Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Tidal Dwarf Galaxies and Missing Baryons

Tidal Dwarf Galaxies and Missing Baryons Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Astronomy Volume 2010, Article ID 735284, 7 pages doi:10.1155/2010/735284 Review Article Frederic Bournaud CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAP, F 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex, France Correspondence should be addressed to Frederic Bournaud, frederic.bournaud@cea.fr Received 23 June 2009; Accepted 4 August 2009 Academic Editor: Elias Brinks Copyright © 2010 Frederic Bournaud. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Tidal dwarf galaxies form during the interaction, collision, or merger of massive spiral galaxies. They can resemble “normal” dwarf galaxies in terms of mass, size, and become dwarf satellites orbiting around their massive progenitor. They nevertheless keep some signatures from their origin, making them interesting targets for cosmological studies. In particular, they should be free from dark matter from a spheroidal halo. Flat rotation curves and high dynamical masses may then indicate the presence of an unseen component, and constrain the properties of the “missing baryons,” known to exist but not directly observed. The number of dwarf galaxies in the Universe is another cosmological problem for which it is important to ascertain if tidal dwarf galaxies formed frequently at high redshift, when the merger rate was high, and many of them survived until today. In this paper, “dark matter” is used to refer to the nonbaryonic matter, mostly located in large dark halos, that is, CDM in the standard paradigm, and “missing baryons” or “dark baryons” is used to refer to the baryons known to exist but hardly observed at redshift zero, and are a baryonic dark component that is additional to “dark matter”. 1. Introduction: The Formation of under the effect of tidal forces exerted by the other interacting galaxy, as the name suggests, but in fact for a large part Tidal Dwarf Galaxies by gravitational torques as the name does not suggest. The Tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) is, per definition, a massive, perturbing galaxy exerts nonradial forces in the disturbed gravitationally bound object of gas and stars, formed during disk, so that some gas loses angular momentum, flows a merger or distant tidal interaction between massive spiral toward the center where it can fuel a starburst [7], and some galaxies, and is as massive as a dwarf galaxy [1](Figure 1). other gas gains angular momentum and flies away in long It should also be relatively long-lived, so that it survives after tidal tails. the interaction, either orbiting around its massive progenitor At least two mechanisms can lead to the formation of or expelled to large distances. This requires a lifetime of at massive substructures in tidal tails (Figures 1 and 2). First, least 1 gigayear, and a transient structure during a galaxy gravitational instabilities can develop, as in any gas-rich interaction would not deserve to be considered as a real TDG. medium. Having the material expelled from the disk eases The formation of TDGs in mergers has been postulated for gravitational collapse, as the stabilizing effect of rotation in decades [2], including potential candidates in the Antennae the parent disk disappears, or weakens. The process is then galaxies (NGC4038/39) [3], and became an increasingly a standard Jeans instability: when a region collects enough active research topic after the study of these tidal dwarf gas to overcome internal pressure support, it collapses into a candidates by Mirabel et al. [4]. self-bound object. The same process is believed to drive the Tidal tails are a common feature in galaxy interactions. formation of molecular clouds in spiral galaxy. The difference There are also some tidal bridges and collisional rings that is that the interaction stirs and heats the gas, and increases come about from the same processes and have similar its velocity dispersion [8]. As a result, the typical Jeans mass properties, even though some details differ. The tidal tails are is high, enabling relatively massive objects to form. These those long filaments seen around many interacting galaxies. star-forming gas clumps form at the Jeans mass, with a They are made up of material expelled from the disk of regular spacing, the Jeans wavelength, all along the long a parent spiral galaxy [6]. This material is expelled partly tidal tails. They resemble “beads on a string” [9]. Numerical 2 Advances in Astronomy (a) (b) Figure 1: NGC7252 (a) is a recent merger of two spiral galaxies into a partially-relaxed central spheroidal galaxy. Two massive TDGs are found near the tip of the two long tidal tails (blue = HI, pink = Hα – image courtesy of Pierre-Alain Duc). AM 1353-272 (b) does not have prominent, massive TDGs at the tip of tidal tails, but has instead may lower-mass objects all along its tail [5]. The bright spot on the northern tail is a foreground star. simulations model their formation accurately, provided that T = 0 T = 300 the resolution is high (to revolve the instability length) and gas content is accounted for with some hydrodynamic model [10]. This mechanism can result in relatively numerous TDGs, maybe ten per major merger, but these are not very massive, at most a few 10 M . The same process can form a large number of less massive structures, which are super star clusters rather than dwarf galaxies, potentially evolving into globular clusters. 50 kpc Some tidal dwarfs are much more massive, a few 10 or 10 solar masses, and typically form as single objects at T = 1000 the tip of tidal tails [12]. They cannot form just by local instabilities in a tidal tail. These massive TDGs result from the displacement of a large region of the outer disk of the progenitor spiral galaxy into the outer regions of the tidal tail, where material piles up and remains or becomes self- bound [13, 14]. As the interaction stirs the gas, the increased turbulence will provide the required pressure support to avoid fragmentation into many lower-mass objects. The shape of cold dark matter haloes, which are much more extended than the visible part of galaxies, making this process Figure 2: Simulation of the formation of long-lived TDGs, from more efficient [15]. The pile-up of material in massive TDGs theBournaud&Ducsample[11]. The two colliding spiral galaxies often occurs at the tip of tidal tails, and can also occur in are initially seen face-on. Yellow-red to blue colors code old stars different situations like gas captured and swung around the versus young stars; time is in megayear. Massive TDGs form at the companion [9, 16] or gas bridges linking two interacting tip of the tails, and some lower-mass ones also form in particular in galaxies [17, 18]. the Northern tail. A multi-grid technique increases the resolution on the most massive TDG to 10 parsec. It is resolved with a small A few tidal dwarfs of moderate mass, from the first internal spiral structure, and survives several gigayears around a mechanism, are found frequently in observed interacting massive redellipticalgalaxy. galaxies. Massive TDGs in the very outer regions are more rare,atmost2–3 permerger, butsomemergers do nothave any at all. Observations suggest that the presence of one type of TDG reduces the number of TDGs of the other type [19]. This is likely because the formation of a massive, tip-of-tail Sections 2 and 3 will review the internal mass content TDG collects a large fraction of the gas, and less remains of TDGs and how this can constrain the nature of missing available for the formation of numerous low-mass TDGs baryons. Different constraints, arising from statistics on TDG along the tail, by the first mechanism [19]. formation and survival, will be discussed in Section 4. Advances in Astronomy 3 Dark matter forms a spheroidal halo around galaxies, in both the standard Cold Dark Matter theories [20] and in other models (e.g., Warm Dark Matter [21]). All simulations show that this dark matter cannot participate in the formation of TDGs [10, 11, 14]. Once a TDG has formed, its escape velocity is low, at most a few tens of km −1 s for the biggest ones. The TDG will be embedded in the large halo of the parent spiral galaxy (since halos are much more extended than stellar and gaseous disks), so some dark matter particles will cross the TDG, but without being held by the gravitational well of the TDG. Indeed, the randomly- oriented velocities of dark matter particles in the halo of a −1 spiral galaxy like the Milky Way are around 200 km s ,so (a) the vast majority of these particles escape the tidal dwarf. At any instant, some dark matter particles from the halo will incidentally be at the position of the TDG, but this makes up only a negligible fraction of the mass of any TDG, at most a few percent. TDGs should then be free of dark matter. This means that the dynamical mass measured from their rotation velocity and size, should not exceed their visible mass in stars and gas—in contrast with “normal” dwarf galaxies and spiral galaxies. Finding a dynamical mass in significant excess would mean that TDGs contain an unseen component. This could be dark matter only if (part of the) dark matter is in a rotating disk component in their progenitor spiral galaxies, just like stars and gas. Otherwise, this would require an 0 123 45 unseen baryonic component in spiral galaxies, not just in Radius (kpc) the form of a hot gas halo—this one does not participate in Observed the formation of TDGs—but in the form of very cold gas Allowed by visible mass in the rotating disk. If not caused by some sort of matter, the dynamical mass excess could be attributed to Modified (b) Gravity, which is a theoretical alternative to dark matter in all Figure 3: The collisional ring of NGC5291 and its tidal dwarfs types of galaxies. These various possibilities will be discussed (same as Figure 1) and the rotation curve of one of the TDGs [22]. in the following section, in the context of observations of The observed rotation velocity is too high, and the rotation curve NGC5291. too flat at large radius, to be accounted for by the visible mass distribution alone. Typical 1-sigma error bars are indicated. The rotation curve was measured from HI data and the visible mass estimated from stellar SEDs, HI, and CO data. 3. The Dynamical Mass of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies 3.1. The Collisional Ring NGC5291. The collisional ring in NGC5291 was formed by a particular head-on collision, which formed a ring instead of the usual tails. Nevertheless, it 2. Why Should Tidal Dwarf Galaxies Be Free of formed Tidal Dwarfs just like more typical mergers with tails. Dark Matter? The high metallicity of the dwarfs in this ring, and the young A common property of all TDGs is that they are formed by a age of their stars, confirmed that they are formed recently local instability, or by the gathering of a large portion of the from tidal material. They are also too numerous to simply be progenitor spiral galaxy at the tip of a tidal tail, is that they “normal” dwarf galaxies that randomly happen to lie in the are made-up only from material that comes from the disk collisional ring (Figure 3). of the parent spiral galaxy. Indeed, only the material initially The three largest TDGs in this system are spatially in rotating disks, with velocity dispersions much lower than resolved in spectroscopic observations of their ionized Hα the rotation velocity, is strongly affected by tidal forces and gas [12] and their neutral atomic (HI) gas [22]. The molec- gravity torques and forms tidal tails—and subsequently tidal ular gas observations by Braine et al. [23] did not require a dwarfs. Spheroids dominated by random velocity dispersions dynamical mass larger than the visible mass. However new instead of rotation will barely develop a weak egg-shaped observations of the atomic gas [22] resolve internal velocity distortion during the interaction, but no long and dense gradients in the TDGs, tracing their rotation up to their tidal tail; this applies to the bulge of a spiral galaxy, a whole outermost regions. This confirms they are rotating, self- elliptical galaxy, and also to the dark matter halo of any gravitating, decoupled from the large and diffuse HI ring in galaxy. which they formed, and enables the dynamical mass to be Velocity (km/s) 4 Advances in Astronomy measured from the rotation velocity and radius. This is what Bournaud et al. [22] did, and they found that the mass of these TDGs is in significant excess compared to their visible mass in stars, molecular gas, and atomic gas. The excess is just a factor of 2 or 3, not a factor 10 like in classical dwarf galaxies (Figure 3). This confirms the expected lack of dark matter in TDGs. Still, there should be an unseen component there, amounting to the mass of the visible one or even a bit more. Furthermore, rotation curves are surprisingly flat: the rotation velocity remains high far from the center of these three TDGs, while equilibrium with the visible mass can be achieved only if the velocity decreases in the outskirts. This adds evidence for the presence of some sort of unseen mass, mostly in the outer regions of these tidal dwarfs. This observation remains compatible with most dark Figure 4: The Southern tail of the Antennae contains several star- matter being in a large halo around spiral galaxies, but means forming clumps in a larger HI condensation. This, together with that there was another dark component in the spiral galaxies the almost face-on orientation of the system, makes it difficult to estimate a dynamical mass from the HI velocity curve. A from which the material now belonging to NGC5291’s recently revised distance estimate [34] may nevertheless indicate a dwarfs was expelled. dynamical mass higher than previously believed in the HI cloud. (Figure courtesy of Pierre-Alain Duc.) Unseen Molecular Gas. The “visible” mass of the TDGs in NGC5291 is for a large part atomic gas (HI), and also molecular gas. Most of the molecular gas mass is made-up of H , which cannot be directly observed. The molecular 2 galaxies, there would be a part that is actually in a thick dark mass is traced by the emission of the CO molecule, using a disk around the stellar disk. This could be brought in by standard “CO-to-H ” conversion factor, which is somewhat 2 small satellites that merge with the disk, and simulations by uncertain. If the unseen mass in these TDGs is molecular gas, Read et al. [32] suggest such “dark disks” can be relatively this would imply that the conversion factor changes much massive (see also Purcell et al. [33]). In the CDM theory, more than expected—by a factor 10, while the TDGs have a this dark disk may naturally come in addition to the more nearly-solar metallicity so no change by more than a factor of massive spheroidal halo. Then, if the velocity dispersion of 2 or 3 was anticipated. A classical phase of molecular gas not dark matter particles in this component is not too high, it well traced by CO would have other effects, like destabilizing could participate to the formation of TDGs just like the rest the disk and triggering very active star formation, which of the disk material (B. G. Elmegreen, priv. comm.). This is not observed [24]. More likely, the unseen component hypothesis remains to be directly tested in simulations. It is would be a nonstandard phase of molecular gas, very cold, in particular unclear how much of this disk dark matter will and gathered in low-mass, dense, but nonstar-forming H 2 be dispersed during the merger, and how much will end-up blobs ([25, 26], and Review by Pfenniger et al. [27]). Finding in TDGs, potentially giving them a dark matter component it in TDGs would imply it was also present in the disk of massive enough to explain their observed rotation curves. the progenitor spiral galaxy, at least in its outer regions. This can be compatible with observations of the Milky Way 3.2. Other Potential Cases. Error bars on NGC5291’s data [25, 26, 28] and the general dynamics of spiral galaxies [29], are such that the result is significant at ∼2.5 sigma when at least if one assumes this “dark molecular gas” comes in one takes into account that 3 TDGs have been observed addition to a nonbaryonic dark matter halo, not instead of it. there. There are nevertheless errors that would affect the three observed TDGs in the same way, like the distance of Modified Gravity. Another possible explanation to the large the system, or its inclination. So the three “detections” are rotation velocities in NGC5291’s TDGs is Modified Gravity largely independent, but not completely. Can the result be (MOND). As it should affect any galaxy regardless of its confirmed in other systems? origin (tidal or else), a high dynamical-to-visible mass ratio The most famous pair of colliding galaxies, the Antennae is naturally expected for TDGs in this context. While TDGs (NGC4038/39, Figure 4), has some tidal dwarf galaxies. It has do not seem to have a dynamical-to-visible mass ratio as high long been thought that their dynamical and visible masses as classical dwarfs, Gentile et al. [30]and Milgrom[31]have were similar. The original distance estimate to these galaxies shown that the MOND theory can successfully account for could however be overestimated [34], which would make the their rotation curves. dynamical mass two or three times higher than the visible mass, just as in NGC5291. The revision of the distance to A Disk of Cold Dark Matter. There could finally be another the Antennae however remains largely uncertain [35]. There explanation that does not require a modification of the are other sources of uncertainty: first, TDGs in the Antennae gravity, and not even any additional mass component. While are very young, still forming, maybe not at equilibrium. dark matter is mostly in a spheroidal halo around spiral Rotation velocities may not trace the mass accurately—TDGs Advances in Astronomy 5 in NGC5291 were older, making the analysis more robust. genitor galaxy or being disrupted by its tidal field. For most Also, there is one blob of HI gas comprising three star of today’s dwarf satellites to be TDGs from past mergers, forming regions. It is thus quite unclear if the HI velocities one would need to form ∼10 TDGs per major merger, each trace the total mass of these three objects, or the individual surviving a Hubble Time [37]. Hence, simulations suggest mass of each one—another problem that did not affect that only a modest fraction of modern dwarf satellite galaxies NGC5291, where each TDG corresponds to a single, resolved are of tidal origin—but not a completely negligible fraction: HI cloud. Another attempt in an old TDG in the Virgo overall several percent. This fraction could be higher around Cluster [36] resulted again in a likely excess of dynamical red early-type galaxies that experienced more mergers than mass, compared to the visible mass, but with large error bars. spiral galaxies: this is because TDGs are expected to form Robust confirmations of an “unseen mass” in TDGs mostly in mergers of spiral galaxies, and after the merger remain needed. They can be obtained, if relatively old TDGs these progenitor galaxies generally become red early-type are observed at high resolution and with a high signal-to- galaxies [38]. noise ratio, for instance, with modern interferometers. This Lower mass TDGs that form with ∼10 solar masses of would definitely tell whether or not TDGs contain an unseen baryons can be more numerous in each galaxy merger. They component, which has important implications, whatever the are more difficult to study in numerical simulations, as they outcome, for the mass content of typical spiral galaxies. require high spatial and mass resolution. Nevertheless, they can survive their initial starburst—but lose a large fraction of their mass [39]. They can also survive against the tidal field during more than a gigayear after their formation [40]. 4. Could (Some) Dwarf Satellite Galaxies Be of Simulations have never followed these low-mass objects for a Tidal Origin? long time; it seems plausible that some could form at high We show in the above section that the internal properties of redshift and survive down to redshift zero, but probably TDGs (their visible mass compared to their rotation speed) as low mass remnants, potentially hard to detect at all, or may be related to the nature of some “missing” baryonic evolving into compact, globular star clusters rather than dwarf galaxies [40]. component. Tidal Dwarf Galaxies have another, completely different implication for the baryonic content of the universe, While it then seems unlikely that the majority of today’s which does not relate to their own internal properties, but to dwarf galaxies are of tidal origin, they can have a significant contribution. There are known examples of TDGs forming the number of dwarf galaxies formed by a tidal mechanism, compared to the total number of dwarf galaxies of any origin at high redshift [41]and maybesomehavesurviveddown in the Universe. to redshift zero. Known examples of dwarf galaxies with TDGs may indeed contribute to the total population of unusual colors or metallicity could be long-lived tidal dwarfs dwarf galaxies, in particular, dwarf satellites around massive [36, 42]. The quest for robust and numerous cases of old tidal galaxies—for instance, some of the dwarf satellites of the dwarfs remains open, however. Milky Way might, in principle, be tidal debris from collisions that occurred long ago. This would of course change the 5. Summary expected number of dwarf galaxies and the low-mass end of the mass function of galaxies—maybe not in the right The formation of tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) is frequently direction if the predicted number of dwarf galaxies is already observed in galaxy mergers, and has been extensively studied too high. with the help of numerical simulations. While the long-term The key point is the survival of tidal dwarf galaxies. evolution and potential survival of these objects remains They must survive around, typically, one billion year for the largely debated, their formation mechanisms are now well merger in which they formed to be relaxed, so that they understood. can appear as “normal” dwarf satellite galaxies around a A clear prediction from all models is that TDGs cannot contain a significant mass fraction from the dark matter “normal” galaxy (not an ongoing merger). They must survive 5 or 10 gigayears for mergers at high redshift to produce halo of their progenitor spiral galaxy. Observations suggest dwarf satellites at redshift zero. Is it frequently the case? in several cases that the total, dynamical mass of TDGs Several factors can destroy TDGs: “internal” processes like exceeds their visible mass in gas and stars, which would the initial starbursts when gas-dominated TDGs begin to indicate that they do contain some unseen component. This form stars and supernovae potentially eject their gas, and result, well established only for NGC5291, still needs a robust “external” processes, like a disruptive tidal field exerted by confirmation in other cases. An unseen component in TDGs the very same galaxy that had formed the TDGs during an could potentially constrain the presence of “missing baryons” interaction. in a cold gas phase. Large samples with tens of simulations [11] are useful to Another cosmological implication of TDGs relates to tackle this question. The most massive tidal dwarf galaxies, their long-term survival, and how they can affect the mass 8-9 that are large, massive (10 ) solar masses), rotating, formed function of dwarf galaxies. This question is still largely preferentially at the tip of tidal tails do not come in large unsolved, but there is significant hope that modern numer- numbers. Rarely more than 2 or 3 form in a major merger, ical models that can resolve the internal physics of TDGs sometimes none at all. Roughly half of them are destroyed in simulations of major mergers could lead to significant within a couple of billions years, falling back onto their pro- progress in the following years. 6 Advances in Astronomy Acknowledgments [15] F. Bournaud, P.-A. Duc, and F. Masset, “The large extent of dark matter haloes probed by the formation of tidal dwarf The author acknowledges the editors of the “Dwarf Galaxies galaxies,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 411, no. 2, pp. L469– and Cosmology” special volume for inviting him to write L472, 2003. this tutorial review. Useful comments on an earlier version [16] F. Bournaud and F. Combes, “Formation of polar ring galaxies,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 401, no. 3, pp. 817– by Elias Brinks, Pierre-Alain Duc, Jonathan Braine, and two 833, 2003. referees are appreciated, as well as discussions with Bruce [17] B. Koribalski and J. M. Dickey, “Neutral hydrogen gas Elmegreen, Moti Milgrom, and Daniel Pfenniger on the in interacting galaxies: the NGC 6221/6215 galaxy group,” origin of the mass discrepancy in tidal dwarf galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 348, no. 4, pp. 1255–1274, 2004. References [18] M. Hancock, B. J. Smith, C. Struck, M. L. Giroux, and S. Hurlock, “Candidate tidal dwarf galaxies in arp 305: lessons [1] P.-A. Duc, E. Brinks, V. Springel, B. Pichardo, P. Weilbacher, on dwarf detachment and globular cluster formation,” The and I. F. Mirabel, “Formation of a tidal dwarf galaxy in the Astrophysical Journal, vol. 137, pp. 4643–4654, 2009. interacting system ARP 245 (NGC 2992/93),” The Astronomi- [19] K. A. Knierman, S. C. Gallagher, J. C. Charlton, et al., “From cal Journal, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 1238–1264, 2000. globular clusters to tidal dwarfs: structure formation in the [2] F. Zwicky, “Multiple galaxies,” in Ergebnisse der Exakten tidal tails of merging galaxies,” The Astronomical Journal, vol. Naturwissenschaften, vol. 29, pp. 344–385, 1956. 126, pp. 1227–1244, 2003. [3] F. Schweizer, “Galaxies with long tails,” in Structure and [20] J. F. Navarro, C. S. Frenk, and S. D. M. White, “The structure Properties of Nearby Galaxies, E. M. Berkhuijsen and R. of cold dark matter halos,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 462, Wielebinski, Eds., vol. 77 of IAU Symposium Series, pp. 279– no. 2, pp. 563–575, 1996. 284, 1978. [21] J. S. Bullock, A. V. Kravtsov, and P. Col´ ın, “Angular momen- [4] I.F.Mirabel,H.Dottori,and D. Lutz,“Genesisofadwarf tum profiles of warm dark matter halos,” The Astrophysical galaxy from the debris of the antennae,” Astronomy & Journal, vol. 564, pp. L1–L4, 2002. Astrophysics, vol. 256, pp. L19–L22, 1992. [22] F. Bournaud, P.-A. Duc, E. Brinks, et al., “Missing mass in [5] P. M. Weilbacher, U. Fritze-v. Alvensleben, P.-A. Duc, and K. collisional debris from galaxies,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5828, J. Fricke, “Large velocity gradients in the tidal tails of the pp. 1166–1169, 2007. interacting galaxy AM 1353-272 (“the dentist’s chair”),” The [23] J. Braine, P.-A. Duc, U. Lisenfeld, et al., “Abundant molecular Astrophysical Journal, vol. 579, pp. L79–L82, 2002. gas in tidal dwarf galaxies: on-going galaxy formation,” [6] A. Toomre, “Mergers and some consequences,” in Evolution Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 378, no. 1, pp. 51–69, 2001. of Galaxies and Stellar Populations, B. M. Tinsley and R. B. [24] M. Boquien, P.-A. Duc, J. Braine, E. Brinks, U. Lisenfeld, and Larson, Eds., vol. 197, p. 401, Yale University Observatory, V. Charmandaris, “Polychromatic view of intergalactic star New Haven, Conn, USA, 1977. formation in NGC 5291,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 467, [7] P. di Matteo, F. Bournaud, M. Martig, F. Combes, A.-L. no. 1, pp. 93–106, 2007. Melchior, and B. Semelin, “On the frequency, intensity, and [25] D. Pfenniger, F. Combes, and L. Martinet, “Is dark matter duration of starburst episodes triggered by galaxy interactions in spiral galaxies cold gas? I. Observational constraints and mergers,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 492, no. 1, pp. and dynamical clues about galaxy evolution,” Astronomy & 31–49, 2008. Astrophysics, vol. 285, pp. 79–93, 1994. [8] C. Struck, M. Kaufman, E. Brinks, M. Thomasson, B. G. [26] D. Pfenniger and F. Combes, “Is dark matter in spiral Elmegreen, and D. M. Elmegreen, “The grazing encounter galaxies cold gas? II. Fractal models and star non-formation,” between IC 2163 and NGC 2207: pushing the limits of obser- Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 285, pp. 94–118, 1994. vational modelling,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical [27] D. Pfenniger, S. D. Ryder, D. J. Pisano, M. A. Walker, and K. C. Society, vol. 364, no. 1, pp. 69–90, 2005. Freeman, Eds., vol. 220 of IAU Symposium Series, p. 241, 2004. [9] B.J.Smith,C.Struck, M. Hancock, et al., “Stochastic“beads [28] P. M. W. Kalberla, L. Dedes, J. Kerp, and U. Haud, “Dark on a string” in the accretion tail of ARP 285,” The Astronomical matter in the Milky Way II. The HI gas distribution as a tracer Journal, vol. 135, no. 6, pp. 2406–2423, 2008. of the gravitational potential,” Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. [10] M. Wetzstein, T. Naab, and A. Burkert, “Do dwarf galaxies 469, no. 2, pp. 511–527, 2007. form in tidal tails?” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical [29] Y. Revaz, D. Pfenniger, F. Combes, and F. Bournaud, “Simula- Society, vol. 375, no. 3, pp. 805–820, 2007. tions of galactic disks including a dark baryonic component,” [11] F. Bournaud and P.-A. Duc, “From tidal dwarf galaxies to Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 501, no. 1, pp. 171–187, 2009. satellite galaxies,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 456, no. 2, [30] G. Gentile, B. Famaey, F. Combes, P. Kroupa, H. S. Zhao, pp. 481–492, 2006. and O. Tiret, “Tidal dwarf galaxies as a test of fundamental [12] F. Bournaud, P.-A. Duc, P. Amram, F. Combes, and J.-L. Gach, physics,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 472, no. 2, pp. L25– “Kinematics of tidal tails in interacting galaxies: tidal dwarf L28, 2007. galaxies and projection effects,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 425, no. 3, pp. 813–823, 2004. [31] M. Milgrom, “MOND and the mass discrepancies in tidal dwarf galaxies,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 667, p. L45, [13] B. G. Elmegreen, M. Kaufman, and M. Thomasson, “An interaction model for the formation of dwarf galaxies and 10 exp 8 solar mass clouds in spiral disks,” The Astrophysical [32] J. I. Read, G. Lake, O. Agertz, and V. P. Debattista, “Thin, Journal, vol. 412, no. 1, pp. 90–98, 1993. thick and dark discs in ΛcDM,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 389, no. 3, pp. 1041–1057, 2008. [14] P.-A. Duc, F. Bournaud, and F. Masset, “A top-down scenario for the formation of massive tidal dwarf galaxies,” Astronomy [33] C. W. Purcell, J. S. Bullock, and M. Kaplinghat, “The dark disk & Astrophysics, vol. 427, no. 3, pp. 803–814, 2004. of the milky way,” submitted to The Astrophysical Journal. Advances in Astronomy 7 [34] I. Saviane, Y. Momany,G.S.daCosta,R.M.Rich, andJ.E. Hibbard, “A new red giant-based distance modulus of 13.3 Mpc to the antennae galaxies and its consequences,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 678, no. 1, pp. 179–186, 2008. [35] F. Schweizer, C. R. Burns, B. F. Madore, et al., “A new distance to the antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/39) based on the type ia supernova 2007,” The Astronomical Journal, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 1482–1489, 2008. [36] P.-A. Duc, J. Braine, T. J. Lisenfeld, E. Brinks, and M. Boquien, “VCC 2062: an old tidal dwarf galaxy in the Virgo cluster?” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 475, no. 1, pp. 187–197, 2007. [37] T. Okazaki and Y. Taniguchi, “Dwarf galaxy formation induced by galaxy interactions,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 543, no. 1, pp. 149–152, 2000. [38] M. Martig, F. Bournaud, R. Teyssier, and A. Dekel, “Mor- phological quenching of star formation: making early-type galaxies red,” submitted to The Astrophysical Journal. [39] S. Recchi, C. Theis, P. Kroupa, and G. Hensler, “The early evolution of tidal dwarf galaxies,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 470, no. 1, pp. L5–L8, 2007. [40] F. Bournaud, P.-A. Duc, and E. Emsellem, “High-resolution simulations of galaxy mergers: resolving globular cluster formation,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 389, no. 1, pp. L8–L12, 2008. [41] D. M. Elmegreen, B. G. Elmegreen, T. Ferguson, and B. Mullan, “Smooth and starburst tidal tails in the GEMS and GOODS fields,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 663, pp. 734– 751, 2007. [42] L. Michel-Dansac, D. G. Lambas, M. S. Alonso, and P. Tis- sera, “The mass—metallicity relation of interacting galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 386, no. 1, pp. L82–L86, 2008. The Scientific Journal of Journal of Journal of Advances in Gravity Photonics World Journal Soft Matter Condensed Matter Physics Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Aerodynamics Journal of Fluids Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com International Journal of International Journal of Statistical Mechanics Optics Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Thermodynamics Journal of  Computational  Advances in Physics Advances in  Methods in Physics High Energy Physics Research International Astronomy Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Journal of Journal of International Journal of Journal of Atomic and Solid State Physics Astrophysics Superconductivity Molecular Physics Biophysics Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Advances in Astronomy Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Tidal Dwarf Galaxies and Missing Baryons

Advances in Astronomy , Volume 2010 – Oct 26, 2009

Loading next page...
 
/lp/hindawi-publishing-corporation/tidal-dwarf-galaxies-and-missing-baryons-gHi0tQqviM
Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Copyright
Copyright © 2010 Frederic Bournaud. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ISSN
1687-7969
eISSN
1687-7977
DOI
10.1155/2010/735284
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Astronomy Volume 2010, Article ID 735284, 7 pages doi:10.1155/2010/735284 Review Article Frederic Bournaud CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAP, F 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex, France Correspondence should be addressed to Frederic Bournaud, frederic.bournaud@cea.fr Received 23 June 2009; Accepted 4 August 2009 Academic Editor: Elias Brinks Copyright © 2010 Frederic Bournaud. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Tidal dwarf galaxies form during the interaction, collision, or merger of massive spiral galaxies. They can resemble “normal” dwarf galaxies in terms of mass, size, and become dwarf satellites orbiting around their massive progenitor. They nevertheless keep some signatures from their origin, making them interesting targets for cosmological studies. In particular, they should be free from dark matter from a spheroidal halo. Flat rotation curves and high dynamical masses may then indicate the presence of an unseen component, and constrain the properties of the “missing baryons,” known to exist but not directly observed. The number of dwarf galaxies in the Universe is another cosmological problem for which it is important to ascertain if tidal dwarf galaxies formed frequently at high redshift, when the merger rate was high, and many of them survived until today. In this paper, “dark matter” is used to refer to the nonbaryonic matter, mostly located in large dark halos, that is, CDM in the standard paradigm, and “missing baryons” or “dark baryons” is used to refer to the baryons known to exist but hardly observed at redshift zero, and are a baryonic dark component that is additional to “dark matter”. 1. Introduction: The Formation of under the effect of tidal forces exerted by the other interacting galaxy, as the name suggests, but in fact for a large part Tidal Dwarf Galaxies by gravitational torques as the name does not suggest. The Tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) is, per definition, a massive, perturbing galaxy exerts nonradial forces in the disturbed gravitationally bound object of gas and stars, formed during disk, so that some gas loses angular momentum, flows a merger or distant tidal interaction between massive spiral toward the center where it can fuel a starburst [7], and some galaxies, and is as massive as a dwarf galaxy [1](Figure 1). other gas gains angular momentum and flies away in long It should also be relatively long-lived, so that it survives after tidal tails. the interaction, either orbiting around its massive progenitor At least two mechanisms can lead to the formation of or expelled to large distances. This requires a lifetime of at massive substructures in tidal tails (Figures 1 and 2). First, least 1 gigayear, and a transient structure during a galaxy gravitational instabilities can develop, as in any gas-rich interaction would not deserve to be considered as a real TDG. medium. Having the material expelled from the disk eases The formation of TDGs in mergers has been postulated for gravitational collapse, as the stabilizing effect of rotation in decades [2], including potential candidates in the Antennae the parent disk disappears, or weakens. The process is then galaxies (NGC4038/39) [3], and became an increasingly a standard Jeans instability: when a region collects enough active research topic after the study of these tidal dwarf gas to overcome internal pressure support, it collapses into a candidates by Mirabel et al. [4]. self-bound object. The same process is believed to drive the Tidal tails are a common feature in galaxy interactions. formation of molecular clouds in spiral galaxy. The difference There are also some tidal bridges and collisional rings that is that the interaction stirs and heats the gas, and increases come about from the same processes and have similar its velocity dispersion [8]. As a result, the typical Jeans mass properties, even though some details differ. The tidal tails are is high, enabling relatively massive objects to form. These those long filaments seen around many interacting galaxies. star-forming gas clumps form at the Jeans mass, with a They are made up of material expelled from the disk of regular spacing, the Jeans wavelength, all along the long a parent spiral galaxy [6]. This material is expelled partly tidal tails. They resemble “beads on a string” [9]. Numerical 2 Advances in Astronomy (a) (b) Figure 1: NGC7252 (a) is a recent merger of two spiral galaxies into a partially-relaxed central spheroidal galaxy. Two massive TDGs are found near the tip of the two long tidal tails (blue = HI, pink = Hα – image courtesy of Pierre-Alain Duc). AM 1353-272 (b) does not have prominent, massive TDGs at the tip of tidal tails, but has instead may lower-mass objects all along its tail [5]. The bright spot on the northern tail is a foreground star. simulations model their formation accurately, provided that T = 0 T = 300 the resolution is high (to revolve the instability length) and gas content is accounted for with some hydrodynamic model [10]. This mechanism can result in relatively numerous TDGs, maybe ten per major merger, but these are not very massive, at most a few 10 M . The same process can form a large number of less massive structures, which are super star clusters rather than dwarf galaxies, potentially evolving into globular clusters. 50 kpc Some tidal dwarfs are much more massive, a few 10 or 10 solar masses, and typically form as single objects at T = 1000 the tip of tidal tails [12]. They cannot form just by local instabilities in a tidal tail. These massive TDGs result from the displacement of a large region of the outer disk of the progenitor spiral galaxy into the outer regions of the tidal tail, where material piles up and remains or becomes self- bound [13, 14]. As the interaction stirs the gas, the increased turbulence will provide the required pressure support to avoid fragmentation into many lower-mass objects. The shape of cold dark matter haloes, which are much more extended than the visible part of galaxies, making this process Figure 2: Simulation of the formation of long-lived TDGs, from more efficient [15]. The pile-up of material in massive TDGs theBournaud&Ducsample[11]. The two colliding spiral galaxies often occurs at the tip of tidal tails, and can also occur in are initially seen face-on. Yellow-red to blue colors code old stars different situations like gas captured and swung around the versus young stars; time is in megayear. Massive TDGs form at the companion [9, 16] or gas bridges linking two interacting tip of the tails, and some lower-mass ones also form in particular in galaxies [17, 18]. the Northern tail. A multi-grid technique increases the resolution on the most massive TDG to 10 parsec. It is resolved with a small A few tidal dwarfs of moderate mass, from the first internal spiral structure, and survives several gigayears around a mechanism, are found frequently in observed interacting massive redellipticalgalaxy. galaxies. Massive TDGs in the very outer regions are more rare,atmost2–3 permerger, butsomemergers do nothave any at all. Observations suggest that the presence of one type of TDG reduces the number of TDGs of the other type [19]. This is likely because the formation of a massive, tip-of-tail Sections 2 and 3 will review the internal mass content TDG collects a large fraction of the gas, and less remains of TDGs and how this can constrain the nature of missing available for the formation of numerous low-mass TDGs baryons. Different constraints, arising from statistics on TDG along the tail, by the first mechanism [19]. formation and survival, will be discussed in Section 4. Advances in Astronomy 3 Dark matter forms a spheroidal halo around galaxies, in both the standard Cold Dark Matter theories [20] and in other models (e.g., Warm Dark Matter [21]). All simulations show that this dark matter cannot participate in the formation of TDGs [10, 11, 14]. Once a TDG has formed, its escape velocity is low, at most a few tens of km −1 s for the biggest ones. The TDG will be embedded in the large halo of the parent spiral galaxy (since halos are much more extended than stellar and gaseous disks), so some dark matter particles will cross the TDG, but without being held by the gravitational well of the TDG. Indeed, the randomly- oriented velocities of dark matter particles in the halo of a −1 spiral galaxy like the Milky Way are around 200 km s ,so (a) the vast majority of these particles escape the tidal dwarf. At any instant, some dark matter particles from the halo will incidentally be at the position of the TDG, but this makes up only a negligible fraction of the mass of any TDG, at most a few percent. TDGs should then be free of dark matter. This means that the dynamical mass measured from their rotation velocity and size, should not exceed their visible mass in stars and gas—in contrast with “normal” dwarf galaxies and spiral galaxies. Finding a dynamical mass in significant excess would mean that TDGs contain an unseen component. This could be dark matter only if (part of the) dark matter is in a rotating disk component in their progenitor spiral galaxies, just like stars and gas. Otherwise, this would require an 0 123 45 unseen baryonic component in spiral galaxies, not just in Radius (kpc) the form of a hot gas halo—this one does not participate in Observed the formation of TDGs—but in the form of very cold gas Allowed by visible mass in the rotating disk. If not caused by some sort of matter, the dynamical mass excess could be attributed to Modified (b) Gravity, which is a theoretical alternative to dark matter in all Figure 3: The collisional ring of NGC5291 and its tidal dwarfs types of galaxies. These various possibilities will be discussed (same as Figure 1) and the rotation curve of one of the TDGs [22]. in the following section, in the context of observations of The observed rotation velocity is too high, and the rotation curve NGC5291. too flat at large radius, to be accounted for by the visible mass distribution alone. Typical 1-sigma error bars are indicated. The rotation curve was measured from HI data and the visible mass estimated from stellar SEDs, HI, and CO data. 3. The Dynamical Mass of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies 3.1. The Collisional Ring NGC5291. The collisional ring in NGC5291 was formed by a particular head-on collision, which formed a ring instead of the usual tails. Nevertheless, it 2. Why Should Tidal Dwarf Galaxies Be Free of formed Tidal Dwarfs just like more typical mergers with tails. Dark Matter? The high metallicity of the dwarfs in this ring, and the young A common property of all TDGs is that they are formed by a age of their stars, confirmed that they are formed recently local instability, or by the gathering of a large portion of the from tidal material. They are also too numerous to simply be progenitor spiral galaxy at the tip of a tidal tail, is that they “normal” dwarf galaxies that randomly happen to lie in the are made-up only from material that comes from the disk collisional ring (Figure 3). of the parent spiral galaxy. Indeed, only the material initially The three largest TDGs in this system are spatially in rotating disks, with velocity dispersions much lower than resolved in spectroscopic observations of their ionized Hα the rotation velocity, is strongly affected by tidal forces and gas [12] and their neutral atomic (HI) gas [22]. The molec- gravity torques and forms tidal tails—and subsequently tidal ular gas observations by Braine et al. [23] did not require a dwarfs. Spheroids dominated by random velocity dispersions dynamical mass larger than the visible mass. However new instead of rotation will barely develop a weak egg-shaped observations of the atomic gas [22] resolve internal velocity distortion during the interaction, but no long and dense gradients in the TDGs, tracing their rotation up to their tidal tail; this applies to the bulge of a spiral galaxy, a whole outermost regions. This confirms they are rotating, self- elliptical galaxy, and also to the dark matter halo of any gravitating, decoupled from the large and diffuse HI ring in galaxy. which they formed, and enables the dynamical mass to be Velocity (km/s) 4 Advances in Astronomy measured from the rotation velocity and radius. This is what Bournaud et al. [22] did, and they found that the mass of these TDGs is in significant excess compared to their visible mass in stars, molecular gas, and atomic gas. The excess is just a factor of 2 or 3, not a factor 10 like in classical dwarf galaxies (Figure 3). This confirms the expected lack of dark matter in TDGs. Still, there should be an unseen component there, amounting to the mass of the visible one or even a bit more. Furthermore, rotation curves are surprisingly flat: the rotation velocity remains high far from the center of these three TDGs, while equilibrium with the visible mass can be achieved only if the velocity decreases in the outskirts. This adds evidence for the presence of some sort of unseen mass, mostly in the outer regions of these tidal dwarfs. This observation remains compatible with most dark Figure 4: The Southern tail of the Antennae contains several star- matter being in a large halo around spiral galaxies, but means forming clumps in a larger HI condensation. This, together with that there was another dark component in the spiral galaxies the almost face-on orientation of the system, makes it difficult to estimate a dynamical mass from the HI velocity curve. A from which the material now belonging to NGC5291’s recently revised distance estimate [34] may nevertheless indicate a dwarfs was expelled. dynamical mass higher than previously believed in the HI cloud. (Figure courtesy of Pierre-Alain Duc.) Unseen Molecular Gas. The “visible” mass of the TDGs in NGC5291 is for a large part atomic gas (HI), and also molecular gas. Most of the molecular gas mass is made-up of H , which cannot be directly observed. The molecular 2 galaxies, there would be a part that is actually in a thick dark mass is traced by the emission of the CO molecule, using a disk around the stellar disk. This could be brought in by standard “CO-to-H ” conversion factor, which is somewhat 2 small satellites that merge with the disk, and simulations by uncertain. If the unseen mass in these TDGs is molecular gas, Read et al. [32] suggest such “dark disks” can be relatively this would imply that the conversion factor changes much massive (see also Purcell et al. [33]). In the CDM theory, more than expected—by a factor 10, while the TDGs have a this dark disk may naturally come in addition to the more nearly-solar metallicity so no change by more than a factor of massive spheroidal halo. Then, if the velocity dispersion of 2 or 3 was anticipated. A classical phase of molecular gas not dark matter particles in this component is not too high, it well traced by CO would have other effects, like destabilizing could participate to the formation of TDGs just like the rest the disk and triggering very active star formation, which of the disk material (B. G. Elmegreen, priv. comm.). This is not observed [24]. More likely, the unseen component hypothesis remains to be directly tested in simulations. It is would be a nonstandard phase of molecular gas, very cold, in particular unclear how much of this disk dark matter will and gathered in low-mass, dense, but nonstar-forming H 2 be dispersed during the merger, and how much will end-up blobs ([25, 26], and Review by Pfenniger et al. [27]). Finding in TDGs, potentially giving them a dark matter component it in TDGs would imply it was also present in the disk of massive enough to explain their observed rotation curves. the progenitor spiral galaxy, at least in its outer regions. This can be compatible with observations of the Milky Way 3.2. Other Potential Cases. Error bars on NGC5291’s data [25, 26, 28] and the general dynamics of spiral galaxies [29], are such that the result is significant at ∼2.5 sigma when at least if one assumes this “dark molecular gas” comes in one takes into account that 3 TDGs have been observed addition to a nonbaryonic dark matter halo, not instead of it. there. There are nevertheless errors that would affect the three observed TDGs in the same way, like the distance of Modified Gravity. Another possible explanation to the large the system, or its inclination. So the three “detections” are rotation velocities in NGC5291’s TDGs is Modified Gravity largely independent, but not completely. Can the result be (MOND). As it should affect any galaxy regardless of its confirmed in other systems? origin (tidal or else), a high dynamical-to-visible mass ratio The most famous pair of colliding galaxies, the Antennae is naturally expected for TDGs in this context. While TDGs (NGC4038/39, Figure 4), has some tidal dwarf galaxies. It has do not seem to have a dynamical-to-visible mass ratio as high long been thought that their dynamical and visible masses as classical dwarfs, Gentile et al. [30]and Milgrom[31]have were similar. The original distance estimate to these galaxies shown that the MOND theory can successfully account for could however be overestimated [34], which would make the their rotation curves. dynamical mass two or three times higher than the visible mass, just as in NGC5291. The revision of the distance to A Disk of Cold Dark Matter. There could finally be another the Antennae however remains largely uncertain [35]. There explanation that does not require a modification of the are other sources of uncertainty: first, TDGs in the Antennae gravity, and not even any additional mass component. While are very young, still forming, maybe not at equilibrium. dark matter is mostly in a spheroidal halo around spiral Rotation velocities may not trace the mass accurately—TDGs Advances in Astronomy 5 in NGC5291 were older, making the analysis more robust. genitor galaxy or being disrupted by its tidal field. For most Also, there is one blob of HI gas comprising three star of today’s dwarf satellites to be TDGs from past mergers, forming regions. It is thus quite unclear if the HI velocities one would need to form ∼10 TDGs per major merger, each trace the total mass of these three objects, or the individual surviving a Hubble Time [37]. Hence, simulations suggest mass of each one—another problem that did not affect that only a modest fraction of modern dwarf satellite galaxies NGC5291, where each TDG corresponds to a single, resolved are of tidal origin—but not a completely negligible fraction: HI cloud. Another attempt in an old TDG in the Virgo overall several percent. This fraction could be higher around Cluster [36] resulted again in a likely excess of dynamical red early-type galaxies that experienced more mergers than mass, compared to the visible mass, but with large error bars. spiral galaxies: this is because TDGs are expected to form Robust confirmations of an “unseen mass” in TDGs mostly in mergers of spiral galaxies, and after the merger remain needed. They can be obtained, if relatively old TDGs these progenitor galaxies generally become red early-type are observed at high resolution and with a high signal-to- galaxies [38]. noise ratio, for instance, with modern interferometers. This Lower mass TDGs that form with ∼10 solar masses of would definitely tell whether or not TDGs contain an unseen baryons can be more numerous in each galaxy merger. They component, which has important implications, whatever the are more difficult to study in numerical simulations, as they outcome, for the mass content of typical spiral galaxies. require high spatial and mass resolution. Nevertheless, they can survive their initial starburst—but lose a large fraction of their mass [39]. They can also survive against the tidal field during more than a gigayear after their formation [40]. 4. Could (Some) Dwarf Satellite Galaxies Be of Simulations have never followed these low-mass objects for a Tidal Origin? long time; it seems plausible that some could form at high We show in the above section that the internal properties of redshift and survive down to redshift zero, but probably TDGs (their visible mass compared to their rotation speed) as low mass remnants, potentially hard to detect at all, or may be related to the nature of some “missing” baryonic evolving into compact, globular star clusters rather than dwarf galaxies [40]. component. Tidal Dwarf Galaxies have another, completely different implication for the baryonic content of the universe, While it then seems unlikely that the majority of today’s which does not relate to their own internal properties, but to dwarf galaxies are of tidal origin, they can have a significant contribution. There are known examples of TDGs forming the number of dwarf galaxies formed by a tidal mechanism, compared to the total number of dwarf galaxies of any origin at high redshift [41]and maybesomehavesurviveddown in the Universe. to redshift zero. Known examples of dwarf galaxies with TDGs may indeed contribute to the total population of unusual colors or metallicity could be long-lived tidal dwarfs dwarf galaxies, in particular, dwarf satellites around massive [36, 42]. The quest for robust and numerous cases of old tidal galaxies—for instance, some of the dwarf satellites of the dwarfs remains open, however. Milky Way might, in principle, be tidal debris from collisions that occurred long ago. This would of course change the 5. Summary expected number of dwarf galaxies and the low-mass end of the mass function of galaxies—maybe not in the right The formation of tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) is frequently direction if the predicted number of dwarf galaxies is already observed in galaxy mergers, and has been extensively studied too high. with the help of numerical simulations. While the long-term The key point is the survival of tidal dwarf galaxies. evolution and potential survival of these objects remains They must survive around, typically, one billion year for the largely debated, their formation mechanisms are now well merger in which they formed to be relaxed, so that they understood. can appear as “normal” dwarf satellite galaxies around a A clear prediction from all models is that TDGs cannot contain a significant mass fraction from the dark matter “normal” galaxy (not an ongoing merger). They must survive 5 or 10 gigayears for mergers at high redshift to produce halo of their progenitor spiral galaxy. Observations suggest dwarf satellites at redshift zero. Is it frequently the case? in several cases that the total, dynamical mass of TDGs Several factors can destroy TDGs: “internal” processes like exceeds their visible mass in gas and stars, which would the initial starbursts when gas-dominated TDGs begin to indicate that they do contain some unseen component. This form stars and supernovae potentially eject their gas, and result, well established only for NGC5291, still needs a robust “external” processes, like a disruptive tidal field exerted by confirmation in other cases. An unseen component in TDGs the very same galaxy that had formed the TDGs during an could potentially constrain the presence of “missing baryons” interaction. in a cold gas phase. Large samples with tens of simulations [11] are useful to Another cosmological implication of TDGs relates to tackle this question. The most massive tidal dwarf galaxies, their long-term survival, and how they can affect the mass 8-9 that are large, massive (10 ) solar masses), rotating, formed function of dwarf galaxies. This question is still largely preferentially at the tip of tidal tails do not come in large unsolved, but there is significant hope that modern numer- numbers. Rarely more than 2 or 3 form in a major merger, ical models that can resolve the internal physics of TDGs sometimes none at all. Roughly half of them are destroyed in simulations of major mergers could lead to significant within a couple of billions years, falling back onto their pro- progress in the following years. 6 Advances in Astronomy Acknowledgments [15] F. Bournaud, P.-A. Duc, and F. Masset, “The large extent of dark matter haloes probed by the formation of tidal dwarf The author acknowledges the editors of the “Dwarf Galaxies galaxies,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 411, no. 2, pp. L469– and Cosmology” special volume for inviting him to write L472, 2003. this tutorial review. Useful comments on an earlier version [16] F. Bournaud and F. Combes, “Formation of polar ring galaxies,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 401, no. 3, pp. 817– by Elias Brinks, Pierre-Alain Duc, Jonathan Braine, and two 833, 2003. referees are appreciated, as well as discussions with Bruce [17] B. Koribalski and J. M. Dickey, “Neutral hydrogen gas Elmegreen, Moti Milgrom, and Daniel Pfenniger on the in interacting galaxies: the NGC 6221/6215 galaxy group,” origin of the mass discrepancy in tidal dwarf galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 348, no. 4, pp. 1255–1274, 2004. References [18] M. Hancock, B. J. Smith, C. Struck, M. L. Giroux, and S. Hurlock, “Candidate tidal dwarf galaxies in arp 305: lessons [1] P.-A. Duc, E. Brinks, V. Springel, B. Pichardo, P. Weilbacher, on dwarf detachment and globular cluster formation,” The and I. F. Mirabel, “Formation of a tidal dwarf galaxy in the Astrophysical Journal, vol. 137, pp. 4643–4654, 2009. interacting system ARP 245 (NGC 2992/93),” The Astronomi- [19] K. A. Knierman, S. C. Gallagher, J. C. Charlton, et al., “From cal Journal, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 1238–1264, 2000. globular clusters to tidal dwarfs: structure formation in the [2] F. Zwicky, “Multiple galaxies,” in Ergebnisse der Exakten tidal tails of merging galaxies,” The Astronomical Journal, vol. Naturwissenschaften, vol. 29, pp. 344–385, 1956. 126, pp. 1227–1244, 2003. [3] F. Schweizer, “Galaxies with long tails,” in Structure and [20] J. F. Navarro, C. S. Frenk, and S. D. M. White, “The structure Properties of Nearby Galaxies, E. M. Berkhuijsen and R. of cold dark matter halos,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 462, Wielebinski, Eds., vol. 77 of IAU Symposium Series, pp. 279– no. 2, pp. 563–575, 1996. 284, 1978. [21] J. S. Bullock, A. V. Kravtsov, and P. Col´ ın, “Angular momen- [4] I.F.Mirabel,H.Dottori,and D. Lutz,“Genesisofadwarf tum profiles of warm dark matter halos,” The Astrophysical galaxy from the debris of the antennae,” Astronomy & Journal, vol. 564, pp. L1–L4, 2002. Astrophysics, vol. 256, pp. L19–L22, 1992. [22] F. Bournaud, P.-A. Duc, E. Brinks, et al., “Missing mass in [5] P. M. Weilbacher, U. Fritze-v. Alvensleben, P.-A. Duc, and K. collisional debris from galaxies,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5828, J. Fricke, “Large velocity gradients in the tidal tails of the pp. 1166–1169, 2007. interacting galaxy AM 1353-272 (“the dentist’s chair”),” The [23] J. Braine, P.-A. Duc, U. Lisenfeld, et al., “Abundant molecular Astrophysical Journal, vol. 579, pp. L79–L82, 2002. gas in tidal dwarf galaxies: on-going galaxy formation,” [6] A. Toomre, “Mergers and some consequences,” in Evolution Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 378, no. 1, pp. 51–69, 2001. of Galaxies and Stellar Populations, B. M. Tinsley and R. B. [24] M. Boquien, P.-A. Duc, J. Braine, E. Brinks, U. Lisenfeld, and Larson, Eds., vol. 197, p. 401, Yale University Observatory, V. Charmandaris, “Polychromatic view of intergalactic star New Haven, Conn, USA, 1977. formation in NGC 5291,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 467, [7] P. di Matteo, F. Bournaud, M. Martig, F. Combes, A.-L. no. 1, pp. 93–106, 2007. Melchior, and B. Semelin, “On the frequency, intensity, and [25] D. Pfenniger, F. Combes, and L. Martinet, “Is dark matter duration of starburst episodes triggered by galaxy interactions in spiral galaxies cold gas? I. Observational constraints and mergers,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 492, no. 1, pp. and dynamical clues about galaxy evolution,” Astronomy & 31–49, 2008. Astrophysics, vol. 285, pp. 79–93, 1994. [8] C. Struck, M. Kaufman, E. Brinks, M. Thomasson, B. G. [26] D. Pfenniger and F. Combes, “Is dark matter in spiral Elmegreen, and D. M. Elmegreen, “The grazing encounter galaxies cold gas? II. Fractal models and star non-formation,” between IC 2163 and NGC 2207: pushing the limits of obser- Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 285, pp. 94–118, 1994. vational modelling,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical [27] D. Pfenniger, S. D. Ryder, D. J. Pisano, M. A. Walker, and K. C. Society, vol. 364, no. 1, pp. 69–90, 2005. Freeman, Eds., vol. 220 of IAU Symposium Series, p. 241, 2004. [9] B.J.Smith,C.Struck, M. Hancock, et al., “Stochastic“beads [28] P. M. W. Kalberla, L. Dedes, J. Kerp, and U. Haud, “Dark on a string” in the accretion tail of ARP 285,” The Astronomical matter in the Milky Way II. The HI gas distribution as a tracer Journal, vol. 135, no. 6, pp. 2406–2423, 2008. of the gravitational potential,” Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. [10] M. Wetzstein, T. Naab, and A. Burkert, “Do dwarf galaxies 469, no. 2, pp. 511–527, 2007. form in tidal tails?” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical [29] Y. Revaz, D. Pfenniger, F. Combes, and F. Bournaud, “Simula- Society, vol. 375, no. 3, pp. 805–820, 2007. tions of galactic disks including a dark baryonic component,” [11] F. Bournaud and P.-A. Duc, “From tidal dwarf galaxies to Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 501, no. 1, pp. 171–187, 2009. satellite galaxies,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 456, no. 2, [30] G. Gentile, B. Famaey, F. Combes, P. Kroupa, H. S. Zhao, pp. 481–492, 2006. and O. Tiret, “Tidal dwarf galaxies as a test of fundamental [12] F. Bournaud, P.-A. Duc, P. Amram, F. Combes, and J.-L. Gach, physics,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 472, no. 2, pp. L25– “Kinematics of tidal tails in interacting galaxies: tidal dwarf L28, 2007. galaxies and projection effects,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 425, no. 3, pp. 813–823, 2004. [31] M. Milgrom, “MOND and the mass discrepancies in tidal dwarf galaxies,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 667, p. L45, [13] B. G. Elmegreen, M. Kaufman, and M. Thomasson, “An interaction model for the formation of dwarf galaxies and 10 exp 8 solar mass clouds in spiral disks,” The Astrophysical [32] J. I. Read, G. Lake, O. Agertz, and V. P. Debattista, “Thin, Journal, vol. 412, no. 1, pp. 90–98, 1993. thick and dark discs in ΛcDM,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 389, no. 3, pp. 1041–1057, 2008. [14] P.-A. Duc, F. Bournaud, and F. Masset, “A top-down scenario for the formation of massive tidal dwarf galaxies,” Astronomy [33] C. W. Purcell, J. S. Bullock, and M. Kaplinghat, “The dark disk & Astrophysics, vol. 427, no. 3, pp. 803–814, 2004. of the milky way,” submitted to The Astrophysical Journal. Advances in Astronomy 7 [34] I. Saviane, Y. Momany,G.S.daCosta,R.M.Rich, andJ.E. Hibbard, “A new red giant-based distance modulus of 13.3 Mpc to the antennae galaxies and its consequences,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 678, no. 1, pp. 179–186, 2008. [35] F. Schweizer, C. R. Burns, B. F. Madore, et al., “A new distance to the antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/39) based on the type ia supernova 2007,” The Astronomical Journal, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 1482–1489, 2008. [36] P.-A. Duc, J. Braine, T. J. Lisenfeld, E. Brinks, and M. Boquien, “VCC 2062: an old tidal dwarf galaxy in the Virgo cluster?” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 475, no. 1, pp. 187–197, 2007. [37] T. Okazaki and Y. Taniguchi, “Dwarf galaxy formation induced by galaxy interactions,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 543, no. 1, pp. 149–152, 2000. [38] M. Martig, F. Bournaud, R. Teyssier, and A. Dekel, “Mor- phological quenching of star formation: making early-type galaxies red,” submitted to The Astrophysical Journal. [39] S. Recchi, C. Theis, P. Kroupa, and G. Hensler, “The early evolution of tidal dwarf galaxies,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 470, no. 1, pp. L5–L8, 2007. [40] F. Bournaud, P.-A. Duc, and E. Emsellem, “High-resolution simulations of galaxy mergers: resolving globular cluster formation,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 389, no. 1, pp. L8–L12, 2008. [41] D. M. Elmegreen, B. G. Elmegreen, T. Ferguson, and B. Mullan, “Smooth and starburst tidal tails in the GEMS and GOODS fields,” The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 663, pp. 734– 751, 2007. [42] L. Michel-Dansac, D. G. Lambas, M. S. Alonso, and P. Tis- sera, “The mass—metallicity relation of interacting galaxies,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 386, no. 1, pp. L82–L86, 2008. The Scientific Journal of Journal of Journal of Advances in Gravity Photonics World Journal Soft Matter Condensed Matter Physics Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Aerodynamics Journal of Fluids Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com International Journal of International Journal of Statistical Mechanics Optics Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Thermodynamics Journal of  Computational  Advances in Physics Advances in  Methods in Physics High Energy Physics Research International Astronomy Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Journal of Journal of International Journal of Journal of Atomic and Solid State Physics Astrophysics Superconductivity Molecular Physics Biophysics Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Journal

Advances in AstronomyHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Oct 26, 2009

References