A Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Drug Delivery in a Nasal Cavity with Inferior Turbinate Hypertrophy
AbstractBackground: Intranasal medications are commonly used in treating nasal diseases. However, technical details of the correct usage of these medications for nasal cavity with obstruction are unclear. Methods: A three-dimensional model of nasal cavity was constructed from MRI scans of a healthy human subject. Nasal cavities corresponding to healthy, moderate, and severe nasal obstruction (NO) were simulated by enlarging the inferior turbinate geometrically, which was documented by approximately one-third reduction of the minimum cross-sectional area for the moderate and two-thirds for the severe obstruction. The discrete phase model based on steady-state computational fluid dynamics was used to study the gas–particle flow. The results were presented with drug particle (from 7 × 10 −5 to 10 −7 m) deposition distribution along the lateral walls inside these three nasal cavities, and comparisons of the particle ratio escaping from the cavity were also presented and discussed. Results: Nasal patency is an essential condition that had the most impact on particle deposition of the factors studied; the particle percentage escaping the nasal cavity decreased to less than a half and one-tenth for the moderately and severely blocked noses. Decreasing of flow rate and particle diameter increased the escaping ratio; however, zero escaping percentage was detected with the absence of air flow and the effect was less noticeable when the particle diameter was very small (<10 −6 m). The existence of inspiratory flow and head tilt angle helped to improve the particle escaping ratio for the healthy nose; however, such changes were not significant for the moderately and severely blocked noses. Conclusion: When using an intranasal medication, it is advisable to have a moderate inspiratory air-flow rate and small size particles to improve particle escaping ratio. Various head positions suggested by clinicians do not seem to improve the drug escaping ratio significantly for the nasal cavities with inferior turbinate hypertrophy.