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Hindawi International Journal of Zoology Volume 2019, Article ID 3636943, 9 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3636943 Research Article Factors Influencing Seasonal and Daily Dynamics of the Genus Stomoxys Geoffroy, 1762 (Diptera: Muscidae), in the Adamawa Plateau, Cameroon 1 1,2,3 3 Sevidzem S. Lendzele , Mavoungou J. François, Zinga-Koumba C. Roland, 3 4 Koumba A. Armel, and Ge ´rard Duvallet Ecole Doctorale des Grandes Ecoles (EDGE), Laboratoire d’Ecologie Vectorielle (LEV-IRET), BP: 13354, Libreville, Gabon Universit´ e des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku (USTM), Franceville, Gabon Institut de Recherche en Ecologie Tropicale (IRET-CENAREST), BP: 13354, Libreville, Gabon Universit´ e Paul-Val´ ery Montpellier 3, Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175, Montpellier, France Correspondence should be addressed to Sevidzem S. Lendzele; firstname.lastname@example.org Received 24 April 2019; Revised 12 July 2019; Accepted 8 August 2019; Published 2 September 2019 Academic Editor: Marco Cucco Copyright © 2019 Sevidzem S. Lendzele et al. (is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (e rangelands of the Vina Division on the Adamawa Plateau are densely infested with Stomoxyinae, but little is known about their species composition and ecology. A trap-transect survey was carried out in three villages: Galim, Mbidjoro, and Velambai, using Nzi (n � 3), Vavoua (n � 3), and Biconical (n � 3) traps, all baited with octenol. (ree traps of each trap type were set in each of the study villages, and collections were carried out daily. In total, 3,762 Stomoxys spp. were collected from October 2016 to June 2017 and identiﬁed using standard keys into ﬁve species: Stomoxys niger niger, S. calcitrans, S. niger bilineatus, S. omega, and S. xanthomelas. Galim recorded the highest apparent density of stomoxyines (30 stomoxyines/trap/day) with a statistically sig- niﬁcant diﬀerence (p< 0.05). (e Vavoua trap was an ideal tool for Stomoxyinae collection. Stomoxyines abundantly occurred at the end of the dry season (March 2017) and beginning of the rainy season (May 2017). (e monthly rainfall positively inﬂuenced monthly ADTs of Stomoxyinae. (eir diurnal biting activity was bimodal in the rainy season and unimodal in the dry season. (e daily activity peak was between 14 h and 16 h with a mean temperature of 31 C, a mean wind speed of 1.5 m/s, and a mean humidity of 50%. (e daily trap catch was positively inﬂuenced by temperature and wind speed but negatively inﬂuenced by rainfall and air humidity. Weather variables inﬂuenced Stomoxys spp. monthly and daily ADTs. transvittatus, S. pallidus, S. luteolus, S. xanthomelas, S. 1. Introduction omega, S. stigma, and S. taeniatus; four in the eastern region Muscoid ﬂies are among the most important pests in live- (Asia and Extreme-Oriental): S. indicus, S. uruma, S. ben- stock and poultry production. Stable ﬂies (Stomoxys spp.) galensis, and S. pullus; and one species in the two bio- recently surpassed horn ﬂies (Haematobia spp.) as the most geographic regions: Stomoxys sitiens. Little is known about important arthropod pest of cattle production . (ey feed Stomoxys spp. of Cameroon, but the preliminary study of on blood from a wide range of hosts including mammals like Sevidzem et al.  in the Sudan savanna of North Cameroon rats, rabbits, monkeys, cattle, horses, and humans . About led to the identiﬁcation of four species: Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758), S. n. niger Macquart 1851, S. n. bilineatus 18 species of the genus Stomoxys have already been reported , but only S. calcitrans is cosmopolitan. (e other 17 are Grunberg ¨ 1906, and S. sitiens Rondani 1873. Both sexes of tropical species: 12 of them can be found in the Ethiopian Stomoxys are hematophagous (i.e., blood feeders), and the region (Africa and neighboring Islands), namely, S. n. niger, biology of these species has been described in several S. varipes, S. ochrosoma, S. inornatus, S. boueti, S. publications [2, 5]. 2 International Journal of Zoology A ﬂight of Stomoxys spp. is inﬂuenced by weather pa- 2.2. Entomological Prospection. A trap-transect survey was rameters  as well as availability of host . Stomoxys spp. carried out using three diﬀerent traps: Nzi , Vavoua , population peaks under relatively wet conditions with and Biconical  traps. All diﬀerent traps used in the study moderate temperatures (daily maxima under 30 C). Pre- were baited with octenol. Nine traps were used, consisting of cipitation and temperature have been reported to aﬀect three traps of each type. Each study site consisted of three Stomoxys activity [8–10]. Several studies have indicated traps of each type. Trapping was made for three days wetter or cooler than normal weather as being conducive to consecutively per month in diﬀerent sites. (e three study higher population levels [8, 11]. (e peak season, i.e., late sites were sampled at the same time, and the nine traps were April through mid-June, was the period that stable ﬂy set in diﬀerent sites at the same time. (e cages of all the nine populations in California positively correlated with pre- traps were emptied daily in all the sites and labeled with cipitation . Mathematical models have also been used to information such as date, altitude, site, GPS coordinates, and associate weather conditions with Stomoxys population . season (end of the rainy season (November 2016), beginning Attempts to correlate population levels of Stomoxys with of the dry season (January 2017), end of the dry season weather conditions have been limited. In the Sudan savanna (March 2017), and beginning of the rainy season (May of the Adamawa Plateau in Cameroon, two seasons occur, 2017)). i.e., the rainy and dry seasons. (e presence of multiple seasons indicates varying climatic conditions that suggest a 2.3. Daily Activity of Stomoxys spp. (e activity of insects ﬂuctuating trend of Stomoxys spp. diversity, distribution, was measured by the total number of specimens collected at and abundance in diﬀerent biotopes. diﬀerent periods of the day . (e number of traps (all In order to develop an eﬀective pest management system baited with octenol), types, and trapping sites in this section for ﬂies in cattle herds, it is necessary to know as much as were the same as those in Entomological Prospection. (e possible their biology and ecology . (e present in- ﬂies were collected synchronously every two hours: 8 h, 10 h, vestigation is aimed at associating weather factors with 12 h, 14 h, 16 h, and 18 h. (e captured ﬂies were introduced Stomoxys spp. abundance, distribution, and diurnal activity into vials labeled with the collection time (6h–8 h, 8h–10 h, in diﬀerent seasons in the Sudano-Guinean climate in order 10h–12 h, 12h–14 h, 14h–16 h, and 16h–18 h) in the dry to provide baseline data for their control. season (March 2017) for three days and in the rainy season (May 2017) for three days. Meteorological factors such as 2. Materials and Methods temperature, humidity, and wind speed were recorded using a portable weather tracker (Kestrel 4500, USA). Rainfall data 2.1. Study Site. (e Adamawa Plateau extends across the were collected from the Ngaoundere airport weather station. ° ° middle of Cameroon and lays between latitudes 6 N and 8 N Five values of each parameter were taken after the ﬁxation of ° ° and longitudes 11 E and 15 E. (e mountainous region has a trap cages, and the same number was registered before ﬂy Sudano-Guinean climate with two main seasons: a rainy collection everyday. (e reason for recording several values season from May to November and a dry season from is to take an average value for each parameter in order to December to April. Most of the plateau lies between 1000 m reduce the error margin. (is is to have readings of the and 2000 m (an average of 1000–1100 m above the sea level) weather parameters of the points around traps pitched in and narrows down to 500 m in the valleys of Djerem and diﬀerent sampling sites. ´ ´ Mbere . (e common economic activities of this region include agriculture, livestock, apiculture, and ﬁshing . 2.4. Stomoxys spp. Identiﬁcation. (e identiﬁcation of Sto- Adamawa is the main livestock production basin of moxys was carried out using the identiﬁcation key of Zumpt Cameroon with about 1,250,000 stocks , where cattle . Advanced morphological identiﬁcation focused on the rearing is common. (e Adamawa region possesses ﬁve following landmarks: body color and pattern, leg color, frons divisions; Vina is one of them (Figure 1) and constitutes our and frontal index, curvature and setation of certain wing study area. (e study was performed in three villages: Galim veins, occurrence or form of various bristles, and hairs on (25 km to the south from the town of Ngaoundere on the parts of the legs and on the genital structure . Ngaoundere-Meiganga motorable highway), Velambai (15 km to the east on the Belel road), and Mbidjoro (15 km to the west on the Tignere road), situated in Ngaoundere I, II, 2.5. Abundance, Diversity, and Distribution of Stomoxys spp. and III subdivisions, respectively (Figure 1). Ecologically, (e abundance was deﬁned by the apparent density per trap Galim consisted of gallery forests and the Vina du Sud river. per day (ADT). Valembai consisted of a lake and gallery forests, while (e ADT was calculated using the following formula: Mbidjoro was a mosaic of gallery forests, secondary forests, number of Stomoxys captured and open grass savanna. Climatically, Ngaoundere in the ADT � . (1) number of traps × number of trapping days Vina Division is characterized by an annual rainfall of 1177 mm/year. (e coldest month was December (22 C), the hottest month was April (29 C), the wettest month was August (221 mm rainfall), the windiest month was May 2.6. Data Analysis. Data were analyzed using the R statistical (9 km/hr), and the mean monthly temperature was software (R version 3.4.0). (e Kruskal–Wallis test was used 25.33 C± 2.08. to compare the ADTof Stomoxys in the prospected sites. (e International Journal of Zoology 3 To Garoua Tchabal Soukourwo Ngaoundere III Lake Mballang Ngaoundere II Velambai Didango Ngaoundere I Mangon Galim To Belel Dibi Nange Martap Tekel Ddiwari To Meganga Main road Town Villages Secondary roads 10 km Study sites 7°N Faro and Deo Vina 7°N Djerem Mbéré Mayo-Banyo 6°N 15°E 12°E 14°E 13°E + + + Figure 1: Map of the study area indicating the study sites. chi-square test was used to compare the proportion of Table 1: ADT of Stomoxys spp. with respect to prospected sites. catches and trap type. Pearson’s correlation was used to Mbidjoro Velambai Galim correlate the ADT of diﬀerent Stomoxys spp. with each Stomoxys spp. value N ADT N ADT N ADT weather parameter. All the statistical tests were kept at the Stomoxys niger p< 0.05 signiﬁcant level. 691 9.54 338 4.67 1178 19.19 0.00 niger Stomoxys 206 2.39 146 1.70 370 6.46 0.01 3. Results calcitrans Stomoxys n. 157 1.56 104 1.32 321 4.22 0.04 3.1. Stomoxys spp. Abundance and Proportion of Catches with bilineatus respect to Trap Type. (e entomological survey resulted in Stomoxys omega 59 0.07 44 0.09 38 0.44 0.00 3,762 Stomoxyinae caught and identiﬁed into ﬁve species: S. Stomoxys 26 0.09 38 0.00 46 0.18 0.00 xanthomelas n. niger, S. calcitrans, S. n. bilineatus, S. omega, and S. Total 1139 13.65 670 7.78 1953 30.49 0.00 xanthomelas. (e abundance of Stomoxys spp. was signiﬁ- ADT: trap apparent density. cantly (p< 0.05) higher in Galim (30.49 Stomoxys/trap/day) than in Mbidjoro (13.65 Stomoxys/trap/day) and in Velambai (7.78 Stomoxys/trap/day) (Table 1). signiﬁcant diﬀerence (X � 20, df � 16, p � 0.22) in the (e number of Stomoxyinae caught was not the same for proportion of catches of diﬀerent Stomoxys spp. with trap diﬀerent trap types. It was noticed that the Vavoua trap was types. the most suitable trap for the collection of most Stomoxys spp., but S. n. bilineatus was the only exception with its highest proportion (69.9%) recorded with the Nzi trap 3.2. Seasonality of Stomoxys spp. All the ﬁve species iden- (Table 2). From the chi-square test, there was no statistically tiﬁed were captured in both seasons, and S. n. niger Mbidjoro 4 International Journal of Zoology Table 2: (e number and proportion of Stomoxys spp. with respect 3.5 140 to trap type. 3 120 2.5 100 Vavoua Nzi Biconical Total Species Number Number Number 2 Number (%) (%) (%) (%) 1.5 60 S. n. niger 1065 (48.3) 711 (32.2) 431 (19.5) 2207 (100) 1 40 S. calcitrans 541 (74.9) 113 (15.7) 68 (9.4) 722 (100) 0.5 20 S. n. bilineatus 113 (19.4) 407 (69.9) 62 (10.7) 582 (100) 0 0 S. omega 83 (58.9) 53 (37.6) 5 (3.5) 141 (100) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Oct Nov S. xanthomelas 73 (66.4) 26 (23.6) 11 (10) 110 (100) Months Rainfall S. niger niger dominated in the two seasons. It was noticed that the S. niger bilineatus S. calcitrans S. omega S. xanthomelas population of most Stomoxys spp. increased at the end of the dry season (March 2017) and sharply dropped in April 2017 Figure 2: Monthly evolution of the ADT of Stomoxys spp. and (transition period from the dry to the rainy season) but rainfall. ADT: trap apparent density. increased in May 2017 (beginning of the rainy season). An increase in the population of most Stomoxys spp. occurred in May 2017 (beginning of the rainy season) except for S. n. bilineatus (Figure 2). (ere was a positive and nonsigniﬁcant correlation (r � 0.066, p � 0.876) between monthly rainfall 2.5 and monthly ADT of Stomoxyinae in the study area. 3.3. Daily Activity of Stomoxys spp. in the Rainy Season. (e daily activity rhythms of all the Stomoxys spp. captured 1.5 during the rainy season showed that bimodal peaks and activity time intervals varied for each species such as S. n. niger and S. n. bilineatus (8 h–10 h and 14 h–16 h), S. cal- citrans (8 h–10 h and 12 h–14 h), S. omega (10 h–12 h and 14 h–16 h), and S. xanthomelas (8 h–10 h and 14 h–16 h) 0.5 (Figure 3). 6 h–8 h 8 h–10 h 10 h–12 h 12 h–14 h 14 h–16 h 16 h–18 h 3.4. Daily Activity of Stomoxys spp. in the Dry Season. Collection time During the dry season, most Stomoxys spp. showed a uni- S. xanthomelas S. calcitrans modal activity peak except for S. xanthomelas with a bimodal S. omega S. niger bilineatus activity peak. Based on individual species, S. n. niger and S. n. S. niger niger bilineatus had overlapping daily activity, and their activity Figure 3: Daily activity rhythms of Stomoxys spp. in the rainy peak occurred between 14 h and 16 h. S. calcitrans was more season (May 2017). ADT: trap apparent density. active between 12 h and 14 h, while S. xanthomelas had a bimodal activity with peaks between 10 h and 12 h and between 16 h and 18 h (Figure 4). temperature, but there was a negative and nonsigniﬁcant correlation between its ADT and air humidity (Table 3). For S. omega, there was a positive and nonsigniﬁcant 3.5. Diurnal Activity Rhythm and Weather Variables. (e correlation between its ADTand wind speed, but there was a weather variables such as temperature, humidity, and wind positive and signiﬁcant diﬀerence between its ADT and speed inﬂuenced the diurnal activity of Stomoxys spp. ° temperature. (ere was a negative and signiﬁcant correla- (Figure 5). (e average temperature (31 C) of the afternoon tion between its ADT and air humidity (Table 4). (14 h–16 h) favored the peak abundance of Stomoxys spp. For S. calcitrans, there was a positive and signiﬁcant (Figure 5(a)). (e average humidity (50%) between 14 h and correlation between its ADT and wind speed and temper- 16 h in the afternoon led to the peak activity of Stomoxys spp. ature, but there was a negative and signiﬁcant correlation (Figure 5(b)). (e sharp drop in the average wind speed between its ADT and air humidity (Table 5). (1.5 m/s) in the afternoon favored the activity of Stomoxys For S. n. niger, there was a positive and nonsigniﬁcant spp. that occurred between 14 h and 16 h (Figure 5(c)). (ere correlation between its ADT and wind speed and temper- was a negative and nonsigniﬁcant correlation (r � − 0.012, ature, but there was a negative and signiﬁcant correlation p � 0.978) between rainfall and diurnal catches. between its ADT and air humidity (Table 6). (e ADT of S. n. bilineatus was inﬂuenced by weather For S. xanthomelas, there was a positive and non- variables. (ere was a positive and nonsigniﬁcant correla- signiﬁcant correlation between its ADT and wind speed and tion between the ADT of S. n. bilineatus and wind speed and ADT ADT Rainfall (mm) International Journal of Zoology 5 2.5 1.5 0.5 6h–8h 8h–10h 10h–12h 12h–14h 14h–16h 16h–18h Collection time S. xanthomelas S. niger niger S. omega S. calcitrans Figure 4: Daily activity rhythms of Stomoxys spp. in the dry season (March 2017). ADT: trap apparent density. 10 35 10 80 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 40 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 8 h–10 h 10 h–12 h 12 h–14 h 14 h–16 h 16 h–18 h 8 h–10 h 10 h–12 h 12 h–14 h 14 h–16 h 16 h–18 h 6 h–8 h 6 h–8 h Collection time Collection time Temperature (°C) Humidity (%) ADT ADT (a) (b) 10 2 1.5 0.5 0 0 6h–8h 8h–10h 10h–12h 12h–14h 14h–16h 16h–18h Collection time Wind speed (m/s) ADT (c) Figure 5: Association of daily activity rhythms with weather variables: (a) temperature; (b) humidity; (c) wind speed. ADT: trap apparent density. ADT ADT ADT Temperature (°C) ADT Wind speed (m/s) Humidity (%) 6 International Journal of Zoology Table 3: Correlation matrix of daily ADT of S. n. bilineatus with weather variables. S. n. bilineatus Wind speed (m/s) Humidity (%) Temperature Pearson’s r — S. n. bilineatus p value — Pearson’s r 0.741 — Wind speed (m/s) p value 0.092 — Pearson’s r − 0.684 − 0.895 — Humidity (%) p value 0.134 0.016 — Pearson’s r 0.671 0.888 − 0.954 — Temperature ( C) p value 0.145 0.018 0.003 — r: correlation coeﬃcient. Table 4: Correlation matrix of daily ADT of S. omega with weather variables. S. omega Wind speed (m/s) Humidity (%) Temperature Pearson’s r — S. omega p value — Pearson’s r 0.722 — Wind speed (m/s) p value 0.105 — Pearson’s r − 0.819 − 0.895 — Humidity (%) p value 0.046 0.016 — Pearson’s r 0.901 0.888 − 0.954 — Temperature ( C) p value 0.014 0.018 0.003 — Statistically signiﬁcant diﬀerence at p< 0.05; r: correlation coeﬃcient. Table 5: Correlation matrix of daily ADT of S. calcitrans with weather variables. S. calcitrans Wind speed (m/s) Humidity (%) Temperature ( C) Pearson’s r — S. calcitrans p value — Pearson’s r 0.834 — Wind speed (m/s) p value 0.039 — Pearson’s r − 0.876 − 0.895 — Humidity (%) p value 0.022 0.016 — Pearson’s r 0.933 0.888 − 0.954 — Temperature ( C) p value 0.007 0.018 0.003 — Statistically signiﬁcant diﬀerence at p< 0.05; r: correlation coeﬃcient. Table 6: Correlation matrix of daily ADT of S. n. niger with weather variables. S. n. niger Wind speed (m/s) Humidity (%) Temperature Pearson’s r — S. n. niger p value — Pearson’s r 0.785 — Wind speed (m/s) p value 0.064 — Pearson’s r − 0.823 − 0.895 — Humidity (%) p value 0.044 0.016 — Pearson’s r 0.812 0.888 − 0.954 — Temperature p value 0.050 0.018 0.003 — Statistically signiﬁcant diﬀerence at p< 0.05; r: correlation coeﬃcient. temperature, but there was a negative and nonsigniﬁcant Roubaud. (e species composition of Stomoxyinae re- correlation between its ADT and air humidity (Table 7). ported by the preliminary study of Sevidzem et al.  in the north savanna of Cameroon was S. calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758), S. n. niger Macquart 1851, S. n. bilineatus Gru¨nberg 4. Discussion 1906, and S. sitiens Rondani 1873. (e diﬀerences in the (e pasture area of Vina Division of the Adamawa Plateau species composition/number in Adamawa and North Cameroon might be due to the diﬀerences in sampling is densely infested with ﬁve species of Stomoxyinae: S. n. niger Macquart, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758), S. n. bili- protocols (trap numbers and types and trap height and ¨ location) and climatic conditions (temperature and neatus Grunberg, S. omega Newstead, and S. xanthomelas International Journal of Zoology 7 Table 7: Correlation matrix of daily ADT of S. xanthomelas with weather variables. S. xanthomelas Wind speed (m/s) Humidity (%) Temperature Pearson’s r — S. xanthomelas p value — Pearson’s r − 0.614 — Wind speed (m/s) p value 0.195 — Pearson’s r 0.593 − 0.895 — Humidity (%) p value 0.215 0.016 — Pearson’s r − 0.395 0.888 − 0.954 — Temperature ( C) p value 0.438 0.018 0.003 — r: correlation coeﬃcient. precipitation) [22–24] prevailing in the two regions during the larvae to survive and successfully develop to pupae and the respective collection time points since the north has a adults. (ere was a sharp drop in the population of Sto- Sudano-Sahelian climate and Adamawa Plateau has a moxyinae in April. (is observation is similar to that of Sevidzem et al.  who reported low occurrence of stable Sudano-Guinean climate with diﬀerent weather conditions which could unequally inﬂuence Stomoxys spp. distribu- ﬂies in the same area and period. (e sharp drop could be associated with the start of emergence of adulthood or tion and abundance in diﬀerent bioclimatic zones of Cameroon. (e Stomoxyinae’s apparent density in the limited rainfall that could inhibit the development and present study was superior to that reported by Mavoungou survival of Stomoxyinae in the Sudano-Guinean climate. et al.  in Gabon. (e diﬀerences could be due to trap (e daily activity patterns of Stomoxys spp. change with types, trap numbers, and trapping periods in the two respect to the geographical zone, with reasons such as the studies . S. n. niger was the most abundant in all the climate, collection method, physiological state of an insect, prospected sites, and this is similar to the ﬁnding of or season . (is daily activity varied from season to season with the rainy season portraying a bimodal activity Mavoungou et al. , Ahmed et al. , and Mihok and Clausen . (e nonsigniﬁcant diﬀerence in the distri- (two peaks) in the morning between 8 h and 10 h and in the afternoon between 14 h and 16 h for most species. (is bution of diﬀerent Stomoxys spp. in diﬀerent sites of the study area could be explained by favorable environmental bimodal activity in the rainy season is due to the interlocking periods of heavy rains and sunshine during this season. On conditions especially for S. n. niger in Vina Division during the time of collection. However, according to Zumpt , S. the contrary, the activity of Stomoxys spp. was unimodal and n. niger is a common species in the savanna and humid the peak of the activity occurred in the late afternoons, but tropical rainforests. Based on the sites surveyed, Galim this was diﬀerent from S. xanthomelas which is the only recorded the highest number of Stomoxys spp. as compared exception with two peaks of activity (bimodal activity). (is to the other sites, and this could be due to the absence of activity model in both seasons was similar to that of insecticide and antiparasite applications on cattle and Muenworn et al.  and Phasuk et al.  for S. calcitrans. It was noticed that rainfall during collection time had a farms around Galim, but this practice is common in farms around Mbidjoro and Velambai [28, 29]. negative and nonsigniﬁcant inﬂuence on the ADT of Sto- moxyinae. (is might be due to hindrance of rains on ﬂight (e proportion of Stomoxys spp. catches was inﬂuenced by trap type, and it was noticed that the Vavoua trap highly activity during collection time. However, the monthly rainfall had a positive and nonsigniﬁcant eﬀect on the caught all the species identiﬁed than the other traps except for S. n. bilineatus that was highly caught by the Nzi trap. (e high monthly ADT of Stomoxyinae. (is observation on the collection of most Stomoxys spp. by the Vavoua trap than the positive link between weekly rainfall and ADT has already others was not astonishing because it has been reported to be been reported by Semelbauer et al. . (is can be eﬃcient for the collection of Stomoxyinae [4, 30]. explained by the fact that the larvae of stable ﬂies develop in Diﬀerent seasons bring about diﬀerences in the distri- the moist vegetable debris, a habitat expanded by rain. bution and abundance of Stomoxys spp. It was observed that Temperature was one of the factors that were positively associated with the ﬂight activity of adult Stomoxys spp. Stomoxys spp. population was dominant at the beginning of the rainy season (May 2017). (is ﬁnding is parallel to the Zumpt  stipulated that maximal activity of these ﬂies is attained when the surrounding temperature is 30 report of Masmeatathip et al.  which revealed that 80% of C and Stomoxys species were captured during the rainy season in reduces when it goes above 34 C. (e present study showed Kamphaengsaen Campus, Nakhon Pathom Province, that maximum activity was attained at the temperature of (ailand, in the southern Kaduna state of Nigeria by Ahmed 30.65 C which was closest to that reported by Zumpt . (e et al.  and in the Faro and Deo Division of the Adamawa average monthly temperature of Vina Division for 2017 was region by Sevidzem et al. . In Brachyceran ﬂies, an 25.33 C± 2.08 which is far from the limiting temperature increase in ﬂight activity often occurs immediately after (15 C) of Stomoxyinae. (e relative humidity is another rainfall [33, 34]. According to Muenwom et al. , the sensitive weather parameter which can inﬂuence the ﬂight increase in rainfall causes a widespread increase in suitable activity of stomoxyines [38, 39]. (e mean humidity values breeding sites which is a critical factor for eggs to hatch and between 30 and 50% are favorable for the ﬂight activity of 8 International Journal of Zoology Stomoxys spp. (e relative humidity corresponding to the Alfons Renz for authorizing them to work in the Ento- maximum activity of Stomoxys spp. (14 h to 16 h) was mology Laboratory of the Programme Onchocercoses in 49.67%. An increase in air humidity during diurnal col- Ngaoundere, Cameroon. lection time had a negative eﬀect on the ﬂight activity of diﬀerent Stomoxyinae caught. (is high humidity was References provoked by rainfall and reduced the daytime population of adult Stomoxys spp. Humidity is less pronounced than  J. B. Campbell, S. R. Skoda, D. R. Berkebile et al., “Eﬀects of temperature when considering daytime locomotory activi- stable ﬂies (Diptera: Muscidae) on weight gains of grazing ties of most Dipterans, but it was observed in Aedes aegypti yearling cattle,” Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 780–783, 2001. (L.) that its peak activity was attained with humidity between  P. Gautam, B. Parthasarathi, K. D. Samares et al., “Stomoxys 30 and 90% [7, 40]. (e peak of Stomoxys activity occurs calcitrans and its importance in livestock: a review,” In- when the wind speed is optimal and data on this parameter ternational Journal of Advance Agriculture Research, vol. 6, related to this group are rare, but our present ﬁndings pp. 30–37, 2018. recorded the activity peak of Stomoxys spp. at 1.46 m/s.  F. Zumpt, “(e stomoxyine biting ﬂies of the world,” in Altitude was not signiﬁcantly diﬀerent in all the prospected Taxonomy, Biology, Economic Importance and Control Mea- sites. However, the activity peak of Stomoxys spp. occurred at sures, Vol. 175, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, an altitude of 1126.33 m. (ere is no information about the activity of Stomoxys at diﬀerent altitudes. However, Gilles  S. L. Sevidzem, A. Mamoudou, G. L. Acapovi-Yao et al., “First et al.  reported that altitude inﬂuences Stomoxys spp. inventory of non-biting and biting muscids of North diversity and not their abundance. Cameroon,” International Journal of Research in Biological (e pasture area of Vina Division, particularly in Science, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 12–20, 2016. Ngaoundere I, II, and III, is densely infested by ﬁve species of  F. Baldacchino, V. Muenworn, M. Desquesnes, F. Desoli, T. Charoenviriyaphap, and G. Duvallet, “Transmission of Stomoxys: S. n. niger, S. calcitrans, S. n. bilineatus, S. xan- pathogens by stomoxysﬂies (Diptera, Muscidae): a review,” thomelas, and S. omega. 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