JAMA Surgery

JAMA Surgery Editor Editor in Chief, The JAMA Network JAMA Surgery Melina R. Kibbe, MD Howard Bauchner, MD Mission Statement To promote the art and science of surgery by publishing relevant peer-reviewed research to assist the surgeon in optimizing patient care. JAMA Surgery will also serve as a forum for the discussion of issues pertinent to surgery, such as the education and training of the surgical workforce, quality improvement, and the ethics and economics of health care delivery. Deputy Editors Managing Editor Lisa A. Newman, MD, MPH, Chung-Mau Lo, MBBS, MS(HK), Adil H. Haider, MD, MPH, Terri Carter Ann Arbor, Michigan Hong Kong Boston, Massachusetts Phone: (312) 464-4444 Gilbert R. Upchurch Jr, MD, Avery B. Nathens, MD, MPH, PhD, jamasurg@jamanetwork.org Gainesville, Florida Toronto, Ontario, Canada Timothy M. Pawlik, MD, MPH, MTS, PhD, Columbus, Ohio Sherry M. Wren, MD, John A. Windsor, MD, EDITORIAL BOARD Palo Alto, California Auckland, New Zealand Jennifer Tseng, MD, MPH, Karl Y. Bilimoria, MD, MS, Boston, Massachusetts Brian S. Zuckerbraun, MD, Manabu Yamamoto, MD, PhD, Chicago, Illinois Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Tokyo, Japan Danny Chu, MD, SECTION EDITORS Han-Kwang Yang, MD, PhD, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Review Editor INTERNATIONAL EDITORIAL BOARD Seoul, South Korea Gerard M. Doherty, MD, Dai H. Chung, MD, Juan I. Arcelus, MD, PhD, Boston, Massachusetts Nashville, Tennessee Granada, Spain Cheng-Har Yip, MBBS, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Surgical Innovation Editor Quan-Yang Duh, MD, Kevin C. P. Conlon, MA, MCh, MBA, Justin B. Dimick, MD, MPH, San Francisco, California Dublin, Ireland FORMER EDITORS Ann Arbor, Michigan James W. Fleshman Jr, MD, Marco Del Chiaro, MD, PhD, Dean Lewis, MD, 1920-1940 Web and Social Media Editor Dallas, Texas Stockholm, Sweden Waltman Walters, MD, 1941-1942; 1946-1961 Amalia L. Cochran, MD, Yuman Fong, MD, Liane S. Feldman, MD, CM, Salt Lake City, Utah Lester Dragstedt, MD, 1943-1945 Duarte, California Montreal, Quebec, Canada Clinical Challenge and CME Editor J. Garrett Allen, MD, 1962-1969 Elliott R. Haut, MD, PhD, Alberto R. Ferreres, MD, PhD, JD, MPH, Pamela A. Lipsett, MD, MHPE, Baltimore, Maryland Buenos Aires, Argentina Richard Warren, MD, 1970-1976 Baltimore, Maryland Jonathan R. Hiatt, MD, Andrew G. Hill, MBChB, MD, EdD, Arthur Baue, MD, 1977-1988 Statistical Editors Los Angeles, California Auckland, New Zealand Claude H. Organ Jr, MD, 1989-2004 Terry Hyslop, PhD, O. Joe Hines, MD, Simon Y. K. Law, MBBChir, MS, Durham, North Carolina Los Angeles, California Hong Kong Julie Ann Freischlag, MD, 2005-2014 Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Kamal M. F. Itani, MD, Dimitrios A. Linos, MD, PhD, Torrance, California West Roxbury, Massachusetts Marousi, Greece Todd A. Schwartz, DrPH, MS Eric K. Nakakura, MD, PhD, Olle Ljungqvist, MD, PhD, Chapel Hill, North Carolina San Francisco, California Örebro, Sweden PUBLICATION STAFF Managers and Staff Fanny L. Brown, PERIODICAL PUBLISHING STAFF Managers Rick Bell, Fergus Clare, Lenette Gardner-Gullens, Erin Kato, Lindsay Dawson, Will English IV, Ellen Gibson, Executive Editor Senior Vice President and Publisher, Peter K. Kim, Rachell Lozano, Mustafa Ishaq, Craig McCaff rey, Phil B. Fontanarosa, MD, MBA Periodical Publications Caroline Sietmann, Angelia Waltower, Michael McGraw, Daniel Pickhardt, Executive Managing Editor Thomas J. Easley Elizabeth Zak Romando Rossini, Stacy Tucker Annette Flanagin Vice President, Business Analyst Sirisha Alluri Managing Editor Publishing Business Operations Scientifi c Online Resources Staff Millette Jackson-Bates Brenda Gregoline Brian Shields Deputy Editor and Director Deputy Managing Editor Vice President, Michael Berkwits, MD Business Operations Tracy Frey Publishing Production Operations Digital Media Production Directors Karl Elvin, Nancy Essex, Jaye Mize, Manuscript Editors Karen Adams-Taylor Eric Butkus, Michelle Kurzynski (managers); Sean O’Donnell, Sue Sherrill Kevin Brown, Amanda Ehrhardt, Iris Y. Lo, Vice President, Digital Product Emily Ling, Jesse McQuarters, Daniel Morrow Managers David Antos, Chris Borden, Michaela Mark, M. Sophia Newman, Management and Development (producers) Debbie Camp, Lydia Cruz, Scott Curl, Suzanne Walker Paul Gee Social Media Diane Darnell, Jordynn Farrar, Tiff any Jones, Freelance Manuscript Editing Manager Staff Monica Smith Daniella Peting (manager); Reuben Rios Colleen Kelly, Chris Meyer, Annemarie Neff , Connie L. Manno (coordinator) J.D. Neff , Sean Ohlson, Phil O’Leary, Advertising Print & Online Freelance Manuscript Editing Coordinators Electronic Media Systems and Services Bill Pedone, Susan Price, Binita Shah, Sales & Marketing Sara M. Billings, Timothy Gray, Paul Ruich Carrie Butt (supervisor); Mary Lynn Ferkaluk Erin Spencer, Denise Steinhauser, Director Jeff ery J. Bonistalli Freelance Copy Editors and Copyreaders (assistant) Joe Wixted Manager Kathy Russell Catherine A. Alden, Stephanie Lang Advertising and Production Services Staff Mirna Monal Editorial Graphics Beckmeyer, Jan Clavey, Ahmed Avendano, Kim Boler, Sales Representative Stacey McHugh Deputy Editor and Director Mary Coerver-Connolly, Paula Glitman, Rhonda Bailey Brown, Fin Carter, Director, Marketing Mark Thornbury Ronna Henry, MD Laura King, Joseph Clayton Mills, Michael Deegan, Daniel DeGroot, Staff Tricia Castellano Staff Karen Bucher, Andy Rekito, Nick Reback, Brandy Y. Patton, Donna J. Thordsen Euwanaha Joiner-Smith, Joshua Lane, Editorial Assistant Wanda Hill David Song Classifi ed Advertising Cindy Rendlen, Ellen Yoshihara Manager Thalia Moss Circulation Services Julie Burton, Mary Sieck, Editorial Operations & Systems Clinical Review & Education Staff Tiff ani Stevenson Sarah Subramanian, Geneine Van Someren Deputy Editor Edward H. Livingston, MD Directors Larry Bryant, Composition and New Media Gail Barrett, CME Editor Thomas B. Cole, MD, MPH Monica Mungle, Elaine Williams Reprint Communications Regina Brownlee, Amanda Camino, Manager Susan Lovenberg Budgets and Administration Brenda Chandler-Grayer, Emily Dunn, Director Marla A. Hall Amy Evers, Maleeka Holden, Teri Hutchison, Circulation Print & Online Staff Deanna Willis, Yolanda Davis Mary Ann Kuranda, Joshua Lampinen, Sales & Marketing Editorial Counsel Nathan Mitre, Patricia E. Panek, Director, Worldwide Sales Vida Damijonaitis Joseph P. Thornton, JD Managers Saskia Bolore, Gretchen Linder, La’son Diggs Sledge, Brian McCartney Graphics Joe Amft, Maria Duda, Fred Furtner, Media Relations Sales Representatives Christine Hearne, Carolyn Hall, Maria Kowalkowski Manager Deanna Bellandi Proofreading Carol Joy Farrell, Daniel James, Natasha Nekola Staff Jim Michalski Judith A. Literskis, Teresa H. Omiotek, Staff David Baum, Ron Thomas Michael Ryder Marketing and Product Development Director Elizabeth Solaro Associate Publisher/Senior Product Development Geoff rey Flick The JAMA Network is a consortium of peer-reviewed print and online medical publications that AMA EXECUTIVES includes JAMA®, JAMA Surgery, and other specialty journals. JAMA Surgery does not hold itself Executive Vice President, responsible for statements made by any contributor. All articles published, including opinion articles, Chief Executive Offi cer represent the views of authors and do not refl ect the policy of the Journal, the American Medical James L. Madara, MD Association, or the institution with which the author is affi liated, unless otherwise indicated. Chief Operating Offi cer © 2018 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited. Bernard L. Hengesbaugh 102 JAMA Surgery February 2018 Volume 153, Number 2 jamasurgery.com Copyright 2018 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Copyright 2018 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png JAMA Surgery American Medical Association

JAMA Surgery

JAMA Surgery , Volume 153 (2) – Feb 1, 2018
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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
2168-6254
eISSN
2168-6262
D.O.I.
10.1001/jamasurg.2017.3652
Publisher site
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Abstract

Editor Editor in Chief, The JAMA Network JAMA Surgery Melina R. Kibbe, MD Howard Bauchner, MD Mission Statement To promote the art and science of surgery by publishing relevant peer-reviewed research to assist the surgeon in optimizing patient care. JAMA Surgery will also serve as a forum for the discussion of issues pertinent to surgery, such as the education and training of the surgical workforce, quality improvement, and the ethics and economics of health care delivery. Deputy Editors Managing Editor Lisa A. Newman, MD, MPH, Chung-Mau Lo, MBBS, MS(HK), Adil H. Haider, MD, MPH, Terri Carter Ann Arbor, Michigan Hong Kong Boston, Massachusetts Phone: (312) 464-4444 Gilbert R. Upchurch Jr, MD, Avery B. Nathens, MD, MPH, PhD, jamasurg@jamanetwork.org Gainesville, Florida Toronto, Ontario, Canada Timothy M. Pawlik, MD, MPH, MTS, PhD, Columbus, Ohio Sherry M. Wren, MD, John A. Windsor, MD, EDITORIAL BOARD Palo Alto, California Auckland, New Zealand Jennifer Tseng, MD, MPH, Karl Y. Bilimoria, MD, MS, Boston, Massachusetts Brian S. Zuckerbraun, MD, Manabu Yamamoto, MD, PhD, Chicago, Illinois Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Tokyo, Japan Danny Chu, MD, SECTION EDITORS Han-Kwang Yang, MD, PhD, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Review Editor INTERNATIONAL EDITORIAL BOARD Seoul, South Korea Gerard M. Doherty, MD, Dai H. Chung, MD, Juan I. Arcelus, MD, PhD, Boston, Massachusetts Nashville, Tennessee Granada, Spain Cheng-Har Yip, MBBS, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Surgical Innovation Editor Quan-Yang Duh, MD, Kevin C. P. Conlon, MA, MCh, MBA, Justin B. Dimick, MD, MPH, San Francisco, California Dublin, Ireland FORMER EDITORS Ann Arbor, Michigan James W. Fleshman Jr, MD, Marco Del Chiaro, MD, PhD, Dean Lewis, MD, 1920-1940 Web and Social Media Editor Dallas, Texas Stockholm, Sweden Waltman Walters, MD, 1941-1942; 1946-1961 Amalia L. Cochran, MD, Yuman Fong, MD, Liane S. Feldman, MD, CM, Salt Lake City, Utah Lester Dragstedt, MD, 1943-1945 Duarte, California Montreal, Quebec, Canada Clinical Challenge and CME Editor J. Garrett Allen, MD, 1962-1969 Elliott R. Haut, MD, PhD, Alberto R. Ferreres, MD, PhD, JD, MPH, Pamela A. Lipsett, MD, MHPE, Baltimore, Maryland Buenos Aires, Argentina Richard Warren, MD, 1970-1976 Baltimore, Maryland Jonathan R. Hiatt, MD, Andrew G. Hill, MBChB, MD, EdD, Arthur Baue, MD, 1977-1988 Statistical Editors Los Angeles, California Auckland, New Zealand Claude H. Organ Jr, MD, 1989-2004 Terry Hyslop, PhD, O. Joe Hines, MD, Simon Y. K. Law, MBBChir, MS, Durham, North Carolina Los Angeles, California Hong Kong Julie Ann Freischlag, MD, 2005-2014 Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Kamal M. F. Itani, MD, Dimitrios A. Linos, MD, PhD, Torrance, California West Roxbury, Massachusetts Marousi, Greece Todd A. Schwartz, DrPH, MS Eric K. Nakakura, MD, PhD, Olle Ljungqvist, MD, PhD, Chapel Hill, North Carolina San Francisco, California Örebro, Sweden PUBLICATION STAFF Managers and Staff Fanny L. Brown, PERIODICAL PUBLISHING STAFF Managers Rick Bell, Fergus Clare, Lenette Gardner-Gullens, Erin Kato, Lindsay Dawson, Will English IV, Ellen Gibson, Executive Editor Senior Vice President and Publisher, Peter K. Kim, Rachell Lozano, Mustafa Ishaq, Craig McCaff rey, Phil B. Fontanarosa, MD, MBA Periodical Publications Caroline Sietmann, Angelia Waltower, Michael McGraw, Daniel Pickhardt, Executive Managing Editor Thomas J. Easley Elizabeth Zak Romando Rossini, Stacy Tucker Annette Flanagin Vice President, Business Analyst Sirisha Alluri Managing Editor Publishing Business Operations Scientifi c Online Resources Staff Millette Jackson-Bates Brenda Gregoline Brian Shields Deputy Editor and Director Deputy Managing Editor Vice President, Michael Berkwits, MD Business Operations Tracy Frey Publishing Production Operations Digital Media Production Directors Karl Elvin, Nancy Essex, Jaye Mize, Manuscript Editors Karen Adams-Taylor Eric Butkus, Michelle Kurzynski (managers); Sean O’Donnell, Sue Sherrill Kevin Brown, Amanda Ehrhardt, Iris Y. Lo, Vice President, Digital Product Emily Ling, Jesse McQuarters, Daniel Morrow Managers David Antos, Chris Borden, Michaela Mark, M. Sophia Newman, Management and Development (producers) Debbie Camp, Lydia Cruz, Scott Curl, Suzanne Walker Paul Gee Social Media Diane Darnell, Jordynn Farrar, Tiff any Jones, Freelance Manuscript Editing Manager Staff Monica Smith Daniella Peting (manager); Reuben Rios Colleen Kelly, Chris Meyer, Annemarie Neff , Connie L. Manno (coordinator) J.D. Neff , Sean Ohlson, Phil O’Leary, Advertising Print & Online Freelance Manuscript Editing Coordinators Electronic Media Systems and Services Bill Pedone, Susan Price, Binita Shah, Sales & Marketing Sara M. Billings, Timothy Gray, Paul Ruich Carrie Butt (supervisor); Mary Lynn Ferkaluk Erin Spencer, Denise Steinhauser, Director Jeff ery J. Bonistalli Freelance Copy Editors and Copyreaders (assistant) Joe Wixted Manager Kathy Russell Catherine A. Alden, Stephanie Lang Advertising and Production Services Staff Mirna Monal Editorial Graphics Beckmeyer, Jan Clavey, Ahmed Avendano, Kim Boler, Sales Representative Stacey McHugh Deputy Editor and Director Mary Coerver-Connolly, Paula Glitman, Rhonda Bailey Brown, Fin Carter, Director, Marketing Mark Thornbury Ronna Henry, MD Laura King, Joseph Clayton Mills, Michael Deegan, Daniel DeGroot, Staff Tricia Castellano Staff Karen Bucher, Andy Rekito, Nick Reback, Brandy Y. Patton, Donna J. Thordsen Euwanaha Joiner-Smith, Joshua Lane, Editorial Assistant Wanda Hill David Song Classifi ed Advertising Cindy Rendlen, Ellen Yoshihara Manager Thalia Moss Circulation Services Julie Burton, Mary Sieck, Editorial Operations & Systems Clinical Review & Education Staff Tiff ani Stevenson Sarah Subramanian, Geneine Van Someren Deputy Editor Edward H. Livingston, MD Directors Larry Bryant, Composition and New Media Gail Barrett, CME Editor Thomas B. Cole, MD, MPH Monica Mungle, Elaine Williams Reprint Communications Regina Brownlee, Amanda Camino, Manager Susan Lovenberg Budgets and Administration Brenda Chandler-Grayer, Emily Dunn, Director Marla A. Hall Amy Evers, Maleeka Holden, Teri Hutchison, Circulation Print & Online Staff Deanna Willis, Yolanda Davis Mary Ann Kuranda, Joshua Lampinen, Sales & Marketing Editorial Counsel Nathan Mitre, Patricia E. Panek, Director, Worldwide Sales Vida Damijonaitis Joseph P. Thornton, JD Managers Saskia Bolore, Gretchen Linder, La’son Diggs Sledge, Brian McCartney Graphics Joe Amft, Maria Duda, Fred Furtner, Media Relations Sales Representatives Christine Hearne, Carolyn Hall, Maria Kowalkowski Manager Deanna Bellandi Proofreading Carol Joy Farrell, Daniel James, Natasha Nekola Staff Jim Michalski Judith A. Literskis, Teresa H. Omiotek, Staff David Baum, Ron Thomas Michael Ryder Marketing and Product Development Director Elizabeth Solaro Associate Publisher/Senior Product Development Geoff rey Flick The JAMA Network is a consortium of peer-reviewed print and online medical publications that AMA EXECUTIVES includes JAMA®, JAMA Surgery, and other specialty journals. JAMA Surgery does not hold itself Executive Vice President, responsible for statements made by any contributor. All articles published, including opinion articles, Chief Executive Offi cer represent the views of authors and do not refl ect the policy of the Journal, the American Medical James L. Madara, MD Association, or the institution with which the author is affi liated, unless otherwise indicated. Chief Operating Offi cer © 2018 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited. Bernard L. Hengesbaugh 102 JAMA Surgery February 2018 Volume 153, Number 2 jamasurgery.com Copyright 2018 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Copyright 2018 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Journal

JAMA SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 2018

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