Beyond Socioeconomics: Explaining Ethnic Group Differences in Parenting Through Cultural and Immigration Processes - Applied Developmental Science
AbstractThis study examined both socioeconomic and cultural factors in explaining ethnic differences in monitoring, behavioral control, and warmth—part of a series of coordinated studies presented in this special issue. Socioeconomic variables included mother's and father's educational levels, employment status, home ownership, number of siblings in the household, and single parent status. Cultural factors included nationality or ethnicity, immigrant status of child, mother's/father's age of arrival in the United States, mother's/father's English language use with the child, child's native fluency, and cultural values for independence and interdependence. The sample consisted of 591 European American, 123 African American, 1,614 Asian American, and 597 Latino students in the ninth grade. All the ethnic minority groups were higher than European Americans on behavioral control, and Latinos were also higher than European Americans on monitoring. However, European Americans were higher on parental warmth than Asian Americans and African Americans. These ethnic group differences primarily remained even after controlling for the socioeconomic factors. Finally, in analyses looking within the Asian and Latino groups, differences in parenting were found within both groups due to nationality or ethnicity, youth's fluency in the native language, and cultural values of interdependence, although values of independence were also related to the parenting of Asian Americans.