The Toffoli gate is a three-quantum-bit (three-qubit) operation that inverts the state of a target qubit conditioned on the state of two control qubits. It makes universal reversible classical computation possible and, together with a Hadamard gate , forms a universal set of gates in quantum computation. It is also a key element in quantum error correction schemes . The Toffoli gate has been implemented in nuclear magnetic resonance , linear optics and ion trap systems . Experiments with superconducting qubits have also shown significant progress recently: two-qubit algorithms and two-qubit process tomography have been implemented , three-qubit entangled states have been prepared , first steps towards quantum teleportation have been taken and work on quantum computing architectures has been done . Implementation of the Toffoli gate with only single- and two-qubit gates requires six controlled-NOT gates and ten single-qubit operations , and has not been realized in any system owing to current limits on coherence. Here we implement a Toffoli gate with three superconducting transmon qubits coupled to a microwave resonator. By exploiting the third energy level of the transmon qubits, we have significantly reduced the number of elementary gates needed for the implementation of the Toffoli
Nature – Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Published: Dec 14, 2011
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