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  27 yen (20 years from 1 July)  < 10 kW  42 yen (10 years)  38 yen (10 years)  37 yen (10 years)  33 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  31 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  37 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  33 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  < 10 kW (double power production)  34 yen (10 years)  31 yen (10 years)  30 yen (10 years)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  25 yen (10 years without obligations to install output control device)  29 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  Wind            ≥ 20 kW  23.1 yen (20 years)  23.1 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  < 20 kW  57.75 yen (20 years)  57.75 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  Onshore Hydropower      36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)              1,000 kW – 30,000 kW  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW  30.45 yen (20 years)  30.45 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW  35.7 yen (20 years)  35.7 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  Small and medium hydropower (utilising existing channels)  1,000 kW – 30,000 kW      14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW      21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW      25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  Geothermal            ≤ 15,000 kW  27.3 yen (15 years)  27.3 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  > 15,000 kW  42 yen (15 years)  42 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  Biomass            Methane fermentation  40.95 yen (20 years)  40.95 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  Unused wood  33.6 yen (20 years)  33.6 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  < 2000 kw    40 yen (20 years)  40 yen (20 years)          ≥ 2000 kw    32 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  Wood in general  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  Waste  17.85 yen (20 years)  17.85 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  Recycled  13.65 yen (20 years)  13.65 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20years)  (B) Nuclear Policy The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA)—a body that is independent of the ministry charged with promoting nuclear power generation (that is, the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy of the Ministry of the Economic Affairs, Trade and Industry)—published new regulation standards to improve the safety of nuclear power plants in 2013. In 2016, after the NRA finished its inspections and local governments gave their consent (Fukui Prefecture for the Takahama plant and Ehime Prefecture for the Ikata plant), Takahama’s third and fourth reactors (Kansai Power Company) and Ikata’s third reactor (Shikoku Power Company) came into operation on 29 January, 26 February, and 12 August, respectively. On 9 March, however, the local court in Otsu handed down a judgement to temporarily shut down the Takahama third and fourth reactors (see also the 2016 edition of this yearbook). The NRA also approved extending the operational duration of the first and second reactors of the Takahama Nuclear Power Plant on 20 June 2016—both of them had been in operation for longer than forty years. While the Atom Act stipulates that the operational duration of nuclear power plants is limited to forty years, this can be extended once for a maximum of twenty years. Kansai Power plans to install fire prevention mechanisms for cables and then re-commission both reactors after October 2019. (C) Coal-Fired Power Plants The current long-term energy demand-supply plan determined that the energy mix for electricity should have nuclear providing 20–2 percent, renewables 22–4 percent (geothermal 1.0–1.1 percent, biomass 3.7–4.0 percent, wind 1.7 percent, photovoltaic 7.0 percent, and hydropower 8.8–9.2 percent), LNG 27 percent, coal 26 percent, and oil 3 percent. While the plan was to use LNG more than coal, the commodity price of LNG has been approximately double that of coal (coal; 5.5 yen, LNG; 10.8 yen in 2014). When production and carbon dioxide reduction costs are included, this difference is just 1.4 yen/kwh (coal: 12.3 yen; LNG: 13.7 yen in 2014). Nevertheless, utility companies have planned to increase their dependence on coal. As of January 2016, the construction of forty-seven new coal-fired power plants has been planned (<http://power-shift.org/wp-content/uploads/0e43b7e63e677fe01711a30c2180f7c9.pdf>). Five of the forty-seven are already under construction, and the Suzukawa Power Plant in Shizuoka Prefecture (112,000 kilowatt hours) went into operation in September 2016. Various ministers of the environment—Nobuteru Ishihara (2012–14), Yoshio Mochizuki (2014–15), Tamayo Marukawa (2015–16), and Koichi Yamamoto (2016–present)—have published their opinions that utilities should not increase their dependence on coal-fired power plants, since it would have a negative impact on achieving major GHG reductions, considering that coal-fired power plants will be used for approximately forty years once they are constructed. During the climate conference in Marrakesh, the international network of non-governmental organizations, Climate Action Network, also criticized Japan for its plan to depend on coal-fired power plants. Partly in response to this criticism, several utilities withdrew their plans. (4) Ozone Protection (A) Publication of the 2015 Ozone Monitoring Report In August, the the Ministry of the Environment published the 2015 Ozone Monitoring Report in accordance with the Law Concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Substances and Other Measures (1988 Law no. 53) (<http://www.env.go.jp/earth/report/h28-04/ozone_annual_H27_whole.pdf>). The report noted that in 2015 the average amount of ozone stopped depleting and was stable. In the Antarctic, the average amount of ozone was smaller in 2015 than it had been from 1997 to 2006—sometimes more than 10 percent smaller. The largest ozone hole that year, observed on 9 October 2015, had an area of 27.80 million square kilometres—the same as, or larger than, that which had been observed as the average from 2005 to 2014, but then got smaller and disappeared in December. In the high latitude areas of the northern hemisphere, the total quantity of ozone changed depending on the weather conditions. However, in February and March 2015, the quantity of ozone from Eastern Europe to Eastern Siberia was more than 5 percent below the average from 1997 to 2006. However, ozone depletion was not as serious in 2015 as that from the winter 2010 to the spring 2011. In regard to Japan, the monthly average of total ozone amount in 2015 was the same as, or larger than, the average amount from 1994 to 2008 at four monitoring sites (Sapporo, Tsukuba, Minamitorishima, and Naha). More specifically, ozone amounts at Sapporo and Minamitorishima were often larger, while those at Tsukuba were close to average. (B) Twenty-eighth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) At this meeting, held in Kigali, Rwanda, on 10–14 October, the parties adopted the Kigali Amendment to the Protocol to phase out HFCs. HFCs are not ozone-depleting substances. Nevertheless, they are regulated under the Montreal Protocol, since their global warming potentials are extremely large (from twelve for HFC-161 to 14,800 for HFC-23). Japan acknowledged that phasing out HFCs is an important issue for global environmental protection and took the lead to include a sentence supporting the adoption of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol in the Leaders’ Declaration at the Ise-Shima Summit in May, in advance of the twenty-eighth meeting in Kigali. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Yearbook of International Environmental Law Oxford University Press

14. Northeast Asia: A. Japan

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© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
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0965-1721
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Abstract

(1) Introduction In 2016, one of the most important environmental issues in Japan was the ratification and domestic implementation of the Paris Agreement, which was adopted in December 2015 (Doc. FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1). Another issue that attracted the attention of policy makers as well as the general public was energy policy design. Insofar as the Fukushima accident has not yet been settled, even six years after the accident, the re-commissioning of existing nuclear power plants has encountered difficulties—in particular, mistrust among inhabitants. Since it took longer than expected to re-commission the existing nuclear power plants, and renewable electricity did not yet make up for nuclear, utility companies are planning to construct coal-fired power plants. The following sections of this report focus on Japan’s practices in the domain of climate as well as energy policies and, to a lesser extent, on ozone protection policies related to the development of international environmental law. (2) Climate Policies (A) Global Warming Prevention Plan In order to implement the Paris Agreement adopted on 12 December 2015 at the twenty-first Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to achieve the intended nationally determined commitments (INDC) submitted to the Secretariat of the UNFCCC in July 2015—a 26 percent greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction by 2030 relative to 2013 levels and 25.4 percent in comparison to the levels in 2005—the Cabinet Office adopted the Plan for Global Warming Countermeasures on 13 May 2016. The plan specifies measures taken by individuals as well as national and local governments to achieve the 26 percent GHG reduction target. The plan also serves as the basis on which Japan implements various global warming measures, with the ultimate aim of reducing GHG emissions by 80 percent by 2050 as a long-term target. In addition to measures implementing Japan’s own emission reductions, the plan also includes measures addressing Japan’s contributions to global emission reductions. Basic ideas included in the plan are: (1) integrated improvements of the environment, the economy, and society; (2) the steady implementation of measures specified in Japan’s INDCs; (3) the implementation of measures addressing Paris Agreement commitments; (4) support for research and development as well as contributions to global GHG reductions through advanced technologies; (5) awareness-raising measures for all actors, calls for action, and strengthening of partnerships; and (6) prioritizing the process of plan-do-check-action (PDCA). The duration of the plan is from 13 May 2016 to 31 March 2031. While the Paris Agreement calls for regular reviews every five years, Japan’s domestic policy is to review implementation every three years. (B) Revision of the Law Concerning the Promotion of Measures to Cope with Global Warming In relation to adopting the Global Warming Prevention Plan, Japan amended its Law Concerning the Promotion of Measures to Cope with Global Warming on 8 March 2016 (the original was adopted in June 1998). In order to achieve the 26 percent GHG reductions in 2030 compared to 2013 levels committed to in the INDC, the revised law specifies the promotion of global warming prevention measures through international cooperation and local government requirements to draft and submit plans designed to promote global warming prevention measures. (C) Japan’s GHG Emissions in 2014 Japan’s GHG emissions in 2014, which were reported to the UNFCCC in 2016, amounted to 1,364 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, which was 3.1 percent lower than 2013 levels (reductions of forty-four metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent), 2.4 percent lower than 2005 levels and 7.3 percent higher than 1990 levels. The decrease in emissions relative to 2013 levels resulted mainly from declines in electricity consumption and a reduction in carbon dioxide related to electricity production due to improvements in emissions per unit produced in the power sector. The reasons for emissions reductions relative to 2005 levels were that energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in the industry and transportation sectors declined, while emissions from hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), with high global warming effects, largely increased as a result of the replacement of ozone-depleting substances in refrigerants. More details are summarized in Table 1. GHG emissions relative to the gross domestic product are 2.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent/million yen; this is a 2.2 percent reduction from 2013, a 5.6 percent reduction from 2005, and a 13.5 percent reduction from 1990. GHG emissions per capita are 10.73 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent/person, which is a 3.0 percent reduction from 2013, and a 1.9 percent reduction from 2005, but a 4 percent increase from 1990. Table 1. GHG Emissions   Metric tonnes  Relative to the 2005 levels (%)  Relative to 2013 levels (%)  Energy-related carbon dioxide  1,189  –2.4  –3.7  Non-energy-related carbon dioxide  762  –12.3  –0.4  Methane  355  –8.9  –1.6  Nitrous oxide  208  –15.0  –2.9  Perfluorinated chemicals  34  –61.0  +2.5  HFCs  358  +180.0  +11.5  Sulphur hexafluoride  21  –59.1  –1.8  Nitrogen trifluoride  8  –33.5  –39.0  Total  1,364  –2.4  –3.1    Metric tonnes  Relative to the 2005 levels (%)  Relative to 2013 levels (%)  Energy-related carbon dioxide  1,189  –2.4  –3.7  Non-energy-related carbon dioxide  762  –12.3  –0.4  Methane  355  –8.9  –1.6  Nitrous oxide  208  –15.0  –2.9  Perfluorinated chemicals  34  –61.0  +2.5  HFCs  358  +180.0  +11.5  Sulphur hexafluoride  21  –59.1  –1.8  Nitrogen trifluoride  8  –33.5  –39.0  Total  1,364  –2.4  –3.1  Source: Japan’s 2014 GHG Inventory. Table 1. GHG Emissions   Metric tonnes  Relative to the 2005 levels (%)  Relative to 2013 levels (%)  Energy-related carbon dioxide  1,189  –2.4  –3.7  Non-energy-related carbon dioxide  762  –12.3  –0.4  Methane  355  –8.9  –1.6  Nitrous oxide  208  –15.0  –2.9  Perfluorinated chemicals  34  –61.0  +2.5  HFCs  358  +180.0  +11.5  Sulphur hexafluoride  21  –59.1  –1.8  Nitrogen trifluoride  8  –33.5  –39.0  Total  1,364  –2.4  –3.1    Metric tonnes  Relative to the 2005 levels (%)  Relative to 2013 levels (%)  Energy-related carbon dioxide  1,189  –2.4  –3.7  Non-energy-related carbon dioxide  762  –12.3  –0.4  Methane  355  –8.9  –1.6  Nitrous oxide  208  –15.0  –2.9  Perfluorinated chemicals  34  –61.0  +2.5  HFCs  358  +180.0  +11.5  Sulphur hexafluoride  21  –59.1  –1.8  Nitrogen trifluoride  8  –33.5  –39.0  Total  1,364  –2.4  –3.1  Source: Japan’s 2014 GHG Inventory. (D) G7 Summit in Ise-Shima On 26–7 May, Japan hosted the forty-second G7 summit in Ise-Shima, located south of Kyoto. Climate and energy were among the most important issues included in the G7 Leaders’ Declaration. Concerning climate policy, the Leaders’ Declaration includes the following points: (1) the G7, continuing to take a leadership role, commits to taking the necessary steps to secure ratification, acceptance, or approval of the Paris Agreement as soon as possible and calls on all parties to do so, striving for a goal of entry into force in 2016; (2) the G7 commits to take the lead by early, transparent, and robust implementation of the INDCs and promote increased ambition over time; and (3) the G7 commits to formulate and communicate ambitions for mid-century, long-term, low GHG emission development strategies well ahead of the 2020 deadline. (D) Ratification of the Paris Agreement While the G7 Ministers’ Declaration endorsed the early ratification of the Paris Agreement, it was not at the top of the political agenda in Japan. Japan’s National Diet, the Kokkai, was occupied with the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Industries were also concerned that Japan would ratify the agreement before other parties. On 3 September, just before the G20 summit was held in Hangzou, China, the United States and China announced that they would both ratify the Paris Agreement; other parties subsequently also rushed to ratify it. By 5 October, seventy-three countries and the European Union, which together account for more than 55 percent of GHG emissions worldwide, had ratified the agreement, fulfilling the conditions for the agreement to enter into force. As a result, the first Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement was to be held in conjunction with the twenty-second Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and the twelfth Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. Under these circumstances, Japan also attempted to ratify the agreement in time to participate as a party in the first Meeting of the Parties to the agreement, but failed. Since Japan ratified the agreement only on 8 November with consent in the National Diet, the country was unable to participate in the meeting as a party but, rather, as an observer only. Japan participated in the twenty-second Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC, the twelfth Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol, and the first Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement on 7–18 November in Marrakesh, Morocco (<http://www.mofa.go.jp/ic/ch/page25e_000102.html>). At the high-level segment, Minister of the Environment Yoshio Mochizuki delivered a speech, in which he welcomed the early entry into force of the Paris Agreement and stressed that Japan had already submitted its instrument of acceptance of the agreement to the United Nations. He also stated that ‘Japan is going to play a central role’ for the world to ‘shift its course towards the goal of achieving a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century’ and to ‘build a prosperous and resilient society in cooperation with the international community by promoting integrated measures towards this goal.’ He also emphasized that ‘it is the Cabinet’s top priority to take countermeasures against global warming’ and that ‘Japan will lead the international community so that major emitters undertake emission reductions in the light of respective capabilities, and aim to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050 as a long-term goal, while pursuing economic growth.’ Regarding financial contributions, he said that Japan would work towards delivering on its pledge of 1.3 trillion yen (approximately US $11.7 billion) by 2020 to support developing countries in their efforts to tackle climate change. (3) Energy Policy In order to drastically reduce GHG emissions while still ensuring the energy supply and, thus, sustaining economic growth, reform of energy policy is an urgent agenda item in Japan. The country’s current long-term energy plan expects an energy mix in 2030 of nuclear at 20–2 percent, renewables at 22–4 percent, liquefied natural gas (LNG) at 27 percent, coal at 26 percent, and oil at 3 percent. However, the country has faced difficulty re-commissioning existing nuclear power plants—as of December 2016, only three nuclear power plants were in operation—and expanding the capacity of renewable energy. In order to make up for reduced capacities, utility companies have proposed the construction of new coal-fired power plants. Although they are state-of-the-art technology, they would not be the best technologies to achieve Japan’s INDCs. (A) Revision of Feed-In Prices One of the important pillars in energy policy is the promotion of renewable electricity production. The Act on Special Measures Concerning the Procurement of Renewable Electric Energy by Operators of Electric Utilities (30 August 2011, no. 108) established what is known as the Procurement Price Calculation Committee under the Ministry of the Economic Affairs, Trade and Industry (METI) on 10 November 2011 (see the 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016 editions of this Yearbook). The feed-in price and its duration are reviewed by the Procurement Price Calculation Committee established under the METI every year, reflecting the recommendations of the committee. Following the 2015 review, the prices for all renewable energies were to be reduced again in 2016 (see Table 2). The rates for photovoltaics were further reduced. In particular, the rate for photovoltaics exceeding ten kilowatts dropped by 43 percent from 42 yen in 2012 to 24 yen in 2016. Table 2. Feed-in Prices (from 1 July 2012 to 31 March 2017)   Feed-in price (1 July 2012 – 31 March 2013)  Feed-in price (1 April 2013 – 31 March 2014)  Feed-in price (1 April 2014 – 31 March 2015)  Feed-in price (1 April 2015 – 31 March 2016)  Feed-in price (1 April 2016 – 31 March 2017)  Photovoltaics            ≥ 10 kilowatts (kW)  42 yen (20 years)  37.8 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  27 yen (20 years from 1 July)  < 10 kW  42 yen (10 years)  38 yen (10 years)  37 yen (10 years)  33 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  31 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  37 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  33 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  < 10 kW (double power production)  34 yen (10 years)  31 yen (10 years)  30 yen (10 years)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  25 yen (10 years without obligations to install output control device)  29 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  Wind            ≥ 20 kW  23.1 yen (20 years)  23.1 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  < 20 kW  57.75 yen (20 years)  57.75 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  Onshore Hydropower      36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)              1,000 kW – 30,000 kW  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW  30.45 yen (20 years)  30.45 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW  35.7 yen (20 years)  35.7 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  Small and medium hydropower (utilising existing channels)  1,000 kW – 30,000 kW      14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW      21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW      25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  Geothermal            ≤ 15,000 kW  27.3 yen (15 years)  27.3 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  > 15,000 kW  42 yen (15 years)  42 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  Biomass            Methane fermentation  40.95 yen (20 years)  40.95 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  Unused wood  33.6 yen (20 years)  33.6 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  < 2000 kw    40 yen (20 years)  40 yen (20 years)          ≥ 2000 kw    32 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  Wood in general  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  Waste  17.85 yen (20 years)  17.85 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  Recycled  13.65 yen (20 years)  13.65 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20years)    Feed-in price (1 July 2012 – 31 March 2013)  Feed-in price (1 April 2013 – 31 March 2014)  Feed-in price (1 April 2014 – 31 March 2015)  Feed-in price (1 April 2015 – 31 March 2016)  Feed-in price (1 April 2016 – 31 March 2017)  Photovoltaics            ≥ 10 kilowatts (kW)  42 yen (20 years)  37.8 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  27 yen (20 years from 1 July)  < 10 kW  42 yen (10 years)  38 yen (10 years)  37 yen (10 years)  33 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  31 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  37 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  33 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  < 10 kW (double power production)  34 yen (10 years)  31 yen (10 years)  30 yen (10 years)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  25 yen (10 years without obligations to install output control device)  29 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  Wind            ≥ 20 kW  23.1 yen (20 years)  23.1 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  < 20 kW  57.75 yen (20 years)  57.75 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  Onshore Hydropower      36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)              1,000 kW – 30,000 kW  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW  30.45 yen (20 years)  30.45 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW  35.7 yen (20 years)  35.7 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  Small and medium hydropower (utilising existing channels)  1,000 kW – 30,000 kW      14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW      21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW      25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  Geothermal            ≤ 15,000 kW  27.3 yen (15 years)  27.3 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  > 15,000 kW  42 yen (15 years)  42 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  Biomass            Methane fermentation  40.95 yen (20 years)  40.95 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  Unused wood  33.6 yen (20 years)  33.6 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  < 2000 kw    40 yen (20 years)  40 yen (20 years)          ≥ 2000 kw    32 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  Wood in general  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  Waste  17.85 yen (20 years)  17.85 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  Recycled  13.65 yen (20 years)  13.65 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20years)  Table 2. Feed-in Prices (from 1 July 2012 to 31 March 2017)   Feed-in price (1 July 2012 – 31 March 2013)  Feed-in price (1 April 2013 – 31 March 2014)  Feed-in price (1 April 2014 – 31 March 2015)  Feed-in price (1 April 2015 – 31 March 2016)  Feed-in price (1 April 2016 – 31 March 2017)  Photovoltaics            ≥ 10 kilowatts (kW)  42 yen (20 years)  37.8 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  27 yen (20 years from 1 July)  < 10 kW  42 yen (10 years)  38 yen (10 years)  37 yen (10 years)  33 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  31 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  37 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  33 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  < 10 kW (double power production)  34 yen (10 years)  31 yen (10 years)  30 yen (10 years)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  25 yen (10 years without obligations to install output control device)  29 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  Wind            ≥ 20 kW  23.1 yen (20 years)  23.1 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  < 20 kW  57.75 yen (20 years)  57.75 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  Onshore Hydropower      36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)              1,000 kW – 30,000 kW  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW  30.45 yen (20 years)  30.45 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW  35.7 yen (20 years)  35.7 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  Small and medium hydropower (utilising existing channels)  1,000 kW – 30,000 kW      14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW      21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW      25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  Geothermal            ≤ 15,000 kW  27.3 yen (15 years)  27.3 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  > 15,000 kW  42 yen (15 years)  42 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  Biomass            Methane fermentation  40.95 yen (20 years)  40.95 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  Unused wood  33.6 yen (20 years)  33.6 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  < 2000 kw    40 yen (20 years)  40 yen (20 years)          ≥ 2000 kw    32 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  Wood in general  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  Waste  17.85 yen (20 years)  17.85 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  Recycled  13.65 yen (20 years)  13.65 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20years)    Feed-in price (1 July 2012 – 31 March 2013)  Feed-in price (1 April 2013 – 31 March 2014)  Feed-in price (1 April 2014 – 31 March 2015)  Feed-in price (1 April 2015 – 31 March 2016)  Feed-in price (1 April 2016 – 31 March 2017)  Photovoltaics            ≥ 10 kilowatts (kW)  42 yen (20 years)  37.8 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  27 yen (20 years from 1 July)  < 10 kW  42 yen (10 years)  38 yen (10 years)  37 yen (10 years)  33 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  31 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  37 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  33 yen (10 years: with obligations to install output control device)  < 10 kW (double power production)  34 yen (10 years)  31 yen (10 years)  30 yen (10 years)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  25 yen (10 years without obligations to install output control device)  29 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  27 yen (10 years: without obligations to install output control device)  Wind            ≥ 20 kW  23.1 yen (20 years)  23.1 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  22 yen (20 years)  < 20 kW  57.75 yen (20 years)  57.75 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  55 yen (20 years)  Onshore Hydropower      36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)  36 yen (20 years)              1,000 kW – 30,000 kW  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW  30.45 yen (20 years)  30.45 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  29 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW  35.7 yen (20 years)  35.7 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  34 yen (20 years)  Small and medium hydropower (utilising existing channels)  1,000 kW – 30,000 kW      14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  14 yen (20 years)  200 kW – 1,000 kW      21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  21 yen (20 years)  < 200 kW      25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  25 yen (20 years)  Geothermal            ≤ 15,000 kW  27.3 yen (15 years)  27.3 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  26 yen (15 years)  > 15,000 kW  42 yen (15 years)  42 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  40 yen (15 years)  Biomass            Methane fermentation  40.95 yen (20 years)  40.95 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  39 yen (20 years)  Unused wood  33.6 yen (20 years)  33.6 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  < 2000 kw    40 yen (20 years)  40 yen (20 years)          ≥ 2000 kw    32 yen (20 years)  32 yen (20 years)  Wood in general  25.2 yen (20 years)  25.2 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  24 yen (20 years)  Waste  17.85 yen (20 years)  17.85 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  17 yen (20 years)  Recycled  13.65 yen (20 years)  13.65 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20 years)  13 yen (20years)  (B) Nuclear Policy The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA)—a body that is independent of the ministry charged with promoting nuclear power generation (that is, the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy of the Ministry of the Economic Affairs, Trade and Industry)—published new regulation standards to improve the safety of nuclear power plants in 2013. In 2016, after the NRA finished its inspections and local governments gave their consent (Fukui Prefecture for the Takahama plant and Ehime Prefecture for the Ikata plant), Takahama’s third and fourth reactors (Kansai Power Company) and Ikata’s third reactor (Shikoku Power Company) came into operation on 29 January, 26 February, and 12 August, respectively. On 9 March, however, the local court in Otsu handed down a judgement to temporarily shut down the Takahama third and fourth reactors (see also the 2016 edition of this yearbook). The NRA also approved extending the operational duration of the first and second reactors of the Takahama Nuclear Power Plant on 20 June 2016—both of them had been in operation for longer than forty years. While the Atom Act stipulates that the operational duration of nuclear power plants is limited to forty years, this can be extended once for a maximum of twenty years. Kansai Power plans to install fire prevention mechanisms for cables and then re-commission both reactors after October 2019. (C) Coal-Fired Power Plants The current long-term energy demand-supply plan determined that the energy mix for electricity should have nuclear providing 20–2 percent, renewables 22–4 percent (geothermal 1.0–1.1 percent, biomass 3.7–4.0 percent, wind 1.7 percent, photovoltaic 7.0 percent, and hydropower 8.8–9.2 percent), LNG 27 percent, coal 26 percent, and oil 3 percent. While the plan was to use LNG more than coal, the commodity price of LNG has been approximately double that of coal (coal; 5.5 yen, LNG; 10.8 yen in 2014). When production and carbon dioxide reduction costs are included, this difference is just 1.4 yen/kwh (coal: 12.3 yen; LNG: 13.7 yen in 2014). Nevertheless, utility companies have planned to increase their dependence on coal. As of January 2016, the construction of forty-seven new coal-fired power plants has been planned (<http://power-shift.org/wp-content/uploads/0e43b7e63e677fe01711a30c2180f7c9.pdf>). Five of the forty-seven are already under construction, and the Suzukawa Power Plant in Shizuoka Prefecture (112,000 kilowatt hours) went into operation in September 2016. Various ministers of the environment—Nobuteru Ishihara (2012–14), Yoshio Mochizuki (2014–15), Tamayo Marukawa (2015–16), and Koichi Yamamoto (2016–present)—have published their opinions that utilities should not increase their dependence on coal-fired power plants, since it would have a negative impact on achieving major GHG reductions, considering that coal-fired power plants will be used for approximately forty years once they are constructed. During the climate conference in Marrakesh, the international network of non-governmental organizations, Climate Action Network, also criticized Japan for its plan to depend on coal-fired power plants. Partly in response to this criticism, several utilities withdrew their plans. (4) Ozone Protection (A) Publication of the 2015 Ozone Monitoring Report In August, the the Ministry of the Environment published the 2015 Ozone Monitoring Report in accordance with the Law Concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Substances and Other Measures (1988 Law no. 53) (<http://www.env.go.jp/earth/report/h28-04/ozone_annual_H27_whole.pdf>). The report noted that in 2015 the average amount of ozone stopped depleting and was stable. In the Antarctic, the average amount of ozone was smaller in 2015 than it had been from 1997 to 2006—sometimes more than 10 percent smaller. The largest ozone hole that year, observed on 9 October 2015, had an area of 27.80 million square kilometres—the same as, or larger than, that which had been observed as the average from 2005 to 2014, but then got smaller and disappeared in December. In the high latitude areas of the northern hemisphere, the total quantity of ozone changed depending on the weather conditions. However, in February and March 2015, the quantity of ozone from Eastern Europe to Eastern Siberia was more than 5 percent below the average from 1997 to 2006. However, ozone depletion was not as serious in 2015 as that from the winter 2010 to the spring 2011. In regard to Japan, the monthly average of total ozone amount in 2015 was the same as, or larger than, the average amount from 1994 to 2008 at four monitoring sites (Sapporo, Tsukuba, Minamitorishima, and Naha). More specifically, ozone amounts at Sapporo and Minamitorishima were often larger, while those at Tsukuba were close to average. (B) Twenty-eighth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) At this meeting, held in Kigali, Rwanda, on 10–14 October, the parties adopted the Kigali Amendment to the Protocol to phase out HFCs. HFCs are not ozone-depleting substances. Nevertheless, they are regulated under the Montreal Protocol, since their global warming potentials are extremely large (from twelve for HFC-161 to 14,800 for HFC-23). Japan acknowledged that phasing out HFCs is an important issue for global environmental protection and took the lead to include a sentence supporting the adoption of the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol in the Leaders’ Declaration at the Ise-Shima Summit in May, in advance of the twenty-eighth meeting in Kigali. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

Journal

Yearbook of International Environmental LawOxford University Press

Published: Dec 28, 2017

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