Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain

The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human... Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2012, Article ID 360913, 13 pages doi:10.1155/2012/360913 Research Article The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain 1 2, 3 2, 3 Antonio Belda, Victoriano Peiro, ´ and Eduardo Seva Departamento Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Campus San Vicente, Apartado 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain Departamento de Ecolog´ıa, Universidad de Alicante, Campus San Vicente, Apartado 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain IMEM, Universidad de Alicante, Campus San Vicente, Apartado 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain Correspondence should be addressed to Antonio Belda, antonio.belda@ua.es Received 29 December 2011; Revised 13 February 2012; Accepted 14 February 2012 Academic Editor: Andrea Pieroni Copyright © 2012 Antonio Belda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158), and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist) was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (n = 158). Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge. 1. Introduction This practice creates optimal conditions for egg laying and incubation [23]. Throughout the ages, the human race has used plants for The ecological knowledge of local traditional uses that various purposes [1], particularly those that are accessible. depend on the dynamics of natural resources has been In the Iberian Peninsula, several studies have been developed reflected in numerous studies [24–26], considering the eco- on medicinal plants [2–8] and edible flora [9, 10], as well logical knowledge of local communities of hunters, anglers, as some general ethnobotanical studies [11–15], and others and gatherers [27]. about the importance of home gardens and cultivated areas The culture of capturing songbirds was introduced to the in the evolution of useful flora [16]. However, few studies Iberian Peninsula by the Romans and had its beginnings, have described the use of plants in ethnoveterinary medicine as did other forms of hunting, in the absolute necessity of [17, 18], or in attracting and maintaining birds of the human nutrition. Thus, these birds were traditionally caught Fringillidae family in captivity [19, 20]. Plants have been as a source of food in Valencia, at least since the 17th century used in traditional medicine for several thousands of years [28]. Today, following old customs and culinary habits, there to treat and cure diseases in domestic animals and human are still hunters who hunt this group of birds in order to populations, especially native ones [21, 22]. Furthermore, in eat them. On the other hand, the term “pajareros” describes nature, wild birds use particular plant species, which possess people who are dedicated to hunting, breeding, or selling insecticidal and bactericidal properties, to build their nests. birds [29]. Although these birds are not hunted excessively, it 2 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine is essential to monitor and control illegal methods of hunting [34, 35]. The plant species in the province of Alicante Fringillidae and to conserve this family of birds [30]. include sclerophyllous shrubs and trees, which are adapted The capture of birds using a hinged net assembly is to Mediterranean stress conditions. Local flora, consisting a traditional hunting method that is widespread in the of evergreen, coriaceous, glabrous, and aromatic plants, is province of Alicante and elsewhere in the Iberian Peninsula. adapted to conserve water for much of the year. Some These game nets are made with cotton, hemp, or nylon qualities are common to many of these plants, including mesh. They are placed on the ground and have a manual resistance to drought, adaptations to heat, and low tolerance activation system; once a bird enters the net, a rope is to low temperatures. These bioclimatic and biogeographical pulled to trap the bird inside the net (see Photographic conditions favour the development of rare, endemic, and annex). The nets used since the middle ages to capture endangered species [35, 36]. Considering its bioclimatic and several species of Fringillidae intended for use as pets are biogeographical conditions, the province of Alicante may well known among the inhabitants of this zone [31, 32]. potentially give rise to vegetation that can be divided into These birds are relatively easy to maintain and rear in three main types: evergreen oak forest (Rubio longifolia- captivity, and it is easy to train them to participate in singing Quercetum rotundifoliae), ash-maple forest (Fraxino orni- competitions. Thus, at present, the capture of five species Aceretum granatensis), and spiny maquis (Chamaerops of birds (Serinus serinus,“verdecillo”, Carduelis carduelis, humilis—Rhamnus lycioides)[37]. “jilguero”, Carduelis chloris,“verderon ´ ”, Carduelis cannabina, “pardillo,” and Fringilla coelebs, “pinzon ´ ”) is authorized and regulated by law (Council Directive 79/409/EEC and national 2.2. Ethnology. A total of 69 localities were prospected with Laws 4/1989, 62/2006, and 13/2004). What is more, it is oral interviews in all regions of the Alicante province (El an important cultural movement around the Mediterranean Comptat, L’Alcoia, Alt Vinalopo, Vinalopo Mitja, Marina Basin [33]. The current trend is to increase breeding in Baixa, Marina Alta, L’Alacanti, Baix Vinalopo,and Baix captivity and reduce the capture of wild birds. Therefore, it is Segura-Vega Baixa)(Figure 1). Vernacular names of plant important to acquire more knowledge about the traditional species traditionally used were obtained in the field by inter- use of cultivated and wild plants. views with the local population. Ethnological information The main aim of this paper is to document the cross- was based primarily on semistructured interviews, in which cultural comparison between plant uses for songbirds and we gathered information. This ranged from the different humans in Mediterranean environments, relating an eth- plant species used to attract and maintain songbirds, the noveterinary field study and its eventual link to folk therapies season of plant collection, traditional uses of the plant for humans, in order to preserve ethnological knowledge species collected, the composition of commercial mixtures on European folk health. With this purpose in mind, the used to feed captive birds, and folk remedies used to cure information on plant uses for songbirds (capturing, feeding, songbird illnesses, to the environmental problems faced by and breeding) gathered here was collected during fieldwork the community. and complemented with ethnobotanical references. Finally, People with a specific profile were selected in order we would like to contribute to the dissemination of results to obtain high-quality and reliable information. People within the scientific community in order to open a door to interviewed were older (50–85 years old), living in a rural research in other disciplines. environment and from a variety of socioeconomical strata, who had captured and bred birds throughout their lives. We wanted to emphasize the ethnobotanical importance of local variations of plant names and the different applications 2. Materials and Methods of these species. We conducted 158 oral interviews; 95.57% 2.1. Study Area. The province of Alicante is located in (n = 151) of the informants were male and 4.43% the southeast region of Spain, in the southern part of (n = 7) female, and the mean age was 56.7 years. In Valencia. It is geographically located between the coordinates 48 municipalities, inhabitants speak Valencian (variant of ◦  ◦ 38 30 Nand 0 50 E(Figure 1). The total area occupied by Catalan), and Castilian (standard Spanish) is spoken in the the province is 5,863 km , it has a population of 1,783,555 others. inhabitants, and there are 141 localities. The province has a Numerous folk botanical references were examined [38– very mountainous and rugged relief, except for some river 41], including a variety of local books [35], magazines [7], valleys. Thus, approximately 60% of the study area is located and festivals, to obtain information on remedies for animal between elevations of 200 and 1,500 m above sea level. illnesses. Even though the information included in our Due to its geographical location, the province of Alicante analysis arose from an array of different spoken and written has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild temperatures. sources in the study area, the semistructured interviews ◦ ◦ Thus, the average temperatures are between 6.2 and 16.8 revealed many important issues previously unidentified [20]. ◦ ◦ in the coldest month (January) and 20.4 and 30.6 in A digital sound recorder was used to record interviews the hottest (August), with an annual mean of 17.8 .The and to create an audio record of the information. In addition, average annual rainfall is 336 mm, concentrated in spring a photographical archive, with photographs of each of the and autumn, and there is a prominent dry period in summer. species referred to by the informants, was constructed and However, there are some climatic differences between the deposited in the Ecology Department Archive of Alicante coast and the interior of the province, due to its topography University. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3 ◦   ◦   1 0 0 W 0 0 0 N N ◦◦    ◦◦    ◦◦    10 10 0 0 0 0 W W 5 5 0 0 0 0 W W 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 S Spain pain ◦   ◦   1 0 0 W 0 0 0 Figure 1: Map showing the location of the province of Alicante (Spain). Dots represent the localities that were prospected (n = 69). The information gathered in interviews was further some important sources of reference for ethnobotanical and verified by field observations with the stakeholders. This kind alternative medicine for Mediterranean environments in the of investigation, in sociological terms, is called “participant southeastern part of Spain [7, 35, 39–41, 44]. Plant uses have observation” [42]. In this process, hunters were observed been grouped according to cures for different ailments [18]. while they prepared for the hunt and during hunting, and their recreational activities were documented. In these field samplings, we also identified species of plants currently used 3. Results by bird breeders and the techniques used to catch birds. Plants were collected from various parts of the study area We collected 97 species of plants and another variety of one and were identified in the laboratory, using dichotomous of these species, belonging to 31 botanical families, which are keys [43] and registered at the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante used for different purposes. We present the scientific names University). We used Excel 2003 to perform a simple statisti- of these plant species, voucher register, the family to which cal analysis of the data collected; specifically, we calculated they belong, their main uses in finches, relative frequency the relative frequency of citation (RFC) [8] at which each of citation, cultural importance, whether wild or cultivated species of plant was used to attract birds during hunting and types were used, and their medical properties for humans to maintain birds in captivity (in Table 1). Moreover, we cal- (Table 1). culated a cultural importance index (CI) where each addend Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae are is a measure of the relative importance of each plant use [8]. the families most represented among the plants used to catch Finally, we related the use of these plants for wild and promote breeding of songbirds. In this study, all the finches with their potential human medical use, by using species of birds showed a preference for wild species of plants. Me Med dit iter err ra anean Sea nea an n n Sea ◦   38 0 0 N ◦◦    ◦◦    35 35 3 0 0 0 0 N N 40 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 N N ◦   ◦   38 0 0 N 39 0 0 N 4 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Table 1: Plant species in the study area and their traditional uses in finches and humans. Finch uses: 1, facilitate breeding; 2, attract birds; 3, commercial seed mixes; 4, leafy vegetables; 5, birdliming; 6, material for cages and accessories; 7, catching tools; 8, vermifuge; 9, camouflage of capture nets; 10, provide pigments; 11, cure diseases. Medical human uses: 1, alteration of blood pressure; 2, haemorrhoids; 3, depurative; 4, anxiety; 5, diarrhoea; 6, heartburn; 7, indigestion; 8, liver disease; 9, loss of appetite; 10, constipation; 11, helminthiasis; 12, cough; 13, cold; 14, respiratory problems; 15, hyperglycemia; 16, anaemia; 17, hypercholesterolemia; 18, retention of liquids; 19, undefined symptom (tonic); 20, gout; 21, rheumatism; 22, inflammation of bones or joints; 23, undefined symptom (analgesic); 24, injury; 25, burns; 26, kidney stones; 27, menstruation; 28, lack of breast milk secretion; 29, ischocholia; 30, chilblains; 31, pimples; 32, skin diseases; 33, eczema; 34, skin fungus; 35, rubefaction; 36, calluses and skin hardness; 37, warts; 38, bacteria; 39, microbes; 40, headache; 41, inflammation; 42, fever; 43, alopecia; 44, flushing (refreshing); 45, alcoholism; 46, toothache; 47, mineral deficiency; 48, eye infection. Type: W, wild; C, cultivated. RFC: relative frequency of citation. CI: cultural importance index. Herbarium Medical human Scientific name Family Finch uses RFC CI Type References voucher (ABH) uses Agave americana L. 17879 Agavaceae 1 7.59 0.076 — W [39] Allium sativum L. Seen alive Alliaceae 8 5.06 0.051 41, 13, 5, 21, 30 C [35, 39, 44] Amaranthus blitum L. 3989 Amaranthaceae 2,3 25.32 0.285 — W [41] Anagallis arvensis L. 22647 Primulaceae 4 16.46 0.165 24, 3, 14 W [40] Andryala ragusina L. 4430 Compositae 5 72.15 0.722 31 W [41] Arundo donax L. 32085 Gramineae 6,7 58.23 0.810 1, 48, 12, 22, 18, 3 C [39] Avena sativa L. 10488 Gramineae 3 84.81 0.848 — W Avena sterilis L. 1582 Gramineae 3 78.48 0.785 — W 37, 10, 18, 44, 1, Beta vulgaris L. 10652 Chenopodiaceae 4 30.38 0.304 C[41] 41, 6, 2 Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C. H. Stirt. 50474 Leguminosae 2 32.91 0.329 — W Brachypodium retusum (Pers.) Beauv. 31248 Gramineae 7 67.09 0.671 1 W [39] Brassica napus L. 39373 Cruciferae 3 89.87 0.899 — C 24, 28, 45, 41, 21, Brassica oleracea L. subsp. oleracea 34847 Cruciferae 4 21.52 0.215 C[41] 18, 10, 48, 4, 7 Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck Seen alive Cruciferae 1,4 62.03 0.924 — C Brassica rapa L. 7969 Cruciferae 3 88.61 0.886 — C Cannabis sativa L. 32225 Cannabaceae 1,3 92.41 1.158 — C Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medicus 47380 Cruciferae 4 16.46 0.165 5, 18, 1, 27 W [40] Carthamus tinctorius L. 3894 Compositae 3 10.13 0.101 — W 9, 7, 15, 24, 34, 38, Centaurea aspera L. 21338 Compositae 2 60.76 0.608 W[7, 35, 40] 41, 1, 13, 39, 19, 29 Centaurea calcitrapa L. 36097 Compositae 2 46.84 0.468 15 W [40] Centaurea mariolensis Rouy 13242 Compositae 2 10.13 0.101 — W Centaurea melitensis L. 36917 Compositae 2 11.39 0.114 — W Chamaerops humilis L. 559 Palmae 1 13.92 0.139 9 W [39] Chelidonium majus L. 18328 Papaveraceae 11 3.8 0.038 — C Chondrilla juncea L. 7142 Compositae 5 49.37 0.494 9 W [39] Cicer arietinum L. 17633 Leguminosae 11 3.8 0.038 31, 18, 13 W [41] Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 5 Table 1: Continued. Herbarium Medical human Scientific name Family Finch uses RFC CI Type References voucher (ABH) uses Cichorium intybus L. 37547 Compositae 3,4 54.43 0.639 18, 19, 10, 9 W [35, 39, 44] Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. 35007 Compositae 2 8.86 0.089 9, 2 C [39] Cirsium monspessulanum (L.) Hill 51477 Compositae 2 10.13 0.101 — W Citrus limon (L.) Burm. Fil. 49856 Rutaceae 11 2.53 0.025 24, 5, 3, 18, 13 C [39] Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. 17943 Compositae 2 12.66 0.127 — C 37, 27, 29, 32, 9, 3, Cynara cardunculus L. 35991 Compositae 2 16.46 0.165 W[7, 35, 41, 44] 8, 18, 15 Cynara scolymus L 31715 Compositae 2 44.3 0.443 — C Daphne gnidium L. 10830 Thymelaeaceae 6,8 41.77 0.481 37, 13, 8, 11, 35 W [7, 35, 39] Daucus carota L. 33104 Umbelliferae 4,10 18.99 0.222 18, 37, 9, 19 W [35, 39] Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) DC. 47963 Cruciferae 2,4 91.14 0.911 — W [40] Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter 39371 Compositae 2 68.35 0.684 24, 1, 26, 17, 46 W [39] Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. 14692 Gramineae 2 6.33 0.063 — W Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. 41713 Cruciferae 4 20.25 0.203 — W Erucastrum virgatum C. Presl 4460 Cruciferae 2,4 15.19 0.190 — W Euphorbia characias L. 7226 Euphorbiaceae 5 36.71 0.367 8 C [39, 44] 18, 33, 10, 14, 48, Foeniculum vulgare Miller 23129 Umbelliferae 3 24.05 0.241 W[7, 35, 39, 44] 13, 9, 8, 39, 28, 7 Fragaria vesca L. 52157 Rosaceae 4,10 11.39 0.139 13, 30, 20 W [44] Galactites tomentosa Moench 42051 Compositae 2 11.39 0.114 — C Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass. 9666 Compositae 3 87.34 0.873 — W Helianthus annuus L. 5220 Compositae 3 87.34 0.873 — W 24, 29, 42, 27, 20, Heliotropium europaeum L. 14672 Boraginaceae 2 82.28 0.823 W[35, 41] Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Staff 41077 Gramineae 7 32.91 0.329 — C [39] Lactuca sativa L. Seen alive Compositae 3,4 58.23 0.728 44, 47, 4, 46 C [41] Lactuca serriola L. 47376 Compositae 4 22.78 0.228 10, 4 W [41] Laurus nobilis L. 43242 Lauraceae 8 13.92 0.139 14, 13, 9, 7, 6, 31, 8 C [35, 39, 44] 19, 7, 39, 24, 21, Lavandula latifolia Medicus 20246 Labiatae 4,11 37.97 0.456 W[7, 35, 39, 44] 18, 33, 14, 41, 5 10, 33, 21, 31, 24, Linum usitatissimum L. 32017 Linaceae 3 13.92 0.139 W[35, 39] 14, 13, 41, 4 Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. 15843 Cruciferae 4 35.44 0.354 18, 26, 41, 23, 42 W [41] Lygeum spartum L. 8128 Gramineae 5 45.57 0.456 — W Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh. 37495 Rosaceae 4,11 27.85 0.392 7, 37 W [40] Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. and 5273 Compositae 2 13.92 0.139 15 C [41] Cavill. 6 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Table 1: Continued. Herbarium Medical human Scientific name Family Finch uses RFC CI Type References voucher (ABH) uses Nerium oleander L. 46139 Apocynaceae 6,8 30.38 0.411 32 C [39] Nicotiana tabacum L. 4391 Solanaceae 8,11 13.92 0.234 43, 40, 46 W [39] Ocimum basilicum L. Seen alive Labiatae 8 3.8 0.038 7, 4, 8, 13, 10, 5 C [35, 39, 44] 36, 10, 1, 41, 7, 29, Olea europaea L. 17212 Oleaceae 5 5.06 0.051 W[7, 35, 40, 44] 37, 24, 19, 25, 23, 8 Onopordum acanthium L. 11328 Compositae 2 11.39 0.114 — W Panicum miliaceum L. 36589 Gramineae 3 68.35 0.063 — W 14, 12, 46, 23, 9, Papaver rhoeas L. 37589 Papaveraceae 3,4 26.58 0.291 C[7, 35, 39, 44] 18, 13, 4 Papaver somniferum L. 10585 Papaveraceae 3,4 17.72 0.203 13, 4, 5, 12, 46 W [39] Paronychia argentea Lam. 13044 Caryophyllaceae 1 6.33 0.063 18, 24, 1 C [35] Perilla frutescens L. Seen alive Labiatae 3 60.76 0.608 — C Phagnalon saxatile (L.) Cass. 49631 Compositae 2 10.13 0.101 — W Phalaris canariensis L. 14955 Gramineae 3 100 1.000 — W Phoenix dactylifera L. 14303 Palmae 1 10.13 0.101 9 W [39] Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steudel 40289 Gramineae 6,7 64.56 0.918 — W Picris echioides L. 47438 Compositae 2 7.59 0.076 — W [40] 14, 13, 41, 19, 37, Pinus halepensis Miller 37506 Pinaceae 2,5,9 51.9 0.791 W[35, 40, 44] 24, 39 Pinus pinea L. 32768 Pinaceae 3,5,9 7.59 0.120 — C Piptatherum miliaceum (L.) Coss. 6843 Gramineae 3 27.85 0.278 — C Pistacia lentiscus L. 10319 Anacardiaceae 11 6.33 0.063 37 C [39] 41, 38, 15, 44, 33, Portulaca oleracea L. 36619 Portulacaceae 2,3 72.15 0.759 W[40] 23, 18, 11, 4, 25 Punica granatum L. 46140 Punicaceae 9 8.86 0.089 11, 15 W [40] Raphanus sativus L. 51395 Cruciferae 3,4 49.37 0.741 29, 12, 3, 21, 13, W [41] Rosa agrestis Savi 51473 Rosaceae 11 6.33 0.063 18, 41, 24, 4 W [35, 44] 24, 46, 15, 5, 39, 9, Rubus ulmifolius Schott 40230 Rosaceae 4,10 11.39 0.133 W[7, 35, 39, 44] 3, 31 Scolymus hispanicus L. 20754 Compositae 2 40.51 0.405 — W Scolymus maculatus L. 20114 Compositae 2 10.13 0.101 — W Scorzonera hispanica L. 4557 Compositae 4 16.46 0.165 — W Senecio vulgaris L. 7527 Compositae 4 7.59 0.076 — W Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. 16519 Gramineae 3 46.84 0.468 — C 21, 8, 9, 3, 36, 37, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner 32020 Compositae 2 73.42 0.734 27, 29, 32, 15, 1, C[7, 35, 41, 44] 42, 12, 13, 40 Sonchus oleraceus L. 47365 Compositae 4 44.3 0.443 9 W [39] Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 7 Table 1: Continued. Herbarium Medical human Scientific name Family Finch uses RFC CI Type References voucher (ABH) uses Sonchus tenerrimus L. 37483 Compositae 4 40.51 0.405 9 W [39] Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. 3298 Gramineae 3 53.16 0.532 46 W [41] Spinacia oleracea L. Seen alive Chenopodiaceae 4 43.04 0.430 — C Stellaria media (L.) Vill. 10674 Caryophyllaceae 4 11.39 0.114 — W Stipa tenacissima L. 44375 Gramineae 5 92.41 0.924 37 W [39] Taraxacum vulgare (Lam.) Schrank 1808 Compositae 4 49.37 0.494 33, 8 W [44] Thymelaea hirsuta L. 41262 Thymelaeaceae 2 27.85 0.278 11, 10 C [41] Urtica dioica L. 40147 Urticaceae 1,4 26.58 0.316 1, 20, 5, 41, 16, 13 W [7] 21, 13, 41, 3, 30, 9, Urtica urens L. 33640 Urticaceae 1,4,11 34.18 0.424 W[35, 39, 44] 18, 37, 1, 12, 16 Viscum album L. 49508 Viscaceae 7 60.76 0.608 — W 8 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3.1. Uses in Finches. The most important plant species used host beneficial probiotic bacteria or tonic (e.g., vinegar of by bird breeders are Phalaris canariensis, Cannabis sativa, Malus domestica). Some plants have been used as vermifuge, Stipa tenacissima, Diplotaxis erucoides, and Brassica napus, placed in the breeding carrier, in order to expel parasites representing more than 90% of relative citation frequency (e.g., worms) from the intestines, such as mites (especially (RFC). Among the species with the greatest cultural impor- Syringophilus sp., Dermoglyphus sp., and Dermanyssus sp.) tance, two species with values higher than 1 for the CI and lice (Menacanthus sp. and Goniocotes sp.) that affect index are striking: Cannabis sativa (CI = 1.158) and Phalaris this group of birds. Leafy vegetables are used as a laxative canariensis (CI = 1). In contrast, the lowest CI are in Citrus treatment, the juice of Urtica urens to prevent anaemia, and limon (CI = 0.025), Chelidonium majus, Cicer arietinum, Cicer arietinum is used to stop diarrhoea. To sum up, we Ocimum basilicum (CI = 0.038), Allium sativum,and Olea show the number of species that are used with specific bird europaea (CI = 0.051). veterinarian uses in Table 2. Most of the plant species (24.75%) identified were placed inside nets to attract and capture wild birds in the field 3.2. Human Medicine Uses. According to the ethnobotanical (Figure 2). Thus, once birds have entered the nets, the references consulted, we found 57 plants used in finches hunter pulls a rope, and the birds are trapped (Figures 3 that have medical properties in humans. These species are and 4). The stems of some plants (e.g., Lygeum spartum, used to cure some ailments related to each pathological Olea europaea and Stipa tenacissima) are spread with an group (Table 2). Thus, 48 human uses have been detected adhesive substance called birdlime (“envisque” or “liga” in in the 97 plant species collected in the study area. Silybum local Spanish), obtained from a mixture of resins (e.g., marianum (15), Olea europaea (12), and Centaurea aspera resin from Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea), olive oil (from (12) are the species with greater therapeutic uses. We found Olea europaea), andsomeplants(e.g., Andryala ragusina, that 48 uses were related to medical properties: alteration of Chondrilla juncea, and Euphorbia characias). Birds that land blood pressure (n = 9), haemorrhoids (n = 3), depurative on these stems while frequenting feeders or watering points (n = 9), anxiety (n = 9), diarrhoea (n = 9), heartburn are captured in this way. Catching tools include plants that (n = 2), indigestion (n = 8), liver disease (n = 9), loss are used to construct hunter refuges (e.g., Arundo donax, of appetite (n = 19), constipation(n = 11), helminthiasis Phragmites australis, and Viscum album) or decoys that are (n = 8), cough (n = 7), cold (n = 16), respiratory used to attract other birds to the nets (e.g., Brachypodium problems (n = 8), hyperglycemia (n = 9), anaemia (n = 2), retusum and Hyparrhenia hirta). Capture nets must blend hypercholesterolemia (n = 1), retention of liquids (n = in with the terrain conditions; therefore, they are dyed a 16), undefined symptom (tonic) (n = 7), gout (n = 3), matte colour that is as close as possible to the surrounding rheumatism (n = 5), inflammation of bones or joints (n = environment. Hunters use an infusion of certain plants 11), undefined symptom (analgesic) (n = 4), injury (n = (e.g., Punica granatum, Pinus halepensis, and Pinus pinea)to 13), burns (n = 4), kidney stones (n = 2), menstruation produce these dyes. (n = 5), lack of breast milk secretion (n = 2), ischocholia Furthermore, many of the species were used to produce (n = 6), chilblains (n = 3), pimples (n = 5), skin diseases the seeds and wild vegetables (18.81%) used to feed birds (n = 3), eczema (n = 5), skin fungus (n = 1), rubefaction in captivity. Plants that facilitate breeding include the ones (n = 1), calluses and skin hardness (n = 3), warts (n = 11), that are used by birds in captivity to build nests (e.g., Agave bacteria (n = 2), microbes (n = 5), headache (n = 2), americana, Cannabis sativa, Chamaerops humilis, Paronychia inflammation (n = 11), fever (n = 3), alopecia (n = 1), argentea,and Phoenix dactylifera), feed their offspring (e.g., flushing (refreshing) (n = 3), alcoholism (n = 1), toothache Brassica oleracea var. italica), and stimulate mating (e.g., (n = 8), mineral deficiency (n = 1), and eye infection Urtica dioica and Urtica urens). Breeders used the fruits and (n = 2). rootsofsomeplants(e.g., Daucus carota, Fragaria vesca,and We only found three vulnerary plants for finches; Rubus ulmifolius) to enhance the natural red factor in some however, there are 13 species of the total used for this use species of birds, providing natural pigments, particularly in humans. There are three antibacterial plants in birds, in Carduelis cannabina and Carduelis carduelis.Currently, whileinhumanswefound twodifferent species (Portulaca the cages are made principally from metal or synthetic oleracea and Centaurea aspera). One plant is disinfectant materials; however, informants can identify the specific for finches, while in humans there are 5 antiseptics to natural materials that are used to be used to build cages eliminate microbes (Foeniculum vulgare, Centaurea aspera, and cage accessories (e.g., Arundo donax, Daphne gnidium, Pinus halepensis, Lavandula latifolia, and Rubus ulmifolius) Phragmites australis,and Nerium oleander). and fungal species (Centaurea aspera). Twenty eight species Birds in captivity may suffer from certain diseases, and are used as a laxative treatment in birds, whereas only eleven breeders often try to cure these birds by using natural, plant- have the same medical use for humans. Conversely, we found based remedies. Thus, there are some vulnerary plants (e.g., no plants that are probiotic or that stop bleeding in humans. Chelidonium majus and Rosa agrestis) and others that stop haemorrhages (e.g., ash of Nicotiana tabacum). Some species 4. Discussion have antibacterial properties (e.g., Cicer arietinum, vinegar of Malus domestica, and Citrus limon), or they promote Traditionally, nutritive uses [45] and curative applications moulting (e.g., Lavandula latifolia), have disinfectant func- [46] of ethnobotanical knowledge have been linked to tions to eliminate microbes (e.g., Pistacia lentiscus), or can women. They have demonstrated a high knowledge of both Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 9 Figure 2: Local bird breeder. Figure 4: Goldfinch claim in Centaurea aspera. of seeds that he/she deems most appropriate. However, some breeders use leafy vegetables to feed birds and supplement their diet of dried seeds. These plants are used mainly in summer, during the birds’ moulting period and as a laxative. Other species not cited in this study, such as Ilex aquifolium, Viscum cruciatum, or Onopordum nervosum [11–13, 50–52], are used to capture birds in other areas. Moreover, some plants also have different veterinary uses in other Mediterranean regions. Thus, some authors show that several species, such as Stellaria media, Avena sativa, and Urtica dioica, are used to increase fertility and egg production in chickens. Urtica urens is mixed with feed for Figure 3: Traditional hunting method using nets. hens so that they lay eggs earlier in their lifespan and as a result, the eggshells will be harder. Cirsium arvense, Daphne gnidium, Phragmites australis, and Linum usitatissimum are wild andcultivatedspecies [47, 48], especially in rural areas antidiarrhoeal and have been used to favour digestion. [7]. In contrast, wild bird hunting is traditionally a male- Allium sativum, Daphne gnidium, Nerium oleander, and dominated pastime. Therefore, we want to highlight that Nicotiana tabacum are useful against parasites on farms, the stakeholders have high know-how, which reflects their and Cicer arietinum is used to facilitate the expulsion of identification of different species and their applications. The the placenta and for purgation in goats and sheep. Olea names and traditional uses can vary depending on geo- europaea is used to treat mastitis or to detoxicate, and latex graphical location, as vernacular names serve as intangible from Chelidonium majus and Pinus halepensis is used to treat heritage. Thus, it is necessary to preserve this heritage and wounds [17, 19, 21, 53]. With these data, we can verify that promote educational and awareness programmes [20]. there is a popular tradition for the use of ethnoveterinary The cultural importance index corresponds with an plants in Mediterranean areas. interest in detailing the specific uses of plants that better Furthermore, some species identified without human reflect the cultural aspects of plant utilization. In fact, medicine use in the study area have them in other Spanish ethnobotanical publications usually present plant uses in regions [5, 54–57], such as Avena sativa (toothache and quit- tables or catalogues, where the information is grouped by ting smoking), Bituminaria bituminosa (vulnerary), Brassica species, indicating their particular uses and, commonly, oleracea var. italica (vulnerary, remineralizing, headache, the number of informants who mentioned them. This way and anthelmintic), Brassica rapa (culinary), Cannabis of grouping is much more reasonable for evaluating the sativa (refreshing and relaxing), Chelidonium majus (anti- importance of each plant species by its cultural consensus cholagogue, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, [8]. This additive index takes into account not only the warts, laxative, and vulnerary), Conyza bonariensis (diges- spread of use (number of informants) for each species, but tive), Helianthus annuus (febrifuge), Phagnalon saxatile also its versatility, that is, the diversity of its uses [17]. Thus, (carminative, analgesic, and cholesterol levels), Phalaris Cannabis sativa and Phalaris canariensis have the greatest canariensis (cholesterol), Scorzonera hispanica (diuretic, uric CI, being the principal commercial seed and, moreover, acid, and cholesterol), Senecio vulgaris (anti-inflammatory Cannabis sativa has other uses. In contrast, the lowest CI are and antiseptic), and Viscum album (anticatarrhal, antiseptic, in plants that are used to cure or have no typical uses and are antivariolous, parasiticide, salutiferous, and sedative). Other not used by informants to breed songbirds. species, such as Carthamus tinctorius, Centaurea mariolensis, Various mixes of dried seeds, composed of seeds from Centaurea melitensis, Guizotia abyssinica, Panicum mili- different species, both wild and cultivated, are used to feed aceum, Perilla frutescens, Setaria italica, and Spinacia oleracea, birds in captivity [49]. Each bird breeder uses the mixture do not present other applications in humans, according to 10 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Table 2: Number and frequency of plants used for a specific human use. Medical No. of Bird Pathologic group Human use Frequency code species veterinarian Alteration of blood pressure 1 9 9.28 Circulatory system Haemorrhoids 2 3 3.09 Undefined symptom (depurative) 3 9 9.28 Mental illness Anxiety 4 9 9.28 Diarrhoea 5 9 9.28 1 Heartburn 6 2 2.06 Indigestion 7 8 8.25 1 probiotic Digestive system Liver disease 8 4 4.12 Loss of appetite 9 19 19.59 Constipation 10 11 11.34 28 Helminthiasis 11 8 8.25 6 Cough 12 7 7.22 Respiratory system Cold 13 16 16.49 Respiratory problems 14 8 8.25 Hyperglycemia 15 9 9.28 Anaemia 16 2 2.06 1 Hypercholesterolemia 17 1 1.03 Metabolism,nutrition,and so forth Retention of liquids 18 16 16.49 Undefined symptom (Tonic) 19 7 7.22 1 Gout 20 3 3.09 Rheumatism 21 5 5.15 Bones, joints, and so forth Inflammation 22 1 1.03 Undefined symptom (analgesic) 23 4 4.12 Injury 24 13 13.40 3 Traumatic injuries and poisoning Burns 25 4 4.12 Kidney stones 26 2 2.06 Menstruation 27 5 5.15 Genital urinary Lack of breast milk secretion 28 2 2.06 Ischocholia 29 6 6.19 Chilblain 30 3 3.09 Pimples 31 5 5.15 Skin problems 32 3 3.09 Skin and subcutaneous tissues Eczema 33 5 5.15 Skin fungus 34 1 1.03 Rubefaction 35 1 1.03 Calluses and skin hardness 36 2 2.06 Warts 37 11 11.34 Infectious and parasitic diseases Bacteria 38 2 2.06 3 Microbes 39 5 5.15 1 Headache 40 2 2.06 Inflammation 41 11 11.34 Fever 42 3 3.09 Symptoms, signs, and poorly defined Alopecia 43 1 1.03 morbid states Flushing 44 3 3.09 Alcoholism 45 1 1.03 Toothache 46 8 8.25 Mineral deficiency 47 1 1.03 1 molting Nervous system and sensory organs Eye infection 48 2 2.06 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11 these references. This may be due to the rarity of these species References or that they are not traditionally cultivated species in the [1] A. Agelet, M. A. Bonet, and J. Valles, ` “Homegardens and their area. role as a main source of medicinal plants in mountain regions However, some of the species studied in this project of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula),” Economic Botany, vol. 54, are in the group of the top vascular plants in traditional no. 3, pp. 295–309, 2000. phytotherapy in other regions, such as Allium sativum (anti- [2] D. Raja, C. Blanche, and J. Xirau, “Contribution to the knowl- nostalgic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory/antalgic, antiver- edge of the pharmaceutical ethnobotany of La Segarra region rucose, and antibronchitic), Foeniculum vulgare (carmina- (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, tive, cold, intestinal anti-inflammatory, laxative, gastralgia, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 149–160, 1997. diuretic, and antihalitosis), and Olea europaea (antihyper- ` [3] M. A. Bonet, M. Parada, A. Selga, and J. Valles, ` “Studies on tensive, hyperglycemia, hernia, food poisoning, heartburn, pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the regions of L’Alt Emporda` warts, cough, erysipelas, sores, psoriasis, burns, hoarseness, and Les Guilleries (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 68, no. 1–3, pp. 145–168, 1999. baldness, rheumatism, antipyretic, antiseptic, laxative, and [4] A. Agelet and J. Valles, ` “Studies on pharmaceutical ethnob- antinostalgic) [18, 58]. otany in the region of Pallars (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian On the other hand, bird populations have declined, Peninsula). Part I. General results and new or very rare mainly due to the abandonment of crops, the use of medicinal plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 77, no. pesticides, predation of nests, poaching, increased preda- 1, pp. 57–70, 2001. tion due to changes in their natural habitat, uncontrolled [5] A. Agelet and J. Valles, ` “Studies on pharmaceutical ethnob- development, and in general socioeconomic changes in otany in the region of Pallars (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian recent decades [59]. In this aspect, the mechanization of Peninsula). Part II. New or very rare uses of previously known agricultural practices has changed the structure of these medicinal plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 84, no. agrarian ecosystems, accompanied by a steady degradation 2–3, pp. 211–227, 2003. and loss of landscape elements with important ecological [6] J. Camejo-Rodrigues, L. Ascensa ˜o,M.A.Bonet,and J. Valles, ` functions [60]. To preserve bird populations, it is essential to “An ethnobotanical study of medicinal and aromatic plants maintain fields active. There are many plants linked to these in the Natural Park of ”Serra de Sao Mamede” (Portugal),” environments that birds use daily, such as for food or other Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 89, no. 2–3, pp. 199–209, purposes. [7] A. Belda, F.J. Bellod, and S. R´ıos, “Avance sobre la flora medicinal en la sierra de Mariola (Valencia-Alicante),” Flora 5. Conclusions Montiberica, vol. 28, pp. 29–48, 2004. [8] J. Tard´ıo and M. Pardo-de-Santayana, “Cultural importance In conclusion, data obtained in this research are scarcely indices: a comparative analysis based on the useful wild plants known and show many details of plants related to songbirds, of Southern Cantabria (Northern Spain),” Economic Botany, facilitating access to interesting and novel information. This vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 24–39, 2008. allows recovery of forgotten uses and traditions, highlighting [9] M. A. Bonet and J. Valles, “Use of non-crop food vascular the utilization of different species to attract and cure birds plants in Montseny biosphere reserve (Catalonia, Iberian and their relation to human medicine, and resulting in a very Peninsula),” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutri- interesting contribution to ethnobotanical bibliography. tion, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 225–248, 2002. We found that the majority of the plant species related to [10] J. Tard´ıo, H. Pascual, and R. Morales, “Wild food plants songbirds were wild, reflecting that the wild bird hunters are traditionally used in the province of Madrid, Central Spain,” aware of this preference and exploit this knowledge of wild Economic Botany, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 122–136, 2005. flora in their hunting. This demonstrates that informants [11] L. Mulet, Estudio Etnobotanico ´ de la Provincia de Castellon ´ , have great knowledge of the plants used in traditional Diputacion ´ Provincial de Castellon, ´ 1991. medicine and finch keeping. Also, the majority of species [12] M. Gil-Pinilla, Estudio etnobota ´nicodelafloraaromat ´ ica y have medicinal properties that can be used for informants medicinal del t´ermino municipal de Cantalojas (Guadalajara), Doctoral thesis, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1995. to cure different pathologies. [13] A. Verde, J. Fajardo, D. Rivera, and C. Obon, ´ Etnobotanica ´ en el Entorno del Parque Nacional de Cabane ˜ ros, Organismo Acknowledgments Autonomo ´ Parques Nacionales, Madrid, Spain, 2000. [14] R. Y. Cavero, S. Akerreta, and M. I. Calvo, “Pharmaceutical The authors thank the Conseller´ıa de Medio Ambiente, ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula),” Jour- Agua, Urbanismo y Vivienda, and the rangers who worked nal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 138–146, 2011. with them on the project. They would also like to thank [15] R. Morales, J. Tard´ıo, L. Aceituno, M. Molina, and M. SEPRONA (Department of Nature Protection), Cultural Pardo de Santayana, “Biodiversity and ethnobotany in Spain,” Spanish Wildlife Ornithological Federation (FOCSE), and Memorias de la Real Sociedad Espano ˜ la de Historia Natural, vol. all collaborators who have contributed information to their 9, pp. 157–207, 2011. study, particularly Miguel Segarra Teruel. In addition, they [16] V. Reyes-Garc´ıa, S. Vila, L. Aceituno-Mata et al., “Gendered thank Jose´ Carlos Cristobal and Antonio De la Torre for homegardens: a study in three mountain areas of the iberian the vouchers provided. This study was supported by the peninsula,” Economic Botany, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 235–247, 2010. WADI Project (INCO2003-MPC2-015226), financed by the [17] J. A. Gonzalez, ´ M. Garc´ıa-Barriuso, and F. Amich, “Ethnovet- European Commission. erinary medicine in the Arribes del Duero, western Spain,” 12 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 283– [35] A. Belda and F. J. Bellod, Plantas Medicinales de la Sierra 310, 2011. de Mariola, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alicante, 2007. [18] G. Ben´ıtez, M. R. Gonzalez-T ´ ejero, and J. Molero-Mesa, “Knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine in the Province of [36] L. Serra, Orqu´ıdeas Silvestres de la Comunidad Valenciana, Granada, Andalusia, Spain,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Conselleria de Medio Ambiente de la Generalidad Valenciana, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 429–439, 2012. 2001. [19] R. E. Uncini-Manganelli, F. Camangi, and P. E. Tomei, “Curing [37] L. Serra, Estudio Cr´ıtico de la Flora Vascular de la Provincia animals with plants: traditional usage in Tuscany (Italy),” de Alicante: Aspectos Nomenclaturales, Biogeograficos ´ y de Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 78, no. 2–3, pp. 171–191, Conservacion ´ , vol. 19, Ruizia , 2007. [38] D. Climent, Les Nostres Plantes: (una aproximacio´ multidisci- [20] A. Belda, J. E. Mart´ınez-Per ´ ez, C. Mart´ın, V. Peiro, ´ and E. Seva, plinar al mo´n vegetal de les nostres terres), Alacant Aguaclara, “Plants used to capture and sustain wild finches (Fringillidae) 1992. in Southeast Spain,” Economic Botany, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 367– [39] J. Pellicer, Costumari Botanic: ` Recerques Etnobotaniques ` a Les 373, 2010. Comarques Centrals Valencianes, vol. 1, Edicions del Bullent, [21] R. E. Uncini-Manganelli and P. E. Tomei, Documenti per la Valencia, Spain, 2000. Conoscenza delle Tradizioni Etno-Farmacobotaniche in Toscana, [40] J. Pellicer, Costumari Botanic: ` Recerques Etnobotaniques ` a Les S. Marco litotipo, Accademia Lucchese di Scienze, Lettere ed Comarques Centrals Valencianes, vol. 2, Edicions del Bullent, Arti, Lucca, Italy, 1999. Valencia, Spain, 2000. [22] L. Viegi, A. Pieroni, P. M. Guarrera, and R. Vangelisti, “A [41] J. Pellicer, Costumari Botanic: ` Recerques Etnobotaniques ` a Les review of plants used in folk veterinary medicine in Italy as Comarques Centrals Valencianes, vol. 3, Edicions del Bullent, basis for a databank,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 89, Valencia, Spain, 2004. no. 2–3, pp. 221–244, 2003. [42] O. Guasch, Observacion ´ Participante. Cuadernos [23] L. Clark and J. R. Mason, “Use of nest material as insecticidal Metodolog ´ icos, vol. 20, Centro de Investigaciones Sociolog ´ icas, and anti-pathogenic agents by the European Starling,” Oecolo- Madrid, Spain, 1997. gia, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 169–176, 1985. [43] G. Mateo and M. B. Crespo, Manual Para La Determinacion ´ [24] E. Eythorson, “Sami Fjord fishermen and the state: traditional De La Flora Valenciana,Monograf´ıas de Flora Montiberica 4, knowledge and resource management in northern Norway,” Valencia, Spain, 3th edition, 2003. in Traditional Ecological Knowledge. Concepts and Cases,J.T [44] J. C. Belda and A. Belda, Naturaleza y Salud: Aceites, Cataplas- Inglis, Ed., pp. 133–143, International Development Research mas y Tisanes, Carena Editors S.L., 2008. Centre, Ottawa, Canada, 1993. [45] M. Sundriyal and R. C. Sundriyal, “Wild edible plants of [25] R. E. Johannes, “The need for a centre for the study the Sikkim Himalaya: nutritive values of selected species,” of indigenous fishers’ knowledge,” Contribution to Wise Economic Botany, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 377–390, 2001. Coastal Practices for Sustainable Human Development, 2001, [46] E. Dopico, J. L. San Fabian, and E. Garcia-Vazquez, “Tradi- http://www.csiwisepractices.org/ . tional medicine in twenty-first Spain,” Human Ecology, vol. 36, [26] I. G. Baird, “Local ecological knowledge and small-scale no. 1, pp. 125–129, 2008. freshwater fisheries management in the Mekong river in [47] F. A. J. de Clerck and P. Negreros-Castillo, “Plant species Southern Laos,” in Putting Fishers’ Knowledge to Work,N. of traditional Mayan homegardens of Mexico as analogs for Haggan,C.Brignall, andL.Wood,Eds., pp.87–99, University multistrata agroforests,” Agroforestry Systems,vol. 48, no.3,pp. of British Columbia, 2007. 303–317, 2000. [27] A. Davis and J. R. Wagner, “Who knows? On the importance [48] A. C. Hamilton, “Medicinal plants, conservation and liveli- of identifying ”experts” when researching local ecological hoods,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1477– knowledge,” Human Ecology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 463–489, 2003. 1517, 2004. [28] F. Mart´ınez, Arte de Cocina, Pasteler´ıa, Bizcocher´ıa y Con- [49] H. G. Adams, Cage and Singing Birds: How to Catch, Keep, server´ıa, Extramuros, Madrid, Spain, Facsimile edition pub- Breed, and Rear Them. With Full Directions as to Their Nature, lished in in 1778, Imprenta de Pantaleon ´ Aznar, 2009. Habits, Food, Diseases, Etc, George Routledge, London, UK, [29] Real Academia Espanola, ˜ DiccionariodelaLenguaEspano ˜ la, 22rd edition, 2001. [50] D. Rivera and C. Obon, Las Plantas Medicinales de Nuestra ´ ´ [30] A. Belda, J. E. Martınez, J. Arques, V. Peiro, E. Seva, and Region ´ , Regional de Murcia, 1991. D. Jimenez, ´ “Met ´ odos de caza tradicionales empleados en el [51] D. Rivera,A.Verde,J.Fajardo,C.Inocencio,C.Obon, ´ and CarrascaldelaFontRoja,” Mediterranea, vol. 19, pp. 9–39, M. Heinrich, Gu´ıa Etnobotanica ´ de Los Alimentos Locales Recolectados en la Provincia de Albacete, Instituto de Estudios [31] E. J. Belda, La captura con red de fring´ılidos en la Comunidad Albacetenses “Don Juan Manuel“, Excma. Diputacion ´ de Valenciana en el 2003: estudio cient´ıfico de dicha modalidad Alabacete, 2006. de caza. Informe para la Conselleria de Territorio y Vivienda [52] M. Pardo-de-Santayana, Estudios Etnobotanicos ´ en Campoo de la Generalitat Valenciana, pp. 102, 2003. (Cantabria): Conocimiento y Uso Tradicional de Las Plantas, [32] M. D. Boza, El trampeo y Demas ´ Artes de Caza Tradicionales en Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient´ıficas, 2008. la Pen´ınsula Ib´erica, Editorial Hispano Europea, 2004. [53] A. Pieroni, M. E. Giusti, C. de Pasquale et al., “Circum- [33] M. Natale andL.G.Pidala, ` El Jilguero, Croma press S. A., 2004. mediterranean cultural heritage and medicinal plant uses in [34] A.J. Perez, Atlas climat ´ ico de la Comunidad Valenciana (1961– traditional animal healthcare: a field survey in eight selected 1990),Conseller´ıa de de Obras Publicas, ´ Urbanismo y Trans- areas within the RUBIA project,” Journal of Ethnobiology and porte, 1994. Ethnomedicine, vol. 2, article 16, 2006. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 13 [54] M. Pardo-de-Santayana, J. Tard´ıo, and R. Morales, “The gathering and consumption of wild edible plants in the Campoo (Cantabria, Spain),” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 529–542, 2005. [55] M. Rigat, T. Garnatge, and J. Valles, ` Plantes I Gent. Estudi Etnobotanic ` de l’Alta Vall del Ter, Centre d’Estudis Comarcals del Ripolles, ` 2006. [56] A. Agelet, Plantes Medicinals del Pallars, Impremta Aubert, [57] P. Font, Plantas Medicinales: El Dioscor ´ ides Renovado, Edi- ciones Peninsula S.A, 1999. [58] M. Parada,E.Carrio, ´ M. A. Bonet, and J. Valles, ` “Ethnobotany of the Alt Emporda` region (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula). Plants used in human traditional medicine,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 609–618, 2009. [59] J. E. Mart´ınez-Per ´ ez, A. Belda-Antol´ı, C. Mart´ın-Cantarino, and E. Seva-Roman, ´ “Long-term (1883 to 2008) historical changes in agricultural landscape patterns in a traditional irrigated system of Alicante province, Spain: the case of Lo Contador property (Carrizales of Elche),” in Sustainable Management of Mediterranean Coastal Fresh and Transitional Water Bodies: a Socio-Economic and Environmental Analysis of Changes and Trends to Enhance and Sustain Stakeholder Benefits, F. Scapini, J. M. Boffa, E. Conrad, L. F. Cassar, and M. Nardi, Eds., pp. 29–36, Firenze University Press, 2009. [60] R. B. Sage, D. M. B. Parish, M. I. A. Woodburn, and P. G. L. Thompson, “Songbirds using crops planted on farmland as cover for game birds,” European Journal of Wildlife Research, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 248–253, 2005. MEDIATORS of INFLAMMATION The Scientific Gastroenterology Journal of World Journal Research and Practice Diabetes Research Disease Markers Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Journal of Immunology Research Endocrinology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com BioMed PPAR Research Research International Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Obesity Evidence-Based Journal of Journal of Stem Cells Complementary and Ophthalmology International Alternative Medicine Oncology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Parkinson’s Disease Computational and Behavioural Mathematical Methods AIDS Oxidative Medicine and in Medicine Research and Treatment Cellular Longevity Neurology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Hindawi Publishing Corporation

The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain

Loading next page...
 
/lp/hindawi-publishing-corporation/the-relationship-between-plants-used-to-sustain-finches-fringillidae-zmwcLXGyJ3
Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Copyright
Copyright © 2012 Antonio Belda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ISSN
1741-427X
eISSN
1741-4288
DOI
10.1155/2012/360913
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2012, Article ID 360913, 13 pages doi:10.1155/2012/360913 Research Article The Relationship between Plants Used to Sustain Finches (Fringillidae) and Uses for Human Medicine in Southeast Spain 1 2, 3 2, 3 Antonio Belda, Victoriano Peiro, ´ and Eduardo Seva Departamento Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Campus San Vicente, Apartado 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain Departamento de Ecolog´ıa, Universidad de Alicante, Campus San Vicente, Apartado 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain IMEM, Universidad de Alicante, Campus San Vicente, Apartado 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain Correspondence should be addressed to Antonio Belda, antonio.belda@ua.es Received 29 December 2011; Revised 13 February 2012; Accepted 14 February 2012 Academic Editor: Andrea Pieroni Copyright © 2012 Antonio Belda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. We analyzed plants that are traditionally used by wild bird hunters and breeders to capture and promote captive breeding of Fringillidae (finches or songbirds) in the province of Alicante, Spain. The majority of plants used in songbird breeding have medicinal properties in traditional human medicine (48 different uses); thus, another main goal was to show their relationships with human medical uses. We compiled a list of 97 plant species from 31 botanical families that are used to attract finches and identified 11 different use categories for these plants in finch keeping. The most common uses were for trapping birds and as a source of food for birds in captivity. Cannabis sativa has the greatest cultural importance index (CI = 1.158), and Phalaris canariensis (annual canary grass or alpist) was the most common species used to attract Fringillidae and was used by all informants (n = 158). Most of the 97 species are wild plants and mainly belong to the families Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae and also have medicinal properties for humans. In the study area, the intensification of agriculture and abandonment of traditional management practices have caused the population of many songbirds to decline, as well as the loss of popular ethnographic knowledge. 1. Introduction This practice creates optimal conditions for egg laying and incubation [23]. Throughout the ages, the human race has used plants for The ecological knowledge of local traditional uses that various purposes [1], particularly those that are accessible. depend on the dynamics of natural resources has been In the Iberian Peninsula, several studies have been developed reflected in numerous studies [24–26], considering the eco- on medicinal plants [2–8] and edible flora [9, 10], as well logical knowledge of local communities of hunters, anglers, as some general ethnobotanical studies [11–15], and others and gatherers [27]. about the importance of home gardens and cultivated areas The culture of capturing songbirds was introduced to the in the evolution of useful flora [16]. However, few studies Iberian Peninsula by the Romans and had its beginnings, have described the use of plants in ethnoveterinary medicine as did other forms of hunting, in the absolute necessity of [17, 18], or in attracting and maintaining birds of the human nutrition. Thus, these birds were traditionally caught Fringillidae family in captivity [19, 20]. Plants have been as a source of food in Valencia, at least since the 17th century used in traditional medicine for several thousands of years [28]. Today, following old customs and culinary habits, there to treat and cure diseases in domestic animals and human are still hunters who hunt this group of birds in order to populations, especially native ones [21, 22]. Furthermore, in eat them. On the other hand, the term “pajareros” describes nature, wild birds use particular plant species, which possess people who are dedicated to hunting, breeding, or selling insecticidal and bactericidal properties, to build their nests. birds [29]. Although these birds are not hunted excessively, it 2 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine is essential to monitor and control illegal methods of hunting [34, 35]. The plant species in the province of Alicante Fringillidae and to conserve this family of birds [30]. include sclerophyllous shrubs and trees, which are adapted The capture of birds using a hinged net assembly is to Mediterranean stress conditions. Local flora, consisting a traditional hunting method that is widespread in the of evergreen, coriaceous, glabrous, and aromatic plants, is province of Alicante and elsewhere in the Iberian Peninsula. adapted to conserve water for much of the year. Some These game nets are made with cotton, hemp, or nylon qualities are common to many of these plants, including mesh. They are placed on the ground and have a manual resistance to drought, adaptations to heat, and low tolerance activation system; once a bird enters the net, a rope is to low temperatures. These bioclimatic and biogeographical pulled to trap the bird inside the net (see Photographic conditions favour the development of rare, endemic, and annex). The nets used since the middle ages to capture endangered species [35, 36]. Considering its bioclimatic and several species of Fringillidae intended for use as pets are biogeographical conditions, the province of Alicante may well known among the inhabitants of this zone [31, 32]. potentially give rise to vegetation that can be divided into These birds are relatively easy to maintain and rear in three main types: evergreen oak forest (Rubio longifolia- captivity, and it is easy to train them to participate in singing Quercetum rotundifoliae), ash-maple forest (Fraxino orni- competitions. Thus, at present, the capture of five species Aceretum granatensis), and spiny maquis (Chamaerops of birds (Serinus serinus,“verdecillo”, Carduelis carduelis, humilis—Rhamnus lycioides)[37]. “jilguero”, Carduelis chloris,“verderon ´ ”, Carduelis cannabina, “pardillo,” and Fringilla coelebs, “pinzon ´ ”) is authorized and regulated by law (Council Directive 79/409/EEC and national 2.2. Ethnology. A total of 69 localities were prospected with Laws 4/1989, 62/2006, and 13/2004). What is more, it is oral interviews in all regions of the Alicante province (El an important cultural movement around the Mediterranean Comptat, L’Alcoia, Alt Vinalopo, Vinalopo Mitja, Marina Basin [33]. The current trend is to increase breeding in Baixa, Marina Alta, L’Alacanti, Baix Vinalopo,and Baix captivity and reduce the capture of wild birds. Therefore, it is Segura-Vega Baixa)(Figure 1). Vernacular names of plant important to acquire more knowledge about the traditional species traditionally used were obtained in the field by inter- use of cultivated and wild plants. views with the local population. Ethnological information The main aim of this paper is to document the cross- was based primarily on semistructured interviews, in which cultural comparison between plant uses for songbirds and we gathered information. This ranged from the different humans in Mediterranean environments, relating an eth- plant species used to attract and maintain songbirds, the noveterinary field study and its eventual link to folk therapies season of plant collection, traditional uses of the plant for humans, in order to preserve ethnological knowledge species collected, the composition of commercial mixtures on European folk health. With this purpose in mind, the used to feed captive birds, and folk remedies used to cure information on plant uses for songbirds (capturing, feeding, songbird illnesses, to the environmental problems faced by and breeding) gathered here was collected during fieldwork the community. and complemented with ethnobotanical references. Finally, People with a specific profile were selected in order we would like to contribute to the dissemination of results to obtain high-quality and reliable information. People within the scientific community in order to open a door to interviewed were older (50–85 years old), living in a rural research in other disciplines. environment and from a variety of socioeconomical strata, who had captured and bred birds throughout their lives. We wanted to emphasize the ethnobotanical importance of local variations of plant names and the different applications 2. Materials and Methods of these species. We conducted 158 oral interviews; 95.57% 2.1. Study Area. The province of Alicante is located in (n = 151) of the informants were male and 4.43% the southeast region of Spain, in the southern part of (n = 7) female, and the mean age was 56.7 years. In Valencia. It is geographically located between the coordinates 48 municipalities, inhabitants speak Valencian (variant of ◦  ◦ 38 30 Nand 0 50 E(Figure 1). The total area occupied by Catalan), and Castilian (standard Spanish) is spoken in the the province is 5,863 km , it has a population of 1,783,555 others. inhabitants, and there are 141 localities. The province has a Numerous folk botanical references were examined [38– very mountainous and rugged relief, except for some river 41], including a variety of local books [35], magazines [7], valleys. Thus, approximately 60% of the study area is located and festivals, to obtain information on remedies for animal between elevations of 200 and 1,500 m above sea level. illnesses. Even though the information included in our Due to its geographical location, the province of Alicante analysis arose from an array of different spoken and written has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild temperatures. sources in the study area, the semistructured interviews ◦ ◦ Thus, the average temperatures are between 6.2 and 16.8 revealed many important issues previously unidentified [20]. ◦ ◦ in the coldest month (January) and 20.4 and 30.6 in A digital sound recorder was used to record interviews the hottest (August), with an annual mean of 17.8 .The and to create an audio record of the information. In addition, average annual rainfall is 336 mm, concentrated in spring a photographical archive, with photographs of each of the and autumn, and there is a prominent dry period in summer. species referred to by the informants, was constructed and However, there are some climatic differences between the deposited in the Ecology Department Archive of Alicante coast and the interior of the province, due to its topography University. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3 ◦   ◦   1 0 0 W 0 0 0 N N ◦◦    ◦◦    ◦◦    10 10 0 0 0 0 W W 5 5 0 0 0 0 W W 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 S Spain pain ◦   ◦   1 0 0 W 0 0 0 Figure 1: Map showing the location of the province of Alicante (Spain). Dots represent the localities that were prospected (n = 69). The information gathered in interviews was further some important sources of reference for ethnobotanical and verified by field observations with the stakeholders. This kind alternative medicine for Mediterranean environments in the of investigation, in sociological terms, is called “participant southeastern part of Spain [7, 35, 39–41, 44]. Plant uses have observation” [42]. In this process, hunters were observed been grouped according to cures for different ailments [18]. while they prepared for the hunt and during hunting, and their recreational activities were documented. In these field samplings, we also identified species of plants currently used 3. Results by bird breeders and the techniques used to catch birds. Plants were collected from various parts of the study area We collected 97 species of plants and another variety of one and were identified in the laboratory, using dichotomous of these species, belonging to 31 botanical families, which are keys [43] and registered at the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante used for different purposes. We present the scientific names University). We used Excel 2003 to perform a simple statisti- of these plant species, voucher register, the family to which cal analysis of the data collected; specifically, we calculated they belong, their main uses in finches, relative frequency the relative frequency of citation (RFC) [8] at which each of citation, cultural importance, whether wild or cultivated species of plant was used to attract birds during hunting and types were used, and their medical properties for humans to maintain birds in captivity (in Table 1). Moreover, we cal- (Table 1). culated a cultural importance index (CI) where each addend Compositae, Gramineae, Cruciferae, and Rosaceae are is a measure of the relative importance of each plant use [8]. the families most represented among the plants used to catch Finally, we related the use of these plants for wild and promote breeding of songbirds. In this study, all the finches with their potential human medical use, by using species of birds showed a preference for wild species of plants. Me Med dit iter err ra anean Sea nea an n n Sea ◦   38 0 0 N ◦◦    ◦◦    35 35 3 0 0 0 0 N N 40 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 N N ◦   ◦   38 0 0 N 39 0 0 N 4 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Table 1: Plant species in the study area and their traditional uses in finches and humans. Finch uses: 1, facilitate breeding; 2, attract birds; 3, commercial seed mixes; 4, leafy vegetables; 5, birdliming; 6, material for cages and accessories; 7, catching tools; 8, vermifuge; 9, camouflage of capture nets; 10, provide pigments; 11, cure diseases. Medical human uses: 1, alteration of blood pressure; 2, haemorrhoids; 3, depurative; 4, anxiety; 5, diarrhoea; 6, heartburn; 7, indigestion; 8, liver disease; 9, loss of appetite; 10, constipation; 11, helminthiasis; 12, cough; 13, cold; 14, respiratory problems; 15, hyperglycemia; 16, anaemia; 17, hypercholesterolemia; 18, retention of liquids; 19, undefined symptom (tonic); 20, gout; 21, rheumatism; 22, inflammation of bones or joints; 23, undefined symptom (analgesic); 24, injury; 25, burns; 26, kidney stones; 27, menstruation; 28, lack of breast milk secretion; 29, ischocholia; 30, chilblains; 31, pimples; 32, skin diseases; 33, eczema; 34, skin fungus; 35, rubefaction; 36, calluses and skin hardness; 37, warts; 38, bacteria; 39, microbes; 40, headache; 41, inflammation; 42, fever; 43, alopecia; 44, flushing (refreshing); 45, alcoholism; 46, toothache; 47, mineral deficiency; 48, eye infection. Type: W, wild; C, cultivated. RFC: relative frequency of citation. CI: cultural importance index. Herbarium Medical human Scientific name Family Finch uses RFC CI Type References voucher (ABH) uses Agave americana L. 17879 Agavaceae 1 7.59 0.076 — W [39] Allium sativum L. Seen alive Alliaceae 8 5.06 0.051 41, 13, 5, 21, 30 C [35, 39, 44] Amaranthus blitum L. 3989 Amaranthaceae 2,3 25.32 0.285 — W [41] Anagallis arvensis L. 22647 Primulaceae 4 16.46 0.165 24, 3, 14 W [40] Andryala ragusina L. 4430 Compositae 5 72.15 0.722 31 W [41] Arundo donax L. 32085 Gramineae 6,7 58.23 0.810 1, 48, 12, 22, 18, 3 C [39] Avena sativa L. 10488 Gramineae 3 84.81 0.848 — W Avena sterilis L. 1582 Gramineae 3 78.48 0.785 — W 37, 10, 18, 44, 1, Beta vulgaris L. 10652 Chenopodiaceae 4 30.38 0.304 C[41] 41, 6, 2 Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) C. H. Stirt. 50474 Leguminosae 2 32.91 0.329 — W Brachypodium retusum (Pers.) Beauv. 31248 Gramineae 7 67.09 0.671 1 W [39] Brassica napus L. 39373 Cruciferae 3 89.87 0.899 — C 24, 28, 45, 41, 21, Brassica oleracea L. subsp. oleracea 34847 Cruciferae 4 21.52 0.215 C[41] 18, 10, 48, 4, 7 Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck Seen alive Cruciferae 1,4 62.03 0.924 — C Brassica rapa L. 7969 Cruciferae 3 88.61 0.886 — C Cannabis sativa L. 32225 Cannabaceae 1,3 92.41 1.158 — C Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medicus 47380 Cruciferae 4 16.46 0.165 5, 18, 1, 27 W [40] Carthamus tinctorius L. 3894 Compositae 3 10.13 0.101 — W 9, 7, 15, 24, 34, 38, Centaurea aspera L. 21338 Compositae 2 60.76 0.608 W[7, 35, 40] 41, 1, 13, 39, 19, 29 Centaurea calcitrapa L. 36097 Compositae 2 46.84 0.468 15 W [40] Centaurea mariolensis Rouy 13242 Compositae 2 10.13 0.101 — W Centaurea melitensis L. 36917 Compositae 2 11.39 0.114 — W Chamaerops humilis L. 559 Palmae 1 13.92 0.139 9 W [39] Chelidonium majus L. 18328 Papaveraceae 11 3.8 0.038 — C Chondrilla juncea L. 7142 Compositae 5 49.37 0.494 9 W [39] Cicer arietinum L. 17633 Leguminosae 11 3.8 0.038 31, 18, 13 W [41] Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 5 Table 1: Continued. Herbarium Medical human Scientific name Family Finch uses RFC CI Type References voucher (ABH) uses Cichorium intybus L. 37547 Compositae 3,4 54.43 0.639 18, 19, 10, 9 W [35, 39, 44] Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. 35007 Compositae 2 8.86 0.089 9, 2 C [39] Cirsium monspessulanum (L.) Hill 51477 Compositae 2 10.13 0.101 — W Citrus limon (L.) Burm. Fil. 49856 Rutaceae 11 2.53 0.025 24, 5, 3, 18, 13 C [39] Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. 17943 Compositae 2 12.66 0.127 — C 37, 27, 29, 32, 9, 3, Cynara cardunculus L. 35991 Compositae 2 16.46 0.165 W[7, 35, 41, 44] 8, 18, 15 Cynara scolymus L 31715 Compositae 2 44.3 0.443 — C Daphne gnidium L. 10830 Thymelaeaceae 6,8 41.77 0.481 37, 13, 8, 11, 35 W [7, 35, 39] Daucus carota L. 33104 Umbelliferae 4,10 18.99 0.222 18, 37, 9, 19 W [35, 39] Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) DC. 47963 Cruciferae 2,4 91.14 0.911 — W [40] Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter 39371 Compositae 2 68.35 0.684 24, 1, 26, 17, 46 W [39] Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. 14692 Gramineae 2 6.33 0.063 — W Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav. 41713 Cruciferae 4 20.25 0.203 — W Erucastrum virgatum C. Presl 4460 Cruciferae 2,4 15.19 0.190 — W Euphorbia characias L. 7226 Euphorbiaceae 5 36.71 0.367 8 C [39, 44] 18, 33, 10, 14, 48, Foeniculum vulgare Miller 23129 Umbelliferae 3 24.05 0.241 W[7, 35, 39, 44] 13, 9, 8, 39, 28, 7 Fragaria vesca L. 52157 Rosaceae 4,10 11.39 0.139 13, 30, 20 W [44] Galactites tomentosa Moench 42051 Compositae 2 11.39 0.114 — C Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass. 9666 Compositae 3 87.34 0.873 — W Helianthus annuus L. 5220 Compositae 3 87.34 0.873 — W 24, 29, 42, 27, 20, Heliotropium europaeum L. 14672 Boraginaceae 2 82.28 0.823 W[35, 41] Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Staff 41077 Gramineae 7 32.91 0.329 — C [39] Lactuca sativa L. Seen alive Compositae 3,4 58.23 0.728 44, 47, 4, 46 C [41] Lactuca serriola L. 47376 Compositae 4 22.78 0.228 10, 4 W [41] Laurus nobilis L. 43242 Lauraceae 8 13.92 0.139 14, 13, 9, 7, 6, 31, 8 C [35, 39, 44] 19, 7, 39, 24, 21, Lavandula latifolia Medicus 20246 Labiatae 4,11 37.97 0.456 W[7, 35, 39, 44] 18, 33, 14, 41, 5 10, 33, 21, 31, 24, Linum usitatissimum L. 32017 Linaceae 3 13.92 0.139 W[35, 39] 14, 13, 41, 4 Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. 15843 Cruciferae 4 35.44 0.354 18, 26, 41, 23, 42 W [41] Lygeum spartum L. 8128 Gramineae 5 45.57 0.456 — W Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh. 37495 Rosaceae 4,11 27.85 0.392 7, 37 W [40] Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. and 5273 Compositae 2 13.92 0.139 15 C [41] Cavill. 6 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Table 1: Continued. Herbarium Medical human Scientific name Family Finch uses RFC CI Type References voucher (ABH) uses Nerium oleander L. 46139 Apocynaceae 6,8 30.38 0.411 32 C [39] Nicotiana tabacum L. 4391 Solanaceae 8,11 13.92 0.234 43, 40, 46 W [39] Ocimum basilicum L. Seen alive Labiatae 8 3.8 0.038 7, 4, 8, 13, 10, 5 C [35, 39, 44] 36, 10, 1, 41, 7, 29, Olea europaea L. 17212 Oleaceae 5 5.06 0.051 W[7, 35, 40, 44] 37, 24, 19, 25, 23, 8 Onopordum acanthium L. 11328 Compositae 2 11.39 0.114 — W Panicum miliaceum L. 36589 Gramineae 3 68.35 0.063 — W 14, 12, 46, 23, 9, Papaver rhoeas L. 37589 Papaveraceae 3,4 26.58 0.291 C[7, 35, 39, 44] 18, 13, 4 Papaver somniferum L. 10585 Papaveraceae 3,4 17.72 0.203 13, 4, 5, 12, 46 W [39] Paronychia argentea Lam. 13044 Caryophyllaceae 1 6.33 0.063 18, 24, 1 C [35] Perilla frutescens L. Seen alive Labiatae 3 60.76 0.608 — C Phagnalon saxatile (L.) Cass. 49631 Compositae 2 10.13 0.101 — W Phalaris canariensis L. 14955 Gramineae 3 100 1.000 — W Phoenix dactylifera L. 14303 Palmae 1 10.13 0.101 9 W [39] Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steudel 40289 Gramineae 6,7 64.56 0.918 — W Picris echioides L. 47438 Compositae 2 7.59 0.076 — W [40] 14, 13, 41, 19, 37, Pinus halepensis Miller 37506 Pinaceae 2,5,9 51.9 0.791 W[35, 40, 44] 24, 39 Pinus pinea L. 32768 Pinaceae 3,5,9 7.59 0.120 — C Piptatherum miliaceum (L.) Coss. 6843 Gramineae 3 27.85 0.278 — C Pistacia lentiscus L. 10319 Anacardiaceae 11 6.33 0.063 37 C [39] 41, 38, 15, 44, 33, Portulaca oleracea L. 36619 Portulacaceae 2,3 72.15 0.759 W[40] 23, 18, 11, 4, 25 Punica granatum L. 46140 Punicaceae 9 8.86 0.089 11, 15 W [40] Raphanus sativus L. 51395 Cruciferae 3,4 49.37 0.741 29, 12, 3, 21, 13, W [41] Rosa agrestis Savi 51473 Rosaceae 11 6.33 0.063 18, 41, 24, 4 W [35, 44] 24, 46, 15, 5, 39, 9, Rubus ulmifolius Schott 40230 Rosaceae 4,10 11.39 0.133 W[7, 35, 39, 44] 3, 31 Scolymus hispanicus L. 20754 Compositae 2 40.51 0.405 — W Scolymus maculatus L. 20114 Compositae 2 10.13 0.101 — W Scorzonera hispanica L. 4557 Compositae 4 16.46 0.165 — W Senecio vulgaris L. 7527 Compositae 4 7.59 0.076 — W Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. 16519 Gramineae 3 46.84 0.468 — C 21, 8, 9, 3, 36, 37, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner 32020 Compositae 2 73.42 0.734 27, 29, 32, 15, 1, C[7, 35, 41, 44] 42, 12, 13, 40 Sonchus oleraceus L. 47365 Compositae 4 44.3 0.443 9 W [39] Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 7 Table 1: Continued. Herbarium Medical human Scientific name Family Finch uses RFC CI Type References voucher (ABH) uses Sonchus tenerrimus L. 37483 Compositae 4 40.51 0.405 9 W [39] Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. 3298 Gramineae 3 53.16 0.532 46 W [41] Spinacia oleracea L. Seen alive Chenopodiaceae 4 43.04 0.430 — C Stellaria media (L.) Vill. 10674 Caryophyllaceae 4 11.39 0.114 — W Stipa tenacissima L. 44375 Gramineae 5 92.41 0.924 37 W [39] Taraxacum vulgare (Lam.) Schrank 1808 Compositae 4 49.37 0.494 33, 8 W [44] Thymelaea hirsuta L. 41262 Thymelaeaceae 2 27.85 0.278 11, 10 C [41] Urtica dioica L. 40147 Urticaceae 1,4 26.58 0.316 1, 20, 5, 41, 16, 13 W [7] 21, 13, 41, 3, 30, 9, Urtica urens L. 33640 Urticaceae 1,4,11 34.18 0.424 W[35, 39, 44] 18, 37, 1, 12, 16 Viscum album L. 49508 Viscaceae 7 60.76 0.608 — W 8 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 3.1. Uses in Finches. The most important plant species used host beneficial probiotic bacteria or tonic (e.g., vinegar of by bird breeders are Phalaris canariensis, Cannabis sativa, Malus domestica). Some plants have been used as vermifuge, Stipa tenacissima, Diplotaxis erucoides, and Brassica napus, placed in the breeding carrier, in order to expel parasites representing more than 90% of relative citation frequency (e.g., worms) from the intestines, such as mites (especially (RFC). Among the species with the greatest cultural impor- Syringophilus sp., Dermoglyphus sp., and Dermanyssus sp.) tance, two species with values higher than 1 for the CI and lice (Menacanthus sp. and Goniocotes sp.) that affect index are striking: Cannabis sativa (CI = 1.158) and Phalaris this group of birds. Leafy vegetables are used as a laxative canariensis (CI = 1). In contrast, the lowest CI are in Citrus treatment, the juice of Urtica urens to prevent anaemia, and limon (CI = 0.025), Chelidonium majus, Cicer arietinum, Cicer arietinum is used to stop diarrhoea. To sum up, we Ocimum basilicum (CI = 0.038), Allium sativum,and Olea show the number of species that are used with specific bird europaea (CI = 0.051). veterinarian uses in Table 2. Most of the plant species (24.75%) identified were placed inside nets to attract and capture wild birds in the field 3.2. Human Medicine Uses. According to the ethnobotanical (Figure 2). Thus, once birds have entered the nets, the references consulted, we found 57 plants used in finches hunter pulls a rope, and the birds are trapped (Figures 3 that have medical properties in humans. These species are and 4). The stems of some plants (e.g., Lygeum spartum, used to cure some ailments related to each pathological Olea europaea and Stipa tenacissima) are spread with an group (Table 2). Thus, 48 human uses have been detected adhesive substance called birdlime (“envisque” or “liga” in in the 97 plant species collected in the study area. Silybum local Spanish), obtained from a mixture of resins (e.g., marianum (15), Olea europaea (12), and Centaurea aspera resin from Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea), olive oil (from (12) are the species with greater therapeutic uses. We found Olea europaea), andsomeplants(e.g., Andryala ragusina, that 48 uses were related to medical properties: alteration of Chondrilla juncea, and Euphorbia characias). Birds that land blood pressure (n = 9), haemorrhoids (n = 3), depurative on these stems while frequenting feeders or watering points (n = 9), anxiety (n = 9), diarrhoea (n = 9), heartburn are captured in this way. Catching tools include plants that (n = 2), indigestion (n = 8), liver disease (n = 9), loss are used to construct hunter refuges (e.g., Arundo donax, of appetite (n = 19), constipation(n = 11), helminthiasis Phragmites australis, and Viscum album) or decoys that are (n = 8), cough (n = 7), cold (n = 16), respiratory used to attract other birds to the nets (e.g., Brachypodium problems (n = 8), hyperglycemia (n = 9), anaemia (n = 2), retusum and Hyparrhenia hirta). Capture nets must blend hypercholesterolemia (n = 1), retention of liquids (n = in with the terrain conditions; therefore, they are dyed a 16), undefined symptom (tonic) (n = 7), gout (n = 3), matte colour that is as close as possible to the surrounding rheumatism (n = 5), inflammation of bones or joints (n = environment. Hunters use an infusion of certain plants 11), undefined symptom (analgesic) (n = 4), injury (n = (e.g., Punica granatum, Pinus halepensis, and Pinus pinea)to 13), burns (n = 4), kidney stones (n = 2), menstruation produce these dyes. (n = 5), lack of breast milk secretion (n = 2), ischocholia Furthermore, many of the species were used to produce (n = 6), chilblains (n = 3), pimples (n = 5), skin diseases the seeds and wild vegetables (18.81%) used to feed birds (n = 3), eczema (n = 5), skin fungus (n = 1), rubefaction in captivity. Plants that facilitate breeding include the ones (n = 1), calluses and skin hardness (n = 3), warts (n = 11), that are used by birds in captivity to build nests (e.g., Agave bacteria (n = 2), microbes (n = 5), headache (n = 2), americana, Cannabis sativa, Chamaerops humilis, Paronychia inflammation (n = 11), fever (n = 3), alopecia (n = 1), argentea,and Phoenix dactylifera), feed their offspring (e.g., flushing (refreshing) (n = 3), alcoholism (n = 1), toothache Brassica oleracea var. italica), and stimulate mating (e.g., (n = 8), mineral deficiency (n = 1), and eye infection Urtica dioica and Urtica urens). Breeders used the fruits and (n = 2). rootsofsomeplants(e.g., Daucus carota, Fragaria vesca,and We only found three vulnerary plants for finches; Rubus ulmifolius) to enhance the natural red factor in some however, there are 13 species of the total used for this use species of birds, providing natural pigments, particularly in humans. There are three antibacterial plants in birds, in Carduelis cannabina and Carduelis carduelis.Currently, whileinhumanswefound twodifferent species (Portulaca the cages are made principally from metal or synthetic oleracea and Centaurea aspera). One plant is disinfectant materials; however, informants can identify the specific for finches, while in humans there are 5 antiseptics to natural materials that are used to be used to build cages eliminate microbes (Foeniculum vulgare, Centaurea aspera, and cage accessories (e.g., Arundo donax, Daphne gnidium, Pinus halepensis, Lavandula latifolia, and Rubus ulmifolius) Phragmites australis,and Nerium oleander). and fungal species (Centaurea aspera). Twenty eight species Birds in captivity may suffer from certain diseases, and are used as a laxative treatment in birds, whereas only eleven breeders often try to cure these birds by using natural, plant- have the same medical use for humans. Conversely, we found based remedies. Thus, there are some vulnerary plants (e.g., no plants that are probiotic or that stop bleeding in humans. Chelidonium majus and Rosa agrestis) and others that stop haemorrhages (e.g., ash of Nicotiana tabacum). Some species 4. Discussion have antibacterial properties (e.g., Cicer arietinum, vinegar of Malus domestica, and Citrus limon), or they promote Traditionally, nutritive uses [45] and curative applications moulting (e.g., Lavandula latifolia), have disinfectant func- [46] of ethnobotanical knowledge have been linked to tions to eliminate microbes (e.g., Pistacia lentiscus), or can women. They have demonstrated a high knowledge of both Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 9 Figure 2: Local bird breeder. Figure 4: Goldfinch claim in Centaurea aspera. of seeds that he/she deems most appropriate. However, some breeders use leafy vegetables to feed birds and supplement their diet of dried seeds. These plants are used mainly in summer, during the birds’ moulting period and as a laxative. Other species not cited in this study, such as Ilex aquifolium, Viscum cruciatum, or Onopordum nervosum [11–13, 50–52], are used to capture birds in other areas. Moreover, some plants also have different veterinary uses in other Mediterranean regions. Thus, some authors show that several species, such as Stellaria media, Avena sativa, and Urtica dioica, are used to increase fertility and egg production in chickens. Urtica urens is mixed with feed for Figure 3: Traditional hunting method using nets. hens so that they lay eggs earlier in their lifespan and as a result, the eggshells will be harder. Cirsium arvense, Daphne gnidium, Phragmites australis, and Linum usitatissimum are wild andcultivatedspecies [47, 48], especially in rural areas antidiarrhoeal and have been used to favour digestion. [7]. In contrast, wild bird hunting is traditionally a male- Allium sativum, Daphne gnidium, Nerium oleander, and dominated pastime. Therefore, we want to highlight that Nicotiana tabacum are useful against parasites on farms, the stakeholders have high know-how, which reflects their and Cicer arietinum is used to facilitate the expulsion of identification of different species and their applications. The the placenta and for purgation in goats and sheep. Olea names and traditional uses can vary depending on geo- europaea is used to treat mastitis or to detoxicate, and latex graphical location, as vernacular names serve as intangible from Chelidonium majus and Pinus halepensis is used to treat heritage. Thus, it is necessary to preserve this heritage and wounds [17, 19, 21, 53]. With these data, we can verify that promote educational and awareness programmes [20]. there is a popular tradition for the use of ethnoveterinary The cultural importance index corresponds with an plants in Mediterranean areas. interest in detailing the specific uses of plants that better Furthermore, some species identified without human reflect the cultural aspects of plant utilization. In fact, medicine use in the study area have them in other Spanish ethnobotanical publications usually present plant uses in regions [5, 54–57], such as Avena sativa (toothache and quit- tables or catalogues, where the information is grouped by ting smoking), Bituminaria bituminosa (vulnerary), Brassica species, indicating their particular uses and, commonly, oleracea var. italica (vulnerary, remineralizing, headache, the number of informants who mentioned them. This way and anthelmintic), Brassica rapa (culinary), Cannabis of grouping is much more reasonable for evaluating the sativa (refreshing and relaxing), Chelidonium majus (anti- importance of each plant species by its cultural consensus cholagogue, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, [8]. This additive index takes into account not only the warts, laxative, and vulnerary), Conyza bonariensis (diges- spread of use (number of informants) for each species, but tive), Helianthus annuus (febrifuge), Phagnalon saxatile also its versatility, that is, the diversity of its uses [17]. Thus, (carminative, analgesic, and cholesterol levels), Phalaris Cannabis sativa and Phalaris canariensis have the greatest canariensis (cholesterol), Scorzonera hispanica (diuretic, uric CI, being the principal commercial seed and, moreover, acid, and cholesterol), Senecio vulgaris (anti-inflammatory Cannabis sativa has other uses. In contrast, the lowest CI are and antiseptic), and Viscum album (anticatarrhal, antiseptic, in plants that are used to cure or have no typical uses and are antivariolous, parasiticide, salutiferous, and sedative). Other not used by informants to breed songbirds. species, such as Carthamus tinctorius, Centaurea mariolensis, Various mixes of dried seeds, composed of seeds from Centaurea melitensis, Guizotia abyssinica, Panicum mili- different species, both wild and cultivated, are used to feed aceum, Perilla frutescens, Setaria italica, and Spinacia oleracea, birds in captivity [49]. Each bird breeder uses the mixture do not present other applications in humans, according to 10 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Table 2: Number and frequency of plants used for a specific human use. Medical No. of Bird Pathologic group Human use Frequency code species veterinarian Alteration of blood pressure 1 9 9.28 Circulatory system Haemorrhoids 2 3 3.09 Undefined symptom (depurative) 3 9 9.28 Mental illness Anxiety 4 9 9.28 Diarrhoea 5 9 9.28 1 Heartburn 6 2 2.06 Indigestion 7 8 8.25 1 probiotic Digestive system Liver disease 8 4 4.12 Loss of appetite 9 19 19.59 Constipation 10 11 11.34 28 Helminthiasis 11 8 8.25 6 Cough 12 7 7.22 Respiratory system Cold 13 16 16.49 Respiratory problems 14 8 8.25 Hyperglycemia 15 9 9.28 Anaemia 16 2 2.06 1 Hypercholesterolemia 17 1 1.03 Metabolism,nutrition,and so forth Retention of liquids 18 16 16.49 Undefined symptom (Tonic) 19 7 7.22 1 Gout 20 3 3.09 Rheumatism 21 5 5.15 Bones, joints, and so forth Inflammation 22 1 1.03 Undefined symptom (analgesic) 23 4 4.12 Injury 24 13 13.40 3 Traumatic injuries and poisoning Burns 25 4 4.12 Kidney stones 26 2 2.06 Menstruation 27 5 5.15 Genital urinary Lack of breast milk secretion 28 2 2.06 Ischocholia 29 6 6.19 Chilblain 30 3 3.09 Pimples 31 5 5.15 Skin problems 32 3 3.09 Skin and subcutaneous tissues Eczema 33 5 5.15 Skin fungus 34 1 1.03 Rubefaction 35 1 1.03 Calluses and skin hardness 36 2 2.06 Warts 37 11 11.34 Infectious and parasitic diseases Bacteria 38 2 2.06 3 Microbes 39 5 5.15 1 Headache 40 2 2.06 Inflammation 41 11 11.34 Fever 42 3 3.09 Symptoms, signs, and poorly defined Alopecia 43 1 1.03 morbid states Flushing 44 3 3.09 Alcoholism 45 1 1.03 Toothache 46 8 8.25 Mineral deficiency 47 1 1.03 1 molting Nervous system and sensory organs Eye infection 48 2 2.06 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11 these references. This may be due to the rarity of these species References or that they are not traditionally cultivated species in the [1] A. Agelet, M. A. Bonet, and J. Valles, ` “Homegardens and their area. role as a main source of medicinal plants in mountain regions However, some of the species studied in this project of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula),” Economic Botany, vol. 54, are in the group of the top vascular plants in traditional no. 3, pp. 295–309, 2000. phytotherapy in other regions, such as Allium sativum (anti- [2] D. Raja, C. Blanche, and J. Xirau, “Contribution to the knowl- nostalgic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory/antalgic, antiver- edge of the pharmaceutical ethnobotany of La Segarra region rucose, and antibronchitic), Foeniculum vulgare (carmina- (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, tive, cold, intestinal anti-inflammatory, laxative, gastralgia, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 149–160, 1997. diuretic, and antihalitosis), and Olea europaea (antihyper- ` [3] M. A. Bonet, M. Parada, A. Selga, and J. Valles, ` “Studies on tensive, hyperglycemia, hernia, food poisoning, heartburn, pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the regions of L’Alt Emporda` warts, cough, erysipelas, sores, psoriasis, burns, hoarseness, and Les Guilleries (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 68, no. 1–3, pp. 145–168, 1999. baldness, rheumatism, antipyretic, antiseptic, laxative, and [4] A. Agelet and J. Valles, ` “Studies on pharmaceutical ethnob- antinostalgic) [18, 58]. otany in the region of Pallars (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian On the other hand, bird populations have declined, Peninsula). Part I. General results and new or very rare mainly due to the abandonment of crops, the use of medicinal plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 77, no. pesticides, predation of nests, poaching, increased preda- 1, pp. 57–70, 2001. tion due to changes in their natural habitat, uncontrolled [5] A. Agelet and J. Valles, ` “Studies on pharmaceutical ethnob- development, and in general socioeconomic changes in otany in the region of Pallars (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian recent decades [59]. In this aspect, the mechanization of Peninsula). Part II. New or very rare uses of previously known agricultural practices has changed the structure of these medicinal plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 84, no. agrarian ecosystems, accompanied by a steady degradation 2–3, pp. 211–227, 2003. and loss of landscape elements with important ecological [6] J. Camejo-Rodrigues, L. Ascensa ˜o,M.A.Bonet,and J. Valles, ` functions [60]. To preserve bird populations, it is essential to “An ethnobotanical study of medicinal and aromatic plants maintain fields active. There are many plants linked to these in the Natural Park of ”Serra de Sao Mamede” (Portugal),” environments that birds use daily, such as for food or other Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 89, no. 2–3, pp. 199–209, purposes. [7] A. Belda, F.J. Bellod, and S. R´ıos, “Avance sobre la flora medicinal en la sierra de Mariola (Valencia-Alicante),” Flora 5. Conclusions Montiberica, vol. 28, pp. 29–48, 2004. [8] J. Tard´ıo and M. Pardo-de-Santayana, “Cultural importance In conclusion, data obtained in this research are scarcely indices: a comparative analysis based on the useful wild plants known and show many details of plants related to songbirds, of Southern Cantabria (Northern Spain),” Economic Botany, facilitating access to interesting and novel information. This vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 24–39, 2008. allows recovery of forgotten uses and traditions, highlighting [9] M. A. Bonet and J. Valles, “Use of non-crop food vascular the utilization of different species to attract and cure birds plants in Montseny biosphere reserve (Catalonia, Iberian and their relation to human medicine, and resulting in a very Peninsula),” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutri- interesting contribution to ethnobotanical bibliography. tion, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 225–248, 2002. We found that the majority of the plant species related to [10] J. Tard´ıo, H. Pascual, and R. Morales, “Wild food plants songbirds were wild, reflecting that the wild bird hunters are traditionally used in the province of Madrid, Central Spain,” aware of this preference and exploit this knowledge of wild Economic Botany, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 122–136, 2005. flora in their hunting. This demonstrates that informants [11] L. Mulet, Estudio Etnobotanico ´ de la Provincia de Castellon ´ , have great knowledge of the plants used in traditional Diputacion ´ Provincial de Castellon, ´ 1991. medicine and finch keeping. Also, the majority of species [12] M. Gil-Pinilla, Estudio etnobota ´nicodelafloraaromat ´ ica y have medicinal properties that can be used for informants medicinal del t´ermino municipal de Cantalojas (Guadalajara), Doctoral thesis, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 1995. to cure different pathologies. [13] A. Verde, J. Fajardo, D. Rivera, and C. Obon, ´ Etnobotanica ´ en el Entorno del Parque Nacional de Cabane ˜ ros, Organismo Acknowledgments Autonomo ´ Parques Nacionales, Madrid, Spain, 2000. [14] R. Y. Cavero, S. Akerreta, and M. I. Calvo, “Pharmaceutical The authors thank the Conseller´ıa de Medio Ambiente, ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula),” Jour- Agua, Urbanismo y Vivienda, and the rangers who worked nal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 138–146, 2011. with them on the project. They would also like to thank [15] R. Morales, J. Tard´ıo, L. Aceituno, M. Molina, and M. SEPRONA (Department of Nature Protection), Cultural Pardo de Santayana, “Biodiversity and ethnobotany in Spain,” Spanish Wildlife Ornithological Federation (FOCSE), and Memorias de la Real Sociedad Espano ˜ la de Historia Natural, vol. all collaborators who have contributed information to their 9, pp. 157–207, 2011. study, particularly Miguel Segarra Teruel. In addition, they [16] V. Reyes-Garc´ıa, S. Vila, L. Aceituno-Mata et al., “Gendered thank Jose´ Carlos Cristobal and Antonio De la Torre for homegardens: a study in three mountain areas of the iberian the vouchers provided. This study was supported by the peninsula,” Economic Botany, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 235–247, 2010. WADI Project (INCO2003-MPC2-015226), financed by the [17] J. A. Gonzalez, ´ M. Garc´ıa-Barriuso, and F. Amich, “Ethnovet- European Commission. erinary medicine in the Arribes del Duero, western Spain,” 12 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 283– [35] A. Belda and F. J. Bellod, Plantas Medicinales de la Sierra 310, 2011. de Mariola, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alicante, 2007. [18] G. Ben´ıtez, M. R. Gonzalez-T ´ ejero, and J. Molero-Mesa, “Knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine in the Province of [36] L. Serra, Orqu´ıdeas Silvestres de la Comunidad Valenciana, Granada, Andalusia, Spain,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Conselleria de Medio Ambiente de la Generalidad Valenciana, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 429–439, 2012. 2001. [19] R. E. Uncini-Manganelli, F. Camangi, and P. E. Tomei, “Curing [37] L. Serra, Estudio Cr´ıtico de la Flora Vascular de la Provincia animals with plants: traditional usage in Tuscany (Italy),” de Alicante: Aspectos Nomenclaturales, Biogeograficos ´ y de Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 78, no. 2–3, pp. 171–191, Conservacion ´ , vol. 19, Ruizia , 2007. [38] D. Climent, Les Nostres Plantes: (una aproximacio´ multidisci- [20] A. Belda, J. E. Mart´ınez-Per ´ ez, C. Mart´ın, V. Peiro, ´ and E. Seva, plinar al mo´n vegetal de les nostres terres), Alacant Aguaclara, “Plants used to capture and sustain wild finches (Fringillidae) 1992. in Southeast Spain,” Economic Botany, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 367– [39] J. Pellicer, Costumari Botanic: ` Recerques Etnobotaniques ` a Les 373, 2010. Comarques Centrals Valencianes, vol. 1, Edicions del Bullent, [21] R. E. Uncini-Manganelli and P. E. Tomei, Documenti per la Valencia, Spain, 2000. Conoscenza delle Tradizioni Etno-Farmacobotaniche in Toscana, [40] J. Pellicer, Costumari Botanic: ` Recerques Etnobotaniques ` a Les S. Marco litotipo, Accademia Lucchese di Scienze, Lettere ed Comarques Centrals Valencianes, vol. 2, Edicions del Bullent, Arti, Lucca, Italy, 1999. Valencia, Spain, 2000. [22] L. Viegi, A. Pieroni, P. M. Guarrera, and R. Vangelisti, “A [41] J. Pellicer, Costumari Botanic: ` Recerques Etnobotaniques ` a Les review of plants used in folk veterinary medicine in Italy as Comarques Centrals Valencianes, vol. 3, Edicions del Bullent, basis for a databank,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 89, Valencia, Spain, 2004. no. 2–3, pp. 221–244, 2003. [42] O. Guasch, Observacion ´ Participante. Cuadernos [23] L. Clark and J. R. Mason, “Use of nest material as insecticidal Metodolog ´ icos, vol. 20, Centro de Investigaciones Sociolog ´ icas, and anti-pathogenic agents by the European Starling,” Oecolo- Madrid, Spain, 1997. gia, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 169–176, 1985. [43] G. Mateo and M. B. Crespo, Manual Para La Determinacion ´ [24] E. Eythorson, “Sami Fjord fishermen and the state: traditional De La Flora Valenciana,Monograf´ıas de Flora Montiberica 4, knowledge and resource management in northern Norway,” Valencia, Spain, 3th edition, 2003. in Traditional Ecological Knowledge. Concepts and Cases,J.T [44] J. C. Belda and A. Belda, Naturaleza y Salud: Aceites, Cataplas- Inglis, Ed., pp. 133–143, International Development Research mas y Tisanes, Carena Editors S.L., 2008. Centre, Ottawa, Canada, 1993. [45] M. Sundriyal and R. C. Sundriyal, “Wild edible plants of [25] R. E. Johannes, “The need for a centre for the study the Sikkim Himalaya: nutritive values of selected species,” of indigenous fishers’ knowledge,” Contribution to Wise Economic Botany, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 377–390, 2001. Coastal Practices for Sustainable Human Development, 2001, [46] E. Dopico, J. L. San Fabian, and E. Garcia-Vazquez, “Tradi- http://www.csiwisepractices.org/ . tional medicine in twenty-first Spain,” Human Ecology, vol. 36, [26] I. G. Baird, “Local ecological knowledge and small-scale no. 1, pp. 125–129, 2008. freshwater fisheries management in the Mekong river in [47] F. A. J. de Clerck and P. Negreros-Castillo, “Plant species Southern Laos,” in Putting Fishers’ Knowledge to Work,N. of traditional Mayan homegardens of Mexico as analogs for Haggan,C.Brignall, andL.Wood,Eds., pp.87–99, University multistrata agroforests,” Agroforestry Systems,vol. 48, no.3,pp. of British Columbia, 2007. 303–317, 2000. [27] A. Davis and J. R. Wagner, “Who knows? On the importance [48] A. C. Hamilton, “Medicinal plants, conservation and liveli- of identifying ”experts” when researching local ecological hoods,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1477– knowledge,” Human Ecology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 463–489, 2003. 1517, 2004. [28] F. Mart´ınez, Arte de Cocina, Pasteler´ıa, Bizcocher´ıa y Con- [49] H. G. Adams, Cage and Singing Birds: How to Catch, Keep, server´ıa, Extramuros, Madrid, Spain, Facsimile edition pub- Breed, and Rear Them. With Full Directions as to Their Nature, lished in in 1778, Imprenta de Pantaleon ´ Aznar, 2009. Habits, Food, Diseases, Etc, George Routledge, London, UK, [29] Real Academia Espanola, ˜ DiccionariodelaLenguaEspano ˜ la, 22rd edition, 2001. [50] D. Rivera and C. Obon, Las Plantas Medicinales de Nuestra ´ ´ [30] A. Belda, J. E. Martınez, J. Arques, V. Peiro, E. Seva, and Region ´ , Regional de Murcia, 1991. D. Jimenez, ´ “Met ´ odos de caza tradicionales empleados en el [51] D. Rivera,A.Verde,J.Fajardo,C.Inocencio,C.Obon, ´ and CarrascaldelaFontRoja,” Mediterranea, vol. 19, pp. 9–39, M. Heinrich, Gu´ıa Etnobotanica ´ de Los Alimentos Locales Recolectados en la Provincia de Albacete, Instituto de Estudios [31] E. J. Belda, La captura con red de fring´ılidos en la Comunidad Albacetenses “Don Juan Manuel“, Excma. Diputacion ´ de Valenciana en el 2003: estudio cient´ıfico de dicha modalidad Alabacete, 2006. de caza. Informe para la Conselleria de Territorio y Vivienda [52] M. Pardo-de-Santayana, Estudios Etnobotanicos ´ en Campoo de la Generalitat Valenciana, pp. 102, 2003. (Cantabria): Conocimiento y Uso Tradicional de Las Plantas, [32] M. D. Boza, El trampeo y Demas ´ Artes de Caza Tradicionales en Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient´ıficas, 2008. la Pen´ınsula Ib´erica, Editorial Hispano Europea, 2004. [53] A. Pieroni, M. E. Giusti, C. de Pasquale et al., “Circum- [33] M. Natale andL.G.Pidala, ` El Jilguero, Croma press S. A., 2004. mediterranean cultural heritage and medicinal plant uses in [34] A.J. Perez, Atlas climat ´ ico de la Comunidad Valenciana (1961– traditional animal healthcare: a field survey in eight selected 1990),Conseller´ıa de de Obras Publicas, ´ Urbanismo y Trans- areas within the RUBIA project,” Journal of Ethnobiology and porte, 1994. Ethnomedicine, vol. 2, article 16, 2006. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 13 [54] M. Pardo-de-Santayana, J. Tard´ıo, and R. Morales, “The gathering and consumption of wild edible plants in the Campoo (Cantabria, Spain),” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 529–542, 2005. [55] M. Rigat, T. Garnatge, and J. Valles, ` Plantes I Gent. Estudi Etnobotanic ` de l’Alta Vall del Ter, Centre d’Estudis Comarcals del Ripolles, ` 2006. [56] A. Agelet, Plantes Medicinals del Pallars, Impremta Aubert, [57] P. Font, Plantas Medicinales: El Dioscor ´ ides Renovado, Edi- ciones Peninsula S.A, 1999. [58] M. Parada,E.Carrio, ´ M. A. Bonet, and J. Valles, ` “Ethnobotany of the Alt Emporda` region (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula). Plants used in human traditional medicine,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 609–618, 2009. [59] J. E. Mart´ınez-Per ´ ez, A. Belda-Antol´ı, C. Mart´ın-Cantarino, and E. Seva-Roman, ´ “Long-term (1883 to 2008) historical changes in agricultural landscape patterns in a traditional irrigated system of Alicante province, Spain: the case of Lo Contador property (Carrizales of Elche),” in Sustainable Management of Mediterranean Coastal Fresh and Transitional Water Bodies: a Socio-Economic and Environmental Analysis of Changes and Trends to Enhance and Sustain Stakeholder Benefits, F. Scapini, J. M. Boffa, E. Conrad, L. F. Cassar, and M. Nardi, Eds., pp. 29–36, Firenze University Press, 2009. [60] R. B. Sage, D. M. B. Parish, M. I. A. Woodburn, and P. G. L. Thompson, “Songbirds using crops planted on farmland as cover for game birds,” European Journal of Wildlife Research, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 248–253, 2005. MEDIATORS of INFLAMMATION The Scientific Gastroenterology Journal of World Journal Research and Practice Diabetes Research Disease Markers Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Journal of Immunology Research Endocrinology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com BioMed PPAR Research Research International Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Journal of Obesity Evidence-Based Journal of Journal of Stem Cells Complementary and Ophthalmology International Alternative Medicine Oncology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Parkinson’s Disease Computational and Behavioural Mathematical Methods AIDS Oxidative Medicine and in Medicine Research and Treatment Cellular Longevity Neurology Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Journal

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative MedicineHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Apr 30, 2012

References