Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Multiparticipant Geographics Annotation for Interactive Rendezvous and Cooperative Monitoring

Multiparticipant Geographics Annotation for Interactive Rendezvous and Cooperative Monitoring Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Navigation and Observation Volume 2011, Article ID 784969, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2011/784969 Research Article Multiparticipant Geographics Annotation for Interactive Rendezvous and Cooperative Monitoring Kohji Kamejima Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Osaka Institute of Technology, 1-79-1 Kitayama, Hirakata 573-0196, Japan Correspondence should be addressed to Kohji Kamejima, kamejima@is.oit.ac.jp Received 28 April 2011; Revised 16 July 2011; Accepted 24 July 2011 Academic Editor: Jinling Wang Copyright © 2011 Kohji Kamejima. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A new framework is presented for multiparticipant coordination of over-the-horizon maneuvering processes. In this framework, geographical information is decentralizedly augmented via the multitude of annotation processes: landmark localization by map builder, connection generation by planner, and GPS tracking by probe vehicles. By integrating the augmentation process on a common satellite image, the subscriber participants reuse the geographics within specific maneuvering context. Based on graph theoretic representation of the multiparticipant augment process, an interactive geographics annotation system was developed and verified within the context of interactive rendezvous and cooperative monitoring. 1. Introductory Remarks of the geographics annotation system where a vehicle is dispatched to probe the topological and geometric structure Recent advancements of space technology combined with of a district [7]. A time series of the longitude-latitude large scale information networks provide physical-geometric estimate is generated based on pseudoranges from GPS basis for over-the-horizon maneuvering process; for satellites including QEZZ; the estimate is transferred to the instance, current global positioning system (GPS) yields annotation system via data relay site as GPS track along a effective information for dynamic localization of vehicles roadway; adding to it, the probe vehicle captures the scene along roadway areas [1]; the behaviors of such vehicles are images via the on-vehicle camera to upload in association matched with geometric representation of local terrains with the GPS track data. In the geographics annotation for planning [2], regulating [3], and operating [4]vehicle system, the gathered information by the probe vehicle is control processes equipped with self-reliant intelligence. matched with a cut of satellite image provided by earth In many practical situations, the perspective from each observation system, ALOS, for example, The scene image vehicle is confined within the roadway area. This implies at the origin is matched with a small section of satellite that the decision making by each advanced vehicles must image to identify the roadway segment around the GPS be supported by the information to be gathered finally via track date; the roadway segment is extended in the bird’s on-vehicle sensing systems, including machine visions. To eye view to adapt the GPS track data to a feasible path expand the virtual scope of each vehicle, the on-vehicle connecting the origin and the destination. Thus, we have control systems should be dynamically networked as air an as-is articulation of roadway pattern incident to origin traffic control systems [5]. However, in contrast with the and destination landmarks; the images of the landmarks aviation systems, it is not easy to figure out the multitude of are captured by the on-vehicle camera and localized on the vehicle’s trajectories satisfying specific constraints arising in bird’s eye view in association with the segments of the GPS complex local terrain. tracks. The multitude of the vehicles, thus, can be exploited By networking GPS satellites and vehicle control systems as probes for feasible segmentation of roadway patters with the earth observation systems, we can articulate the connecting landmarks. Such a look-and-feel representation multitude of maneuvering processes within a bird’s eye view provides the virtual scope of the as-is geography as the of local terrains. Figure 1 displays a current implementation basis for over-the-horizon coordination of the maneuvering 2 International Journal of Navigation and Observation match design steps to cooperatively generate maneuvering winds/jaxa processes towards a rendezvous point by mutual consent within the vista of the satellite image. Adding to it, the qzss/jaxa augmented annotation through the maneuvering processes can be exploited as a prediction of the scene for participant alos/jaxa vehicles. Pseudo range Longitude- Satellite image latitude Despite the simultaneous visualization of mechanical annotations by probe vehicles with symbolic design by human designers, it is not easy to associate the chain of the landmark symbols with a part of a vehicles trajectory nor to identify the GPS track as a variation of symbolic design within the complex constraints arising in the local terrain. To expand the virtual scope for interactive coordination of the over-the-horizon maneuvering processes on the geographics Probe vehicle annotation, in this paper, we consider dynamic integration Geographics annotation of mechanical and human aspects of geographics annotation processes. The problem is to identify the symbolic repre- Figure 1: Geographics annotation system on satellite-roadway- vehicle network. sentations of the maneuvering process as versions of graph minors of a physical entity: a GPS track adapted to the geometric representation of the local terrain. processes; the multitude of the vehicles are exploited as probes for other participant vehicles; the origin-destination 2. Multiparticipant Design of patterns by the probe vehicles are archived and reused as Maneuvering Processes verified roadway patters to be followed. We can augment the information arising in the local To integrate the annotation augmentation processes by terrain in terms of the articulated maneuvering processes; probe vehicles and human designers, the chain of land- the origin-destination landmarks and associated GPS tracks mark symbols and verified GPS tracks are required to be are linked to supplement the topological and geometric identified as two aspects of a physical entity. Following descriptions of the bird’s eye view, respectively. Such aug- the multiaspect concept for complex systems design [10, mented annotations can be utilized by participant vehicles 11], the geographical information should be manipulated as an apriori information to be gathered along the path within the framework of physical symbol system [12]; the connecting origin-destination landmarks. This implies that landmark-path association should be reactively manipu- the annotated geographics can be exploited as the basis lated under physical-geometric constraints governing the of spontaneous coordination of the multitude of the vehi- real world. By using the geographics annotation system cles participating the maneuvering processes. Furthermore, shown in Figure 1, we can simulate a GPS track connecting simultaneous augmentation of geographics annotation with origin-destination landmarks as illustrated in Figure 2; the reference to common landmarks provides computational sceneimagescapturedbyprobing vehicles areretrieved for foundation for the over-the-horizon cooperation of the sampling chromatic diversity as features of roadway area; multitude of the maneuvering processes. For instance, at-a- through precise matching of the chromatic diversity with glance presentation of landmarks within a common satellite the local image around the GPS data, the roadway pattern imagery makes it possible for a participant to design a specific is identified and extended towards a possible destination. path as a chain of expected landmarks towards a preassigned In many practical scenes, we can generate such “future destination. trajectories” beyond the physical-geometric perspective [6]; Symbolically, each maneuvering process can be identified as shown in the “GPS track window” of Figure 2, the future in terms of a graph spanning a specific selection of the trajectories well-simulate the GPS tracks to be observed landmark symbols. Through the design steps, hence, the in subsequent maneuvering process. This implies that we annotation is augmented via the landmark association have an augmented version of geographics by using the within a participant specific context. Noticing the uniqueness simulated GPS track as a feasible connection spanning of the landmark allocation in the bird’s eye views, the selected landmarks. common understanding of the landmark selection on the Through the satellite-roadway-vehicle network, further- ongoing geographics annotation yields a preestablished men- more, the participant vehicle can download local repre- tal space [8] for facilitating linguistic communication among sentation of the annotated geographics along the future the participant designers; the real-time feedback of ongoing trajectories within common understanding of the landmark geographics annotation processes, simultaneously, activates allocation. The consistency and smoothness of simulated not-yet-explicated “programming mechanisms” for unifying GPS tracks implies that the participant vehicles observe spatial and logical mathematical aspects of human’s inherent essential structure of the landmark scene along the future capability [9]. In reference to such dynamic visualization trajectory; the anticipatively observed scenes images can be of on-going geographics annotation, thus, participants can exploited for “presetting” vehicle control systems prior to International Journal of Navigation and Observation 3 In bird’s eye view Planning (predicted and observed) On-vehicle view Prediction Fractal model GPS track Probing Locating Figure 2: Anticipative road following scheme (uplink). Figure 4: Cooperative geographics annotation. and programming participant specific design steps based on dynamic geographics annotation processes. 3. Multiparticipant Graph Generation Physically, a maneuvering process is represented as a trajec- tory within a bird’s eye view of the local terrain. Linguisti- cally, each maneuvering process can be identified in terms of a graph spanning a specific selection of the landmark symbols. Computationally, thus, the multiparticipant design of the maneuvering processes is represented by a cooperative geographics annotation process as illustrated in Figure 4 where the multitude of participants are collectively in charge of asynchronous augmentation of the annotation for possible Figure 3: Anticipative road following scheme (downlink). decision makings; the landmarks may be located by a map builder in a cut of the satellite image on which a path planner may generate symbolic connections within a specific maneuvering context; based on the information gathering physical access; the participant vehicles can control the focus through a session of local probing, on the other hand, a feasible version of landmark connection may be complied to of on-vehicle vision along a segment of the future trajectory as shown in Figure 3. augment the ongoing geographics annotation. To extend the scope of such an over-the-horizon probing As the basis of the multiparticipant annotation, let Ω be an image plane coordinated in terms of (longitude, and planning scheme to the multitude of maneuvering processes, the annotated geographics should be reusable latitude) and consider the information M representing apart from specific context of planner participants; scriber- the dynamic evolution of the geographics within a bird’s eye participants are charged with the reorganization of the design view Ω. In what follows, we identify the image plane Ω with steps according to their own maneuvering context. In spite of the contents: a photocopy of local terrain filling up the image plane. Suppose that the participant specific representations unique localization of the landmarks and GPS tracks as well, the scope of the landmark selection should be supervenient of the world are visualized within the multitude of local on the participant specific context within associated local sections Ω ⊂ Ω, i = 1, 2,... , supporting the participant’s scope m , m , i = 1, 2,.... We introduce the relation m ⊂ M geographics. For supporting such a multicontext computa- i i tion, the spontaneous synchronization scheme is required by Ω ⊂ Ω. The totality of the local sections m ⊂ M is m i to have a mutual access path of multiscope representation designated by installed among the multitude of the participants; the com- F [M]={m | m ⊂ M} mon set of landmarks with geometric association in terms = m | Ω ⊂ Ω . (1) i i i m of GPS tracks should be reorganized and indicated within participant specific scope of the geographics annotation. With look-and-feel order m ⊂ m induced by Ω ⊂ i j m To establish the multitude of human access path to the Ω , such information F [M] provides the multitude of the spontaneous synchronization scheme, in what follows, we participant specific restriction within the entire geographics introduce a new computational framework for visualizing M. By using the class F [M], we can induce an ordered 4 International Journal of Navigation and Observation Equation (6) implies that the scope of the connectioning is extended to the adjacent landmarks with respect to the geographics m. Such a minimal expansion makes it possible Geophysical subdivision for the participants to associate the connections with global information M and local restriction m as well. On a scope m,wedefine the routebyagraphstructure G (N, C | M) embedded in the geographics M;for N ⊂ N to be associated with C ⊂ C, G (N, C | M) is generated within the expansion of the common bird’s eye view Ω. The graph structure provides a basis for the computation of the path connecting the origin and destination landmarks in terms of Reachable Intentional minor the chain of the connections within the graph structure L o d d o L = c n , n ∈ C | n = n , i = 1, 2,... . (7) m i i i i+1 Since there is a unique sequence n , n ,... , n ∈ N, satisfying 1 2 i Figure 5: Multiscope geographics annotation. o d d o c n , n ∈ C | n = n , i = 1, 2,... i i i i+1 (8) ={c(n , n ) ∈ C | n ∈ N, i = 1, 2,...}, i i+1 i family of local terrains F [Ω] ={Ω },where Ω ⊂ Ω is m m i i the path L can be identified with an ordered set of the support of the local section m ∈ F [M]. landmarks, that is, Within the specific local section m ∈ F [M], the publisher participant localizes a landmark n at ω ∈ Ω ∈ n m L ={n , n ,... , n ∈ N}. m 1 2 i (9) F [Ω]; ω is called the grounding of landmark n; the Following graph theory, we can index the sufficiency of grounding of n is designated by n = ω . The totality of such ⊥ n the geographics annotation prior to the design of path L .If landmarks, the graph G(N, C | M) include at least one spanning tree, the connections should satisfy the following evaluation: N ={n , i = 1, 2,...}, (2) |C|≥ C =|N|− 1, (10) min specifies the multiparticipant extension of the scope into a where |(·)| denotes the size of set (·). Noticing Euler- common geographics M of locally generated landmarks; for each subdescription m ⊂ M, we have the following image- Poincare’ ´ s formula, on the other hand, the geometric based reclustering of N ={n}: distribution of feasible connections in a sufficiently complex geographics should be bounded by the maximum connec- n ∈ Ω −→ n ∈ m. (3) ⊥ m tion in a planar graph. This implies the following 2D upper boundary: Publisher participants introduce symbolic associations |C|≤ C = 3|N|− 6, for |N|≥ 3. (11) max among the landmarks anywhere within their own scope of the geographics m ⊂ M. This implies that a set of origin- Hence, we have the following index for evaluating the apriori destination pairs sufficiency of the connections spanning the geographics: G |C| o d o d C = c n , n , j = 1, 2,... , n , n ∈ N (4) = . j j j j (12) M C · C max min are induced in the common bird’s eye view Ω. The totality By invoking the evaluation (10), (11), it follows that of the origin-destination pairs C is called connections. By |C| |C| d sharing the world image Ω ⊃ Ω , subscriber participants = −→ , 2 3 C · C 3(|N|− 2) · (|N|− 1) expand the horizon of their own maneuvering plan to a chain max min (13) of possible connections on Ω; by invoking the maneuvering (|N|−→∞) records of probing vehicles, the possible connections can be gathered and compiled in the entire geographics M. where d denotes the average degree of the graph structure Suppose that the scope of decision making is confined G (N, C | M). Thus, we have the following evaluation within the landmark set N ⊂ N on local geographics m ∈ G d F [M], that is, √ (14) ∼ , M 2 3 N ={n ⊂ N | n ∈ m}={n ⊂ N | n ∈ Ω }, (5) ⊥ m asymptotically. This implies that we can apriori evaluate the sufficiency of the annotated geographics with respect to the and consider the totality of induced connections given by design of a connected path. Being given the index G/M , in turn, we can estimate a landmark-wise complexity for o d o d C = c n , n ∈ C | (n ∈ m ) ∨ n ∈ m . (6) m m selecting a next connection by d ∼ 2 3 G/M . International Journal of Navigation and Observation 5 4. Geographics Sensitive Graph Manipulation N ⊂ N and C ⊂ C,apath L ={q (n , n +1), t = 1, 2,...} t t m t t t should be selected as a multistage decision steps satisfying the Within the annotated geographics M,amaneuvering process following criterion: is symbolically manipulated as illustrated in Figure 5.To |L | implement physical-geometric maneuvering process within J(G | M) = min n , n | M , (16) the geometric constraints arising in the geographics M, the t t+1 t∈N t=1 origin-destination connection should be paraphrased into a chain of feasible connections on the bird’s eye view Ω. with respect to a properly specified “Markovian cost” This implies that the physically feasible route is generated as q (n , n | M) determined by information M.Along t t t+1 subdivisions of the graph structure G(N, C | M); in turn, the such a conventional optimal path, the dynamics of the o d linguistically simplified connection n − n is computed as a minimal cost V (n | M) is known to satisfy the following t t topological minor [13] of the physical representation. principle of optimality: In many practical situations, the origin-destination con- |Lm| nection is consisting of sufficiently rich gateway networks V (n | M) = min q (n , n | M) t t s s s+1 and a few set of turnpikes linking the gateways. In such a ns∈N s=1 small world [14], the subdivision process is implemented by the following multiscope decomposition within the scope of = min q (n , n | M) + V (n | M). t t t+1 t+1 t+1 nt+1∈N geographics information F [M]: (17) To adapt to the multiparticipant maneuvering processes, o d o d G n , n , c n , n | M we can paraphrase the principle of the optimality on the increasing family of the landmark sets N ⊂ N ⊂··· ⊂ N 1 1 o o −→ G({n , (·)},{c(n , (·))}| M),... , (15a) as follows: d d N = N ∪ dN , N = n , G (·), n , c (·), n | M t+1 t t 0 dN  n : V (N | M ) t t+1 t t t d d −→ G N , C | m ,... , G N , C | m ,... , m m a a a a o o (18) = min q (n , n | M ) t t t+1 t n ∈N t t G N , C | m . mb mb b n ∈N−N t+1 t (15b) + V (N | M ), t+1 t+1 t+1 In (15a), the route connecting the landmark symbols where M denotes the family of annotated geographics sup- o d (n , n ) is subdivided into a chain of stopover land- porting the design steps with respect to (N , C ), s ≤ t.The s s marks. This implies that, in early stage of planning, the halting condition is given by n ∈ N . The existence of the route should be represented in terms of the topological criterion (18) implies that we can design an optimal plan in o d o d minor G({n , n },{c(n , n )}| M). Some landmarks in accordance with a monotone family of ongoing geographics the topological minor can be recompiled into a graph annotation {M } confined by a fixed representation M. structure within local geographics m ,... , m .Thus, we a b have a multiscope subdivision of the original description o d o d 5. Probing-Based Connection Generation G({n , n },{c(n , n )}| M) as indicated in (15b); in the section m , the subdivision (15a)withrespect to M is We can utilize GPS track data as an ordered series of a topological minor of the graph structure G(N , C | m m a a groundings along a really existing path. By articulating the m ). In the local geographics m , on the other hand, a a b time series within the restriction N ⊂ N, we can augment feasible connection is added to yield a connected graph called the annotation in terms of associated connections. reachable expansion; generally, the reachable expansion is On the image plane Ω supporting the geographical not included within the local section. In many naturally information M, the GPS track is identified with a sequence complex scenes, we can generate additional connections of (longitude, latitude) coordinate ω ∈ Ω, that is, between the geophysical subdivision and the reachable graph. L =  , j = 1, 2,... , In the spontaneous synchronization scheme, publisher (19) subscriber participants are required to computationally = ω , k = 1, 2,... . transfer individual representation of maneuvering processes j to each other. Noticing consistent reprogrammability (15a), Let a roadway pattern be detected within a small circle (15b), we can exploit the dynamic graph structure on confined in terms of GPS residual as indicated in Figure 6; increasing family of landmark set N , t = 1, 2,... and the local geometry of the roadway pattern is matched with associated connections C , t = 1, 2,... as the computational the segment basis for the spontaneous synchronization scheme. Through such graph reprogramming, we have a uniquely scoped υ = ω , θ(k | m ) , (20) k k i graph structure for supporting a maneuvering process. Since 6 International Journal of Navigation and Observation Within the fluctuation of GPS track, we can exploit the information  as a geometrically consistent path connecting the landmarks within the satellite image. For preassigned landmark resolution ε , a landmark n with grounding n is said to be a N-contact if the following condition is satisfied: ←− η n ,  <ε . (24) The GPS trajectory adapted to the local terrain Ω is associated with the annotated geographics M as illustrated in Figure 7; the geometrically consistent entity  is partitioned a a a into a sequence of segments  ,  ,  along a design 1 2 3 o ∗ ∗ d of the path L ={n , n , n , n }; simultaneously,  is a a M 1 2 decomposed into the chain of trajectory points  and to be associated with the topological minor directory Figure 6: Roadway pattern segmentation in satellite image [6]. o d connecting final origin-destination pair (n , n )aswell. For a set of landmarks N,wehavethe following partitioning of the set  with respect to N: a n ℓ 2 ∗ 2 a1 =  ,   =∅, n , n ∈ N, n n n 1 2 1 2 n∈N (25) = ω ∈  | ω − n = η(ω , N ) , n k k ⊥ k ⊥ where b d ←− η (ω, (·)) = min|ω − λ|. (26) λ∈(·) Define the following order in the class F [N]: Figure 7: GPS-based connection generation. ∀ω ∈  , ω ∈  : t ≤ k −→  ≤  . (27) t n k m n m Then we have the following ordered partitioning: with origin ω and direction θ(k | m ). Suppose that smoothness of the GPS track is evaluated in terms of the ≤  ≤ ···  ≤ ··· ∼ 1 2 t n backward consistency index given by (28) ≤  ≤ ···  ≤ ··· ,  ∈ F [], n n n 2 t k ⎪  υ · υ k−1 k ;for k> 1, with the forward restriction given by dθ(k | m) =  υ ·  υ (21) k−1 k 1; otherwise. =  ∈ F []|  ≤ t k t k Then, we can select a sequence of segments, called GPS path, as follows: =  ∼  ∈ F [], k = t, k nk (29) V =  υ | dθ(t | m) >ε , t = 1, 2,... , (22) k = t +1, t +2,... . where ε denotes a preassigned regularity level. In practical situations, the regularity level is adjusted to the resolution of ∗ Consider a landmark n ∈ N satisfying the segmentation, that is, ε ∼| υ |,for sufficiently small m k GPS sampling time. By definition, V stands for an estimate ←− ∗ ←− ∗ η n ,  ≤ η n ,  , n , n ∈ N. (30) of feasible trajectory based on the observation L. t ⊥ t Consider the following ordered set called GPS trajectory By selecting a chain of such a t-landmarks with respect to = ω | ω , θ(k | m) ∈ V, k = 1, 2,... . (23) k k the GPS-trajectory , we can induce a connection of the International Journal of Navigation and Observation 7 ∗ ∗ following form: c(n , n ), t = 1, 2,.... Thus, we have a GPS In this case, it is sufficient for the map builder to specify t+1 based connection generation algorithm as follows: a topological minor of the route graph in reference to the complexity index G/M ; via the dynamic probing- Algorithm 1. geographics association, the topological minor is to be subdivided into a feasible set of primitive connections as Step 0. For given GPS track  ={ω }={ω | V},detect k context-free information to be reused by participant users. landmark n satisfying The existence of cooperative geographics augmentation process (35), (36), (37) implies that we can exploit GPS ←− ω − n = η (ω , N ), (31) 1 1 ⊥ trajectories for expanding the space of connections within υ n υ the resolution of the local geographics (ε , ε ). Since ε ∼ m m m set i := 1, then continue. | υ |∼ ε , in many practical situations, we can adjust the GPS-based connectioning system in terms of the geographics Step 1. Select  satisfying resolution ε . ←− = ω ∈  | ω − n = η (ω , N ) . (32) i k k k ⊥ 6. Cooperative Design of Interactive Step 2. Set Rendezvous Process ∗ ∗ n = n ,  =  −  , N = N − n . (33) i i Suppose that a map builder has filled in major landmarks with key connections in a cut of satellite image and con- Step 3. If  =∅ then exit; sider multiparticipant design of a cooperative maneuvering else update n by the landmark satisfying process. The problem is to reuse the basic description ←− ∗ of the geographics within a new context of maneuvering min ω − n = min η (ω , N ), (34) ω ∈ ω ∈ process: cooperative decision making on a rendezvous point i i in accordance with the maneuvering process in reference and set i := i + 1 thenreturnto Step 1. to ongoing geographics annotation. Through interactive geographics annotation, the participants can cooperatively As the result, we have an augmented version of annotated design individual maneuvering process towards a landmark geographics as described in Figure 7.Supported by such a to be determined. The schematics of such an interactive probing-based augmentation, we can reuse the participant rendezvous process is illustrated in Figure 8 where a set of specific design steps within the ongoing geographics annota- landmarks with associated connections is generated on a tion. For instance, we can utilize the GPS trajectory  based satellite image provided by the earth observation system on vehicle specific track data  for extending the space of shown in Figure 1. The maneuvering plan is cooperatively the connection E; to this end, the N-partitioning process designed to select a route graph and indicated on the (25) is applied to the trajectory  to reorganize the t-ordered satellite image; the route graph is continuously verified track (28) into a geographics sensitive representation: a t- by the expansion of the GPS track uploaded through the ordered partitioning (28) satisfying the monotone condition maneuvering process. Simultaneously, the GPS track is (27). Thus, we have an augmentation of connection dC with matched with the annotated geographics to compute the next respect to  on the landmark annotation N, that is, landmark as shown in Figure 2. Based on such annotated geographics, participants commonly understand the goal of N ∨  −→ dC. (35) the current design step. Figures 9 and 10 illustrate an example of annotated When a new landmark n is defined by a map builder, we geographics where a set of landmarks and associated con- can invoke the nearest N-contact detection (24)toyield nections are indicated in a cut of satellite image of 640 the t-forward restriction (29). Such scheme is implemented × 480 resolution; in this digital image, the positioning error by forward and backward application of the connection is supposed to be confined within 20 m × 20 m area in generation Algorithm 1 to expand the space C with a feasible which the GPS residuals were verified to be corrected via the set of connections. This yields an augmentation process with adaptive segmentation scheme as shown in Figure 6. respect to n along the trajectories L: Figure 9 displays an overview of apriori located land- marks with feasible connections on a satellite image spanning n ∨ L −→ dC. (36) a downtown area and a campus; to support the multitude of the participant with individual intention, the paths Such probing-based augmentation of the annotated geo- are subdivided by the annotation system with respect to graphics can be immediately visualized to a user participant indicated landmarks via subdivision algorithm (15a), (15b). to design a maneuvering plan. To this end, the user selects In this case, the resulted the apriori sufficiency index was a chain via the path planning process (7) within the evaluated by G/M ∼ 1.4; by definition, there are defined (N,C) visualization of the annotation consisting of . twice connections of the minimal requirement, that is, |C|∼ 2 · C . Simultaneously, the complexity of graph structure min o d o d c n , n | n , n ∈ L −→ dC. (37) i i i i at a landmark is estimated by d ∼ 4; in average, the network 8 International Journal of Navigation and Observation qzss/jaxa alos/jaxa ω , θ t t Segment Site Path Figure 11: Path planning (by host). Figure 8: Schematics of interactive rendezvous. Figure 12: Self-navigation (by guest). topology at each landmark is identified with a crossroad. In this annotated geographics, a set of local scene images are Figure 9: Initial annotation. attached to each landmark as shown in Figure 10;asequence of landmarks along the designed path can be visualized prior to physical access. Figures 11–16 illustrate a typical performance of the interactive rendezvous process; the goal of the geographics annotation is to cooperatively navigate a guest participant from the junction station in the downtown to a rendezvous point to be determined in the campus area. To design a maneuvering process, the guest-host participants invoke the annotated geographics (Figure 9) with initial representation of the geographics by the host participant as illustrated in Figure 11 where initial selection of the landmarks are associated via a path connecting the station and the campus. In response to the initial design, the guest participant manipulates the geographics in the following three steps. First, the guest invokes a local section focusing the bus pool at the station to get a service to the campus area as illustrated in Figure 12; in this figure, the connections to the bus stop to be selected are marked with the GPS track uploaded by the guest. Next, the guest retrieves another local Figure 10: Landmark images. section as displayed in Figure 13 where a local network of International Journal of Navigation and Observation 9 Figure 15: Verification of maneuvering process (for guest and host) Figure 13: Path selection (by guest). Figure 16: Notification of rendezvous point (for guest and host). Figure 14: Verification of selected path. in Figure 10 as the prediction of the current destination. Thus, the system was demonstrated to support cooperative design of an over-the-horizon maneuvering process through interactive generation of geographics annotation {M } by transportation services are displayed. On board the selected the guest and host participants. service, finally, the guest is notified of the status of the Due to geometric complexity, GPS tracks are often maneuvering process as exhibited in Figure 14; the GPS track deviated from symbolic connections of origin-destination uploaded by the moving guest is displayed to the guest landmarks; the maximum deviation in Figure 15 amounts to and host participants to verify the implementation of the 320 m which is two or three times of landmark granularity designed process. in downtown and campus area. Despite such geometric- Monitoring the transition of the GPS track shown in symbolic discrepancy, the interactive rendezvous system can Figure 15, the host participant makes reference to the local identify the maneuvering process within the multiscope view including the campus area as shown in Figure 16. graph structure to indicate the one-step prediction of In this figure, the planned route of the selected service landmark images throughout the design and verification is indicated with online verification by the GPS track. As steps. the result of the interactive geographical annotation process mentioned above, the host confirms the rendezvous point under simultaneous understanding of the guest participant. 7. Saliency Transfer for Cooperative Monitoring Throughout the multiscope annotation augmentation, the support geographics was fixed to M visualized in Let a segment of the future trajectory be downloaded as a Figure 9. Following multiscope transition, the restrictions priori information of a scene. Following empirical knowledge (5)and (6) were updated to design the maneuvering of ecological optics [15] and inherent preference [16], process satisfying the multiscope optimization condition combined with recent advancements in machine perception (18). In accordance with the extension of the GPS track, [17] and emotional perception [18], the generic structure of the n-partitioning  was updated to identify the nearest the scene can be described in terms of a set of fractal codes subsequent landmark n satisfying (30). As the result, a specifying a roadway area and an aggregation of boundary landmark scene is selected in the visualizations indicated objects. Noting this, the randomness of the scale information 10 International Journal of Navigation and Observation Figure 19: Sign pattern detection. Figure 17: Ground-object structure. Figure 20: Contextual visualization. Figure 18: Distribution of deviated primaries. on-vehicle vision. In fact, we can design a saliency-based mechanism for selectively scanning the sign patterns as demonstrated in Figure 19. By matching the distribution is extracted from the scene image shown in Figure 3 to of detected sign patterns with the ground-object structure identify the ground-object structure as shown in Figure 17 shown in Figure 17, we have a contextual visualization of [7]; guided by the downloaded segment, a fractal code is the scene as demonstrated in Figure 20 where a signal to be designed to recognize a connected open space confined focused is separated from distractive sign boards and other by the distribution of boundary objects. Despite infinite signals confused in noisy background. This implies that we diversity of appearance, natural scenes exhibit environment can utilize landmark images along the future trajectory for specific sign patterns to be identified by inherent vision presetting the on-vehicle vision. system within individual intention of viewers. By simulating Figures 21–22 illustrate another example of experimental not-yet-explicated mechanism of inherent vision, we can a results; saliency patterns are selectively scanned (Figure 21) priori control the focus of on-vehicle vision system to the sign to visualize hazardous vehicle within the context of the patterns to be captured in subsequent scenes. ground-object structure (Figure 22). In this case, the on- Noticing that inherent vision has developed efficient vehicle vision detects the distribution of the deviated primary mechanism for identifying the chromatic diversity in terms to localize the image of a vehicle wrapped by a warning mark. of primary, we can simulate the capturing process of sign Noticing the simulated capability for scanning and visu- patterns as shown in Figure 18. In this figure, the fluctuation alization of sign patterns, the annotated geographics yields of colors in the scene image (Figure 3) is displayed in the a computational basis for the implementation of on-vehicle upper subwindow; the distribution of the colors is identified vision in cooperation with human’s inherent perception in with afractal attractortospecify ascene specificdeviation of naturally complex scenes. Through experimental studies, the primary as indicated in lower subwindow. By matching it has been demonstrated that the distributions of local the deviated primary with the scene image, we have a scale fluctuation and chromatic diversity jointly yield a random distribution of sign patterns as displayed in the robust representation of image features arising in naturally main window of Figure 18. This result implies that we can designed scenes. This implies that we can exploit the deviated exploit such deviated primary to control the focus of the primary annotated by probing vehicles to “preset” on-vehicle International Journal of Navigation and Observation 11 anticipative scene images; the virtual scope of on-vehicle vision is extended within the geographics annotation via cooperative monitoring of scene specific saliency. References [1] H.-S. Tan and J. Huang, “DGPS-based vehicle-to-vehicle cooperative collision warning: engineering feasibility view- points,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Sys- tems, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 415–428, 2006. [2] S.Edelkamp, S. Jabbar,and T. Willhalm,“Geometrictravel planning,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 5–16, 2005. [3] J. Wang, S. Schroedl, K. Mezger, R. Ortloff,A.Joos, andT. Passegger, “Lane keeping based on location technology,” IEEE Figure 21: Sign pattern detection. Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems,vol. 6, no.3, pp. 351–356, 2005. ¨ ¨ [4] U. Ozgner and C. Stiller, “Systems for safety and autonomous behavior in cars: the DARPA grand challenge experience,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 397–411, 2007. [5] I. Hwang and C. E. Seah, “Internet-based probabilistic conflict detection for the next generation air transportation system,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 96, no. 12, pp. 2040–2059, 2008. [6] K. Kamejima, “Generation and adaptation of transferable roadway model for anticipative road following on satellite- roadway-vehicle network,” SICE Journal of Control, Measure- ment, and System Integration, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 97–104, 2011. [7] K. Kamejima, “Anticipative coding and In-Situ adaptation of maneuvering affordance in a naturally complex scene,” in Advances in Human-Robot Interaction, V. A. Kulyukin, Ed., chapter 19, pp. 307–324, In-Teh, Vukovar, Croatia, 2010. [8] G. Fauconnier, Mental Spaces,ABradford Book,The MIT Figure 22: Context visualization. Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1985. [9] H. Gardner, Frames of Mind -The Theory of Multiple vision prior to physical access. As demonstrated in Figures Intelligence-, Basic Books, New York, NY, USA, 1983. 17–22, the saliency-based image analysis exhibits sufficient [10] K. Sato, “A system description method for interactive systems,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Next robustness for the restoration of geometric ambiguity arising Generation Human Interface, IPIE, Osaka, Japan, 1993. in GPS track and/or landmark allocation. This implies that [11] K. Sato and Y.-K. Lim, “Physical interaction and multi-aspect the network integration of on-vehicle vision systems is representation for information intensive environment,” in crucial for precautious hazard avoidance via the expansion Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Workshop on Robot of virtual scope as well. and Human Interaction (RoMan ’00), pp. 436–443, IEEE, Osaka, Japan, 2000. 8. Concluding Remarks [12] A. Newell, “Physical symbol systems,” in Perspective of Cogni- tive Science, D. A. Norman, Ed., pp. 37–85, Ablex Publishing, A multiparticipant graph generation scheme was imple- Norwood, NJ, USA, 1981. mented for articulating GPS tracks with respect to landmark [13] R. Diestel, Graph Theory, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1997. allocation. In this scheme, initial representation of the [14] D. J. Watts, Small Worlds—The Dynamics of Networks Between geographics including landmark localization with turnpike Order and Randomness, Princeton Studies in Complexity, connections is combined with GPS tracks to successively Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 1999. [15] J. J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception, augment participant specific annotation; through the visu- Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Mass, USA, 1979. alization of on-going augmentation steps on a common [16] I. Fujita, K. Tanaka, M. Ito, and K. Cheng, “Columns for visual satellite image, simultaneously, the multitude of the par- features of objects in monkey inferotemporal cortex,” Nature, ticipants recognize the totality of maneuvering process vol. 360, no. 26, pp. 343–346, 1992. along individual path to be designed. By formulating the [17] K. Kamejima, “Laplacian-gaussian sub-correlation analysis augmentation process in terms of a monotone expansion for scale space imaging,” International Journal of Innovative of graph structure, the on-going geographics annotation Computing, Information and Control, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 381– yields sufficient information for successive decision steps. 399, 2005. Through experimental studies, it has been demonstrated that [18] C. M. Hagerhall, T. Purcell, and R. Taylor, “Fractal dimension the geographics annotation system is effective as the support of landscape silhouette outlines as a predictor of landscape of over-the-horizon maneuvering process; the multiscope preference,” Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 24, no. transition of the interactive rendezvous process is cooper- 2, pp. 247–255, 2004. atively designed and verified by on-going GPS track with International Journal of Rotating Machinery International Journal of Journal of The Scientific Journal of Distributed Engineering World Journal Sensors Sensor Networks Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Volume 2014 Journal of Control Science and Engineering Advances in Civil Engineering Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com Journal of Journal of Electrical and Computer Robotics Engineering Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 VLSI Design Advances in OptoElectronics International Journal of Modelling & Aerospace International Journal of Simulation Navigation and in Engineering Engineering Observation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2010 Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Active and Passive International Journal of Antennas and Advances in Chemical Engineering Propagation Electronic Components Shock and Vibration Acoustics and Vibration Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Navigation and Observation Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Multiparticipant Geographics Annotation for Interactive Rendezvous and Cooperative Monitoring

Loading next page...
 
/lp/hindawi-publishing-corporation/multiparticipant-geographics-annotation-for-interactive-rendezvous-and-MeVlYTlRJe
Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 Kohji Kamejima. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ISSN
1687-5990
DOI
10.1155/2011/784969
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Navigation and Observation Volume 2011, Article ID 784969, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2011/784969 Research Article Multiparticipant Geographics Annotation for Interactive Rendezvous and Cooperative Monitoring Kohji Kamejima Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Osaka Institute of Technology, 1-79-1 Kitayama, Hirakata 573-0196, Japan Correspondence should be addressed to Kohji Kamejima, kamejima@is.oit.ac.jp Received 28 April 2011; Revised 16 July 2011; Accepted 24 July 2011 Academic Editor: Jinling Wang Copyright © 2011 Kohji Kamejima. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A new framework is presented for multiparticipant coordination of over-the-horizon maneuvering processes. In this framework, geographical information is decentralizedly augmented via the multitude of annotation processes: landmark localization by map builder, connection generation by planner, and GPS tracking by probe vehicles. By integrating the augmentation process on a common satellite image, the subscriber participants reuse the geographics within specific maneuvering context. Based on graph theoretic representation of the multiparticipant augment process, an interactive geographics annotation system was developed and verified within the context of interactive rendezvous and cooperative monitoring. 1. Introductory Remarks of the geographics annotation system where a vehicle is dispatched to probe the topological and geometric structure Recent advancements of space technology combined with of a district [7]. A time series of the longitude-latitude large scale information networks provide physical-geometric estimate is generated based on pseudoranges from GPS basis for over-the-horizon maneuvering process; for satellites including QEZZ; the estimate is transferred to the instance, current global positioning system (GPS) yields annotation system via data relay site as GPS track along a effective information for dynamic localization of vehicles roadway; adding to it, the probe vehicle captures the scene along roadway areas [1]; the behaviors of such vehicles are images via the on-vehicle camera to upload in association matched with geometric representation of local terrains with the GPS track data. In the geographics annotation for planning [2], regulating [3], and operating [4]vehicle system, the gathered information by the probe vehicle is control processes equipped with self-reliant intelligence. matched with a cut of satellite image provided by earth In many practical situations, the perspective from each observation system, ALOS, for example, The scene image vehicle is confined within the roadway area. This implies at the origin is matched with a small section of satellite that the decision making by each advanced vehicles must image to identify the roadway segment around the GPS be supported by the information to be gathered finally via track date; the roadway segment is extended in the bird’s on-vehicle sensing systems, including machine visions. To eye view to adapt the GPS track data to a feasible path expand the virtual scope of each vehicle, the on-vehicle connecting the origin and the destination. Thus, we have control systems should be dynamically networked as air an as-is articulation of roadway pattern incident to origin traffic control systems [5]. However, in contrast with the and destination landmarks; the images of the landmarks aviation systems, it is not easy to figure out the multitude of are captured by the on-vehicle camera and localized on the vehicle’s trajectories satisfying specific constraints arising in bird’s eye view in association with the segments of the GPS complex local terrain. tracks. The multitude of the vehicles, thus, can be exploited By networking GPS satellites and vehicle control systems as probes for feasible segmentation of roadway patters with the earth observation systems, we can articulate the connecting landmarks. Such a look-and-feel representation multitude of maneuvering processes within a bird’s eye view provides the virtual scope of the as-is geography as the of local terrains. Figure 1 displays a current implementation basis for over-the-horizon coordination of the maneuvering 2 International Journal of Navigation and Observation match design steps to cooperatively generate maneuvering winds/jaxa processes towards a rendezvous point by mutual consent within the vista of the satellite image. Adding to it, the qzss/jaxa augmented annotation through the maneuvering processes can be exploited as a prediction of the scene for participant alos/jaxa vehicles. Pseudo range Longitude- Satellite image latitude Despite the simultaneous visualization of mechanical annotations by probe vehicles with symbolic design by human designers, it is not easy to associate the chain of the landmark symbols with a part of a vehicles trajectory nor to identify the GPS track as a variation of symbolic design within the complex constraints arising in the local terrain. To expand the virtual scope for interactive coordination of the over-the-horizon maneuvering processes on the geographics Probe vehicle annotation, in this paper, we consider dynamic integration Geographics annotation of mechanical and human aspects of geographics annotation processes. The problem is to identify the symbolic repre- Figure 1: Geographics annotation system on satellite-roadway- vehicle network. sentations of the maneuvering process as versions of graph minors of a physical entity: a GPS track adapted to the geometric representation of the local terrain. processes; the multitude of the vehicles are exploited as probes for other participant vehicles; the origin-destination 2. Multiparticipant Design of patterns by the probe vehicles are archived and reused as Maneuvering Processes verified roadway patters to be followed. We can augment the information arising in the local To integrate the annotation augmentation processes by terrain in terms of the articulated maneuvering processes; probe vehicles and human designers, the chain of land- the origin-destination landmarks and associated GPS tracks mark symbols and verified GPS tracks are required to be are linked to supplement the topological and geometric identified as two aspects of a physical entity. Following descriptions of the bird’s eye view, respectively. Such aug- the multiaspect concept for complex systems design [10, mented annotations can be utilized by participant vehicles 11], the geographical information should be manipulated as an apriori information to be gathered along the path within the framework of physical symbol system [12]; the connecting origin-destination landmarks. This implies that landmark-path association should be reactively manipu- the annotated geographics can be exploited as the basis lated under physical-geometric constraints governing the of spontaneous coordination of the multitude of the vehi- real world. By using the geographics annotation system cles participating the maneuvering processes. Furthermore, shown in Figure 1, we can simulate a GPS track connecting simultaneous augmentation of geographics annotation with origin-destination landmarks as illustrated in Figure 2; the reference to common landmarks provides computational sceneimagescapturedbyprobing vehicles areretrieved for foundation for the over-the-horizon cooperation of the sampling chromatic diversity as features of roadway area; multitude of the maneuvering processes. For instance, at-a- through precise matching of the chromatic diversity with glance presentation of landmarks within a common satellite the local image around the GPS data, the roadway pattern imagery makes it possible for a participant to design a specific is identified and extended towards a possible destination. path as a chain of expected landmarks towards a preassigned In many practical scenes, we can generate such “future destination. trajectories” beyond the physical-geometric perspective [6]; Symbolically, each maneuvering process can be identified as shown in the “GPS track window” of Figure 2, the future in terms of a graph spanning a specific selection of the trajectories well-simulate the GPS tracks to be observed landmark symbols. Through the design steps, hence, the in subsequent maneuvering process. This implies that we annotation is augmented via the landmark association have an augmented version of geographics by using the within a participant specific context. Noticing the uniqueness simulated GPS track as a feasible connection spanning of the landmark allocation in the bird’s eye views, the selected landmarks. common understanding of the landmark selection on the Through the satellite-roadway-vehicle network, further- ongoing geographics annotation yields a preestablished men- more, the participant vehicle can download local repre- tal space [8] for facilitating linguistic communication among sentation of the annotated geographics along the future the participant designers; the real-time feedback of ongoing trajectories within common understanding of the landmark geographics annotation processes, simultaneously, activates allocation. The consistency and smoothness of simulated not-yet-explicated “programming mechanisms” for unifying GPS tracks implies that the participant vehicles observe spatial and logical mathematical aspects of human’s inherent essential structure of the landmark scene along the future capability [9]. In reference to such dynamic visualization trajectory; the anticipatively observed scenes images can be of on-going geographics annotation, thus, participants can exploited for “presetting” vehicle control systems prior to International Journal of Navigation and Observation 3 In bird’s eye view Planning (predicted and observed) On-vehicle view Prediction Fractal model GPS track Probing Locating Figure 2: Anticipative road following scheme (uplink). Figure 4: Cooperative geographics annotation. and programming participant specific design steps based on dynamic geographics annotation processes. 3. Multiparticipant Graph Generation Physically, a maneuvering process is represented as a trajec- tory within a bird’s eye view of the local terrain. Linguisti- cally, each maneuvering process can be identified in terms of a graph spanning a specific selection of the landmark symbols. Computationally, thus, the multiparticipant design of the maneuvering processes is represented by a cooperative geographics annotation process as illustrated in Figure 4 where the multitude of participants are collectively in charge of asynchronous augmentation of the annotation for possible Figure 3: Anticipative road following scheme (downlink). decision makings; the landmarks may be located by a map builder in a cut of the satellite image on which a path planner may generate symbolic connections within a specific maneuvering context; based on the information gathering physical access; the participant vehicles can control the focus through a session of local probing, on the other hand, a feasible version of landmark connection may be complied to of on-vehicle vision along a segment of the future trajectory as shown in Figure 3. augment the ongoing geographics annotation. To extend the scope of such an over-the-horizon probing As the basis of the multiparticipant annotation, let Ω be an image plane coordinated in terms of (longitude, and planning scheme to the multitude of maneuvering processes, the annotated geographics should be reusable latitude) and consider the information M representing apart from specific context of planner participants; scriber- the dynamic evolution of the geographics within a bird’s eye participants are charged with the reorganization of the design view Ω. In what follows, we identify the image plane Ω with steps according to their own maneuvering context. In spite of the contents: a photocopy of local terrain filling up the image plane. Suppose that the participant specific representations unique localization of the landmarks and GPS tracks as well, the scope of the landmark selection should be supervenient of the world are visualized within the multitude of local on the participant specific context within associated local sections Ω ⊂ Ω, i = 1, 2,... , supporting the participant’s scope m , m , i = 1, 2,.... We introduce the relation m ⊂ M geographics. For supporting such a multicontext computa- i i tion, the spontaneous synchronization scheme is required by Ω ⊂ Ω. The totality of the local sections m ⊂ M is m i to have a mutual access path of multiscope representation designated by installed among the multitude of the participants; the com- F [M]={m | m ⊂ M} mon set of landmarks with geometric association in terms = m | Ω ⊂ Ω . (1) i i i m of GPS tracks should be reorganized and indicated within participant specific scope of the geographics annotation. With look-and-feel order m ⊂ m induced by Ω ⊂ i j m To establish the multitude of human access path to the Ω , such information F [M] provides the multitude of the spontaneous synchronization scheme, in what follows, we participant specific restriction within the entire geographics introduce a new computational framework for visualizing M. By using the class F [M], we can induce an ordered 4 International Journal of Navigation and Observation Equation (6) implies that the scope of the connectioning is extended to the adjacent landmarks with respect to the geographics m. Such a minimal expansion makes it possible Geophysical subdivision for the participants to associate the connections with global information M and local restriction m as well. On a scope m,wedefine the routebyagraphstructure G (N, C | M) embedded in the geographics M;for N ⊂ N to be associated with C ⊂ C, G (N, C | M) is generated within the expansion of the common bird’s eye view Ω. The graph structure provides a basis for the computation of the path connecting the origin and destination landmarks in terms of Reachable Intentional minor the chain of the connections within the graph structure L o d d o L = c n , n ∈ C | n = n , i = 1, 2,... . (7) m i i i i+1 Since there is a unique sequence n , n ,... , n ∈ N, satisfying 1 2 i Figure 5: Multiscope geographics annotation. o d d o c n , n ∈ C | n = n , i = 1, 2,... i i i i+1 (8) ={c(n , n ) ∈ C | n ∈ N, i = 1, 2,...}, i i+1 i family of local terrains F [Ω] ={Ω },where Ω ⊂ Ω is m m i i the path L can be identified with an ordered set of the support of the local section m ∈ F [M]. landmarks, that is, Within the specific local section m ∈ F [M], the publisher participant localizes a landmark n at ω ∈ Ω ∈ n m L ={n , n ,... , n ∈ N}. m 1 2 i (9) F [Ω]; ω is called the grounding of landmark n; the Following graph theory, we can index the sufficiency of grounding of n is designated by n = ω . The totality of such ⊥ n the geographics annotation prior to the design of path L .If landmarks, the graph G(N, C | M) include at least one spanning tree, the connections should satisfy the following evaluation: N ={n , i = 1, 2,...}, (2) |C|≥ C =|N|− 1, (10) min specifies the multiparticipant extension of the scope into a where |(·)| denotes the size of set (·). Noticing Euler- common geographics M of locally generated landmarks; for each subdescription m ⊂ M, we have the following image- Poincare’ ´ s formula, on the other hand, the geometric based reclustering of N ={n}: distribution of feasible connections in a sufficiently complex geographics should be bounded by the maximum connec- n ∈ Ω −→ n ∈ m. (3) ⊥ m tion in a planar graph. This implies the following 2D upper boundary: Publisher participants introduce symbolic associations |C|≤ C = 3|N|− 6, for |N|≥ 3. (11) max among the landmarks anywhere within their own scope of the geographics m ⊂ M. This implies that a set of origin- Hence, we have the following index for evaluating the apriori destination pairs sufficiency of the connections spanning the geographics: G |C| o d o d C = c n , n , j = 1, 2,... , n , n ∈ N (4) = . j j j j (12) M C · C max min are induced in the common bird’s eye view Ω. The totality By invoking the evaluation (10), (11), it follows that of the origin-destination pairs C is called connections. By |C| |C| d sharing the world image Ω ⊃ Ω , subscriber participants = −→ , 2 3 C · C 3(|N|− 2) · (|N|− 1) expand the horizon of their own maneuvering plan to a chain max min (13) of possible connections on Ω; by invoking the maneuvering (|N|−→∞) records of probing vehicles, the possible connections can be gathered and compiled in the entire geographics M. where d denotes the average degree of the graph structure Suppose that the scope of decision making is confined G (N, C | M). Thus, we have the following evaluation within the landmark set N ⊂ N on local geographics m ∈ G d F [M], that is, √ (14) ∼ , M 2 3 N ={n ⊂ N | n ∈ m}={n ⊂ N | n ∈ Ω }, (5) ⊥ m asymptotically. This implies that we can apriori evaluate the sufficiency of the annotated geographics with respect to the and consider the totality of induced connections given by design of a connected path. Being given the index G/M , in turn, we can estimate a landmark-wise complexity for o d o d C = c n , n ∈ C | (n ∈ m ) ∨ n ∈ m . (6) m m selecting a next connection by d ∼ 2 3 G/M . International Journal of Navigation and Observation 5 4. Geographics Sensitive Graph Manipulation N ⊂ N and C ⊂ C,apath L ={q (n , n +1), t = 1, 2,...} t t m t t t should be selected as a multistage decision steps satisfying the Within the annotated geographics M,amaneuvering process following criterion: is symbolically manipulated as illustrated in Figure 5.To |L | implement physical-geometric maneuvering process within J(G | M) = min n , n | M , (16) the geometric constraints arising in the geographics M, the t t+1 t∈N t=1 origin-destination connection should be paraphrased into a chain of feasible connections on the bird’s eye view Ω. with respect to a properly specified “Markovian cost” This implies that the physically feasible route is generated as q (n , n | M) determined by information M.Along t t t+1 subdivisions of the graph structure G(N, C | M); in turn, the such a conventional optimal path, the dynamics of the o d linguistically simplified connection n − n is computed as a minimal cost V (n | M) is known to satisfy the following t t topological minor [13] of the physical representation. principle of optimality: In many practical situations, the origin-destination con- |Lm| nection is consisting of sufficiently rich gateway networks V (n | M) = min q (n , n | M) t t s s s+1 and a few set of turnpikes linking the gateways. In such a ns∈N s=1 small world [14], the subdivision process is implemented by the following multiscope decomposition within the scope of = min q (n , n | M) + V (n | M). t t t+1 t+1 t+1 nt+1∈N geographics information F [M]: (17) To adapt to the multiparticipant maneuvering processes, o d o d G n , n , c n , n | M we can paraphrase the principle of the optimality on the increasing family of the landmark sets N ⊂ N ⊂··· ⊂ N 1 1 o o −→ G({n , (·)},{c(n , (·))}| M),... , (15a) as follows: d d N = N ∪ dN , N = n , G (·), n , c (·), n | M t+1 t t 0 dN  n : V (N | M ) t t+1 t t t d d −→ G N , C | m ,... , G N , C | m ,... , m m a a a a o o (18) = min q (n , n | M ) t t t+1 t n ∈N t t G N , C | m . mb mb b n ∈N−N t+1 t (15b) + V (N | M ), t+1 t+1 t+1 In (15a), the route connecting the landmark symbols where M denotes the family of annotated geographics sup- o d (n , n ) is subdivided into a chain of stopover land- porting the design steps with respect to (N , C ), s ≤ t.The s s marks. This implies that, in early stage of planning, the halting condition is given by n ∈ N . The existence of the route should be represented in terms of the topological criterion (18) implies that we can design an optimal plan in o d o d minor G({n , n },{c(n , n )}| M). Some landmarks in accordance with a monotone family of ongoing geographics the topological minor can be recompiled into a graph annotation {M } confined by a fixed representation M. structure within local geographics m ,... , m .Thus, we a b have a multiscope subdivision of the original description o d o d 5. Probing-Based Connection Generation G({n , n },{c(n , n )}| M) as indicated in (15b); in the section m , the subdivision (15a)withrespect to M is We can utilize GPS track data as an ordered series of a topological minor of the graph structure G(N , C | m m a a groundings along a really existing path. By articulating the m ). In the local geographics m , on the other hand, a a b time series within the restriction N ⊂ N, we can augment feasible connection is added to yield a connected graph called the annotation in terms of associated connections. reachable expansion; generally, the reachable expansion is On the image plane Ω supporting the geographical not included within the local section. In many naturally information M, the GPS track is identified with a sequence complex scenes, we can generate additional connections of (longitude, latitude) coordinate ω ∈ Ω, that is, between the geophysical subdivision and the reachable graph. L =  , j = 1, 2,... , In the spontaneous synchronization scheme, publisher (19) subscriber participants are required to computationally = ω , k = 1, 2,... . transfer individual representation of maneuvering processes j to each other. Noticing consistent reprogrammability (15a), Let a roadway pattern be detected within a small circle (15b), we can exploit the dynamic graph structure on confined in terms of GPS residual as indicated in Figure 6; increasing family of landmark set N , t = 1, 2,... and the local geometry of the roadway pattern is matched with associated connections C , t = 1, 2,... as the computational the segment basis for the spontaneous synchronization scheme. Through such graph reprogramming, we have a uniquely scoped υ = ω , θ(k | m ) , (20) k k i graph structure for supporting a maneuvering process. Since 6 International Journal of Navigation and Observation Within the fluctuation of GPS track, we can exploit the information  as a geometrically consistent path connecting the landmarks within the satellite image. For preassigned landmark resolution ε , a landmark n with grounding n is said to be a N-contact if the following condition is satisfied: ←− η n ,  <ε . (24) The GPS trajectory adapted to the local terrain Ω is associated with the annotated geographics M as illustrated in Figure 7; the geometrically consistent entity  is partitioned a a a into a sequence of segments  ,  ,  along a design 1 2 3 o ∗ ∗ d of the path L ={n , n , n , n }; simultaneously,  is a a M 1 2 decomposed into the chain of trajectory points  and to be associated with the topological minor directory Figure 6: Roadway pattern segmentation in satellite image [6]. o d connecting final origin-destination pair (n , n )aswell. For a set of landmarks N,wehavethe following partitioning of the set  with respect to N: a n ℓ 2 ∗ 2 a1 =  ,   =∅, n , n ∈ N, n n n 1 2 1 2 n∈N (25) = ω ∈  | ω − n = η(ω , N ) , n k k ⊥ k ⊥ where b d ←− η (ω, (·)) = min|ω − λ|. (26) λ∈(·) Define the following order in the class F [N]: Figure 7: GPS-based connection generation. ∀ω ∈  , ω ∈  : t ≤ k −→  ≤  . (27) t n k m n m Then we have the following ordered partitioning: with origin ω and direction θ(k | m ). Suppose that smoothness of the GPS track is evaluated in terms of the ≤  ≤ ···  ≤ ··· ∼ 1 2 t n backward consistency index given by (28) ≤  ≤ ···  ≤ ··· ,  ∈ F [], n n n 2 t k ⎪  υ · υ k−1 k ;for k> 1, with the forward restriction given by dθ(k | m) =  υ ·  υ (21) k−1 k 1; otherwise. =  ∈ F []|  ≤ t k t k Then, we can select a sequence of segments, called GPS path, as follows: =  ∼  ∈ F [], k = t, k nk (29) V =  υ | dθ(t | m) >ε , t = 1, 2,... , (22) k = t +1, t +2,... . where ε denotes a preassigned regularity level. In practical situations, the regularity level is adjusted to the resolution of ∗ Consider a landmark n ∈ N satisfying the segmentation, that is, ε ∼| υ |,for sufficiently small m k GPS sampling time. By definition, V stands for an estimate ←− ∗ ←− ∗ η n ,  ≤ η n ,  , n , n ∈ N. (30) of feasible trajectory based on the observation L. t ⊥ t Consider the following ordered set called GPS trajectory By selecting a chain of such a t-landmarks with respect to = ω | ω , θ(k | m) ∈ V, k = 1, 2,... . (23) k k the GPS-trajectory , we can induce a connection of the International Journal of Navigation and Observation 7 ∗ ∗ following form: c(n , n ), t = 1, 2,.... Thus, we have a GPS In this case, it is sufficient for the map builder to specify t+1 based connection generation algorithm as follows: a topological minor of the route graph in reference to the complexity index G/M ; via the dynamic probing- Algorithm 1. geographics association, the topological minor is to be subdivided into a feasible set of primitive connections as Step 0. For given GPS track  ={ω }={ω | V},detect k context-free information to be reused by participant users. landmark n satisfying The existence of cooperative geographics augmentation process (35), (36), (37) implies that we can exploit GPS ←− ω − n = η (ω , N ), (31) 1 1 ⊥ trajectories for expanding the space of connections within υ n υ the resolution of the local geographics (ε , ε ). Since ε ∼ m m m set i := 1, then continue. | υ |∼ ε , in many practical situations, we can adjust the GPS-based connectioning system in terms of the geographics Step 1. Select  satisfying resolution ε . ←− = ω ∈  | ω − n = η (ω , N ) . (32) i k k k ⊥ 6. Cooperative Design of Interactive Step 2. Set Rendezvous Process ∗ ∗ n = n ,  =  −  , N = N − n . (33) i i Suppose that a map builder has filled in major landmarks with key connections in a cut of satellite image and con- Step 3. If  =∅ then exit; sider multiparticipant design of a cooperative maneuvering else update n by the landmark satisfying process. The problem is to reuse the basic description ←− ∗ of the geographics within a new context of maneuvering min ω − n = min η (ω , N ), (34) ω ∈ ω ∈ process: cooperative decision making on a rendezvous point i i in accordance with the maneuvering process in reference and set i := i + 1 thenreturnto Step 1. to ongoing geographics annotation. Through interactive geographics annotation, the participants can cooperatively As the result, we have an augmented version of annotated design individual maneuvering process towards a landmark geographics as described in Figure 7.Supported by such a to be determined. The schematics of such an interactive probing-based augmentation, we can reuse the participant rendezvous process is illustrated in Figure 8 where a set of specific design steps within the ongoing geographics annota- landmarks with associated connections is generated on a tion. For instance, we can utilize the GPS trajectory  based satellite image provided by the earth observation system on vehicle specific track data  for extending the space of shown in Figure 1. The maneuvering plan is cooperatively the connection E; to this end, the N-partitioning process designed to select a route graph and indicated on the (25) is applied to the trajectory  to reorganize the t-ordered satellite image; the route graph is continuously verified track (28) into a geographics sensitive representation: a t- by the expansion of the GPS track uploaded through the ordered partitioning (28) satisfying the monotone condition maneuvering process. Simultaneously, the GPS track is (27). Thus, we have an augmentation of connection dC with matched with the annotated geographics to compute the next respect to  on the landmark annotation N, that is, landmark as shown in Figure 2. Based on such annotated geographics, participants commonly understand the goal of N ∨  −→ dC. (35) the current design step. Figures 9 and 10 illustrate an example of annotated When a new landmark n is defined by a map builder, we geographics where a set of landmarks and associated con- can invoke the nearest N-contact detection (24)toyield nections are indicated in a cut of satellite image of 640 the t-forward restriction (29). Such scheme is implemented × 480 resolution; in this digital image, the positioning error by forward and backward application of the connection is supposed to be confined within 20 m × 20 m area in generation Algorithm 1 to expand the space C with a feasible which the GPS residuals were verified to be corrected via the set of connections. This yields an augmentation process with adaptive segmentation scheme as shown in Figure 6. respect to n along the trajectories L: Figure 9 displays an overview of apriori located land- marks with feasible connections on a satellite image spanning n ∨ L −→ dC. (36) a downtown area and a campus; to support the multitude of the participant with individual intention, the paths Such probing-based augmentation of the annotated geo- are subdivided by the annotation system with respect to graphics can be immediately visualized to a user participant indicated landmarks via subdivision algorithm (15a), (15b). to design a maneuvering plan. To this end, the user selects In this case, the resulted the apriori sufficiency index was a chain via the path planning process (7) within the evaluated by G/M ∼ 1.4; by definition, there are defined (N,C) visualization of the annotation consisting of . twice connections of the minimal requirement, that is, |C|∼ 2 · C . Simultaneously, the complexity of graph structure min o d o d c n , n | n , n ∈ L −→ dC. (37) i i i i at a landmark is estimated by d ∼ 4; in average, the network 8 International Journal of Navigation and Observation qzss/jaxa alos/jaxa ω , θ t t Segment Site Path Figure 11: Path planning (by host). Figure 8: Schematics of interactive rendezvous. Figure 12: Self-navigation (by guest). topology at each landmark is identified with a crossroad. In this annotated geographics, a set of local scene images are Figure 9: Initial annotation. attached to each landmark as shown in Figure 10;asequence of landmarks along the designed path can be visualized prior to physical access. Figures 11–16 illustrate a typical performance of the interactive rendezvous process; the goal of the geographics annotation is to cooperatively navigate a guest participant from the junction station in the downtown to a rendezvous point to be determined in the campus area. To design a maneuvering process, the guest-host participants invoke the annotated geographics (Figure 9) with initial representation of the geographics by the host participant as illustrated in Figure 11 where initial selection of the landmarks are associated via a path connecting the station and the campus. In response to the initial design, the guest participant manipulates the geographics in the following three steps. First, the guest invokes a local section focusing the bus pool at the station to get a service to the campus area as illustrated in Figure 12; in this figure, the connections to the bus stop to be selected are marked with the GPS track uploaded by the guest. Next, the guest retrieves another local Figure 10: Landmark images. section as displayed in Figure 13 where a local network of International Journal of Navigation and Observation 9 Figure 15: Verification of maneuvering process (for guest and host) Figure 13: Path selection (by guest). Figure 16: Notification of rendezvous point (for guest and host). Figure 14: Verification of selected path. in Figure 10 as the prediction of the current destination. Thus, the system was demonstrated to support cooperative design of an over-the-horizon maneuvering process through interactive generation of geographics annotation {M } by transportation services are displayed. On board the selected the guest and host participants. service, finally, the guest is notified of the status of the Due to geometric complexity, GPS tracks are often maneuvering process as exhibited in Figure 14; the GPS track deviated from symbolic connections of origin-destination uploaded by the moving guest is displayed to the guest landmarks; the maximum deviation in Figure 15 amounts to and host participants to verify the implementation of the 320 m which is two or three times of landmark granularity designed process. in downtown and campus area. Despite such geometric- Monitoring the transition of the GPS track shown in symbolic discrepancy, the interactive rendezvous system can Figure 15, the host participant makes reference to the local identify the maneuvering process within the multiscope view including the campus area as shown in Figure 16. graph structure to indicate the one-step prediction of In this figure, the planned route of the selected service landmark images throughout the design and verification is indicated with online verification by the GPS track. As steps. the result of the interactive geographical annotation process mentioned above, the host confirms the rendezvous point under simultaneous understanding of the guest participant. 7. Saliency Transfer for Cooperative Monitoring Throughout the multiscope annotation augmentation, the support geographics was fixed to M visualized in Let a segment of the future trajectory be downloaded as a Figure 9. Following multiscope transition, the restrictions priori information of a scene. Following empirical knowledge (5)and (6) were updated to design the maneuvering of ecological optics [15] and inherent preference [16], process satisfying the multiscope optimization condition combined with recent advancements in machine perception (18). In accordance with the extension of the GPS track, [17] and emotional perception [18], the generic structure of the n-partitioning  was updated to identify the nearest the scene can be described in terms of a set of fractal codes subsequent landmark n satisfying (30). As the result, a specifying a roadway area and an aggregation of boundary landmark scene is selected in the visualizations indicated objects. Noting this, the randomness of the scale information 10 International Journal of Navigation and Observation Figure 19: Sign pattern detection. Figure 17: Ground-object structure. Figure 20: Contextual visualization. Figure 18: Distribution of deviated primaries. on-vehicle vision. In fact, we can design a saliency-based mechanism for selectively scanning the sign patterns as demonstrated in Figure 19. By matching the distribution is extracted from the scene image shown in Figure 3 to of detected sign patterns with the ground-object structure identify the ground-object structure as shown in Figure 17 shown in Figure 17, we have a contextual visualization of [7]; guided by the downloaded segment, a fractal code is the scene as demonstrated in Figure 20 where a signal to be designed to recognize a connected open space confined focused is separated from distractive sign boards and other by the distribution of boundary objects. Despite infinite signals confused in noisy background. This implies that we diversity of appearance, natural scenes exhibit environment can utilize landmark images along the future trajectory for specific sign patterns to be identified by inherent vision presetting the on-vehicle vision. system within individual intention of viewers. By simulating Figures 21–22 illustrate another example of experimental not-yet-explicated mechanism of inherent vision, we can a results; saliency patterns are selectively scanned (Figure 21) priori control the focus of on-vehicle vision system to the sign to visualize hazardous vehicle within the context of the patterns to be captured in subsequent scenes. ground-object structure (Figure 22). In this case, the on- Noticing that inherent vision has developed efficient vehicle vision detects the distribution of the deviated primary mechanism for identifying the chromatic diversity in terms to localize the image of a vehicle wrapped by a warning mark. of primary, we can simulate the capturing process of sign Noticing the simulated capability for scanning and visu- patterns as shown in Figure 18. In this figure, the fluctuation alization of sign patterns, the annotated geographics yields of colors in the scene image (Figure 3) is displayed in the a computational basis for the implementation of on-vehicle upper subwindow; the distribution of the colors is identified vision in cooperation with human’s inherent perception in with afractal attractortospecify ascene specificdeviation of naturally complex scenes. Through experimental studies, the primary as indicated in lower subwindow. By matching it has been demonstrated that the distributions of local the deviated primary with the scene image, we have a scale fluctuation and chromatic diversity jointly yield a random distribution of sign patterns as displayed in the robust representation of image features arising in naturally main window of Figure 18. This result implies that we can designed scenes. This implies that we can exploit the deviated exploit such deviated primary to control the focus of the primary annotated by probing vehicles to “preset” on-vehicle International Journal of Navigation and Observation 11 anticipative scene images; the virtual scope of on-vehicle vision is extended within the geographics annotation via cooperative monitoring of scene specific saliency. References [1] H.-S. Tan and J. Huang, “DGPS-based vehicle-to-vehicle cooperative collision warning: engineering feasibility view- points,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Sys- tems, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 415–428, 2006. [2] S.Edelkamp, S. Jabbar,and T. Willhalm,“Geometrictravel planning,” IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 5–16, 2005. [3] J. Wang, S. Schroedl, K. Mezger, R. Ortloff,A.Joos, andT. Passegger, “Lane keeping based on location technology,” IEEE Figure 21: Sign pattern detection. Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems,vol. 6, no.3, pp. 351–356, 2005. ¨ ¨ [4] U. Ozgner and C. Stiller, “Systems for safety and autonomous behavior in cars: the DARPA grand challenge experience,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 397–411, 2007. [5] I. Hwang and C. E. Seah, “Internet-based probabilistic conflict detection for the next generation air transportation system,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 96, no. 12, pp. 2040–2059, 2008. [6] K. Kamejima, “Generation and adaptation of transferable roadway model for anticipative road following on satellite- roadway-vehicle network,” SICE Journal of Control, Measure- ment, and System Integration, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 97–104, 2011. [7] K. Kamejima, “Anticipative coding and In-Situ adaptation of maneuvering affordance in a naturally complex scene,” in Advances in Human-Robot Interaction, V. A. Kulyukin, Ed., chapter 19, pp. 307–324, In-Teh, Vukovar, Croatia, 2010. [8] G. Fauconnier, Mental Spaces,ABradford Book,The MIT Figure 22: Context visualization. Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1985. [9] H. Gardner, Frames of Mind -The Theory of Multiple vision prior to physical access. As demonstrated in Figures Intelligence-, Basic Books, New York, NY, USA, 1983. 17–22, the saliency-based image analysis exhibits sufficient [10] K. Sato, “A system description method for interactive systems,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Next robustness for the restoration of geometric ambiguity arising Generation Human Interface, IPIE, Osaka, Japan, 1993. in GPS track and/or landmark allocation. This implies that [11] K. Sato and Y.-K. Lim, “Physical interaction and multi-aspect the network integration of on-vehicle vision systems is representation for information intensive environment,” in crucial for precautious hazard avoidance via the expansion Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Workshop on Robot of virtual scope as well. and Human Interaction (RoMan ’00), pp. 436–443, IEEE, Osaka, Japan, 2000. 8. Concluding Remarks [12] A. Newell, “Physical symbol systems,” in Perspective of Cogni- tive Science, D. A. Norman, Ed., pp. 37–85, Ablex Publishing, A multiparticipant graph generation scheme was imple- Norwood, NJ, USA, 1981. mented for articulating GPS tracks with respect to landmark [13] R. Diestel, Graph Theory, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1997. allocation. In this scheme, initial representation of the [14] D. J. Watts, Small Worlds—The Dynamics of Networks Between geographics including landmark localization with turnpike Order and Randomness, Princeton Studies in Complexity, connections is combined with GPS tracks to successively Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 1999. [15] J. J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception, augment participant specific annotation; through the visu- Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Mass, USA, 1979. alization of on-going augmentation steps on a common [16] I. Fujita, K. Tanaka, M. Ito, and K. Cheng, “Columns for visual satellite image, simultaneously, the multitude of the par- features of objects in monkey inferotemporal cortex,” Nature, ticipants recognize the totality of maneuvering process vol. 360, no. 26, pp. 343–346, 1992. along individual path to be designed. By formulating the [17] K. Kamejima, “Laplacian-gaussian sub-correlation analysis augmentation process in terms of a monotone expansion for scale space imaging,” International Journal of Innovative of graph structure, the on-going geographics annotation Computing, Information and Control, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 381– yields sufficient information for successive decision steps. 399, 2005. Through experimental studies, it has been demonstrated that [18] C. M. Hagerhall, T. Purcell, and R. Taylor, “Fractal dimension the geographics annotation system is effective as the support of landscape silhouette outlines as a predictor of landscape of over-the-horizon maneuvering process; the multiscope preference,” Journal of Environmental Psychology, vol. 24, no. transition of the interactive rendezvous process is cooper- 2, pp. 247–255, 2004. atively designed and verified by on-going GPS track with International Journal of Rotating Machinery International Journal of Journal of The Scientific Journal of Distributed Engineering World Journal Sensors Sensor Networks Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Volume 2014 Journal of Control Science and Engineering Advances in Civil Engineering Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 Submit your manuscripts at http://www.hindawi.com Journal of Journal of Electrical and Computer Robotics Engineering Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 VLSI Design Advances in OptoElectronics International Journal of Modelling & Aerospace International Journal of Simulation Navigation and in Engineering Engineering Observation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2010 Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 International Journal of Active and Passive International Journal of Antennas and Advances in Chemical Engineering Propagation Electronic Components Shock and Vibration Acoustics and Vibration Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014 http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Journal

International Journal of Navigation and ObservationHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Oct 1, 2011

References