Simple Microwire and Microcatheter Mechanical Thrombolysis with Adjuvant Intraarterial Urokinase for Treatment of Hyperacute Ischemic Stroke Patients
AbstractBackground: Mechanical thrombolysis may effectively enhance the efficacy of thrombolysis for hyperacute ischemic stroke patients. Purpose: To assess the feasibility and results of simple mechanical-based thrombolysis using microwire and microcatheter with adjuvant low-dose intraarterial (i.a.) urokinase (UK) for the treatment of hyperacute ischemic stroke. Material and Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with hyperacute proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions treated by a standardized protocol using microwire and microcatheter for mechanical thrombus disruption with adjuvant i.a. UK were reviewed. Simple to-and-fro passages through the clot with the microwire and microcatheter followed by disruptions by a J- or pigtail-shaped wire tip with alternating small-dose injections of UK distal, within, and proximal to the clot were performed. The recanalization rates, post-thrombolysis hemorrhage, and clinical outcome (baseline and discharge National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), mortality, 3-month modified Rankin scale (mRS)) were evaluated. Results: Recanalization was achieved in 18 of 19 patients (94.7%). The mean UK dose was 375,789 IU (range 130,000–580,000 IU). Two patients (10.5%) developed symptomatic hemorrhage. One of the hemorrhages included a patient who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage. Mortality rate was 15.8% ( n = 3). The median baseline NIHSS scores showed improvement from 17 to 10 at presentation and discharge, respectively. At three months, good outcome was noted in 11 of 19 patients (57.9%, mRS 0–2). Conclusion: Simple mechanical-based thrombolysis using microwire and microcatheter with adjuvant low-dose i.a. UK is safe and effective in achieving recanalization with good long-term outcome.