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Hindawi Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Volume 2019, Article ID 4984756, 8 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4984756 Research Article Experimental Study on Drag Reduction Characteristics of Bionic Earthworm Self-Lubrication Surface 1,2 3 3 2 3 Guomin Liu, Xueqiao Wu, Meng Zou , Yuying Yan, and Jianqiao Li College of Civil Engineering, Jilin Jianzhu University, Changchun 130118, China Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China Correspondence should be addressed to Meng Zou; firstname.lastname@example.org Received 24 June 2019; Accepted 20 September 2019; Published 23 October 2019 Academic Editor: Raimondo Penta Copyright © 2019 Guomin Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In the present study, a coupling bionic method is used to study the drag reduction characteristics of corrugated surface with lubrication. In order to test the drag reduction features, bionic specimen was prepared inspired by earthworm surface and lubrication. Based on the reverse engineering method, nonsmooth curve of earthworm surface was extracted and the bionic corrugated sample was designed, and the position of lubrication hole was established by experimental testing. The lubricating drag reduction performance, the inﬂuence of normal pressure, the forward velocity, and the ﬂow rate of lubricating ﬂuid on the forward resistance of the bionic specimens were analyzed through a single factor test by using the self-developed test equipment. The model between the forward resistance and the three factors was established through the ternary quadratic regression test. The results show that the drag reduction eﬀect is obvious, the drag reduction rate is 22.65% to 34.89%, and the forward resistance decreases with the increase of the forward velocity, increases with the increase of the normal pressure, and decreases ﬁrst and then becomes stable with the increase of ﬂow rate of lubricating ﬂuid. There are secondary eﬀects on forward resistance by the three factors, and the inﬂuencing order is as follows: normal pressure>ﬂow rate of lubricating ﬂuid>forward velocity. [9, 10] put forward the surface electroosmosis technology 1. Introduction according to the phenomenon of earthworm surface electro- Soil adhesion is a major problem in the ﬁeld of ground trans- osmosis and applied it to soil-engaging components. In the portation, excavation, and farming machinery. The adhesion late 1990s, Ren et al.  studied the surface ﬂexibility of of soil to soil-engaging components will seriously aﬀect the earthworms and their antiviscosity characteristics. After 2004, Sun et al. [12, 13] and Li et al. [14–16] have successively working eﬃciency and quality of ground machinery, thus increasing energy consumption [1–4]. With the aggravation carried out biomimetic research on the viscosity reduction of energy and environmental crises, it is imperative to design and drag reduction of earthworm’s nonsmooth surface. Shi and produce soil-engaging components with high eﬃciency et al.  carried out a biomimetic study on earthworm and low consumption. Earthworm is a typical soil animal, telescopic motion. Zu and Yan [18, 19] used the lattice which has an excellent function of reducing drag and remov- Boltzmann method to simulate the surface electroosmosis ing soil in long-term evolution. It can also move freely in of earthworms and further studied the adhesion reducing clayey soil and does not have clay [5, 6]. Since early 1990s, the mechanism of earthworm surface electroosmosis. These scholars at home and abroad have gradually carried out studies mainly focus on the unit biomimetic of a certain bionic research on reducing soil adhesion and scouring soil aspect or a certain factor. of earthworm. Li et al.  carried out the extraction of earth- With the deepening of bionic research, researchers have worm surface ﬂuid and studied the adhesion reducing the found that the functions, which biologically adapt to the mechanism of earthworm surface self-lubrication. Sun et al. external environment, are not only the role of a single factor  measured the surface potential of earthworms; Ren et al. or the simple addition of multiple factors but also the results 2 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics selecting the yellow clay of Changchun city, when the soil of synergistic action that a variety of interdependent, mutually aﬀecting factors are coupled through a certain mechanism moisture content was 22.2% and the forward velocity was [20, 21]. The research shows that earthworm has an excellent 200 cm/min, the experiment was carried out with ﬁve diﬀer- ent normal pressure conditions, and each group was repeated function of viscosity reduction and drag reduction, which is the result of multifactor coupling action such as body surface three times. As shown in Figure 2, the adhesion was at a nor- structure, body surface ﬂexibility, body surface electroosmo- mal pressure of 34 N. sis, body surface lubrication, and its unique movement mode The adhesion data is shown in Table 1. According to [22–25]. Based on the nonsmooth structure and the self- Table 1, there is more adhesion to the head and body, but there is no adhesion in the tail. lubricating characteristics of earthworm surface, this paper discusses the drag reduction characteristics of earthworm In order to prevent clogging, the bionic dorsal foramen by a dual-coupling biomimetic method, in order to provide was designed in the top of the sulcus of the head and body a new theory and method for the design of soil-engaging backward-forward direction according to the adhesion and components with high eﬃciency and low consumption. model characteristics. They are including the anterior fora- men of the head (HF), the posterior foramen of the head (HB), the anterior foramen of the body (BF), and the poste- 2. Materials and Methods rior foramen of the body (BB), as shown in Figure 3. 2.1. Coupling Bionic Sample Design. Earthworms are com- mon animals that can move freely in the soil; it can adapt 2.2. Test Rig and Methods. According to the test require- ments, the test rig for lubricating and drag reduction perfor- to diﬀerent soil environments. The viscosity reduction ability of earthworms mainly depends on its ﬂexible nonsmooth mance of soil-engaging components was designed, as shown in Figure 4(a). The rig consists of support frame, soil bin, body surface, bioelectroosmotic system, surface lubrication, corrugated body surface, and other factors . In this paper, motion control device, data acquisition device, and lubrica- Eisenia foetida was used as bionic prototype, and according tion adjustment device. The soil is ﬁxed on the support frame, and the motion to the previous studies, the corrugated body surface of earth- worm has the characteristics of reducing viscosity and drag control device is ﬁxed directly above the soil bin, mainly . The eﬀect of viscosity and drag reduction of the diﬀer- including servomotor, pulley motion pair, and sliding plate, which is responsible for the bidirectional motion of the ent states of the body from large to small is contraction state, motionlessness state, and stretched state, and the eﬀect of soil-engaging components in the soil bin. The lubrication adjustment device is ﬁxed on the upper left side of the soil viscosity and drag reduction of the head is more obvious than that of the body. Therefore, the head contraction state of bin, mainly including peristaltic pump, peristaltic pump earthworm has the best viscosity and drag reduction eﬀect frame, and water tank, which can convey lubricating ﬂuid during the movement of soil-engaging components. The [14, 15], as shown in Figure 1(a). Based on the reverse engineering method, the corrugated pump is compiled by external software and connected to the computer. According to the conditions, the ﬂow rate body surface of earthworm was scanned by a 3D laser scan- ner, and the data of point cloud was processed by Geomagic can be set and the number of the opening pump and the software. There are about ten knots involved in each lubricating position can also be set, so that the ﬂow rate can be accurately adjusted. The data acquisition device is ﬁxed extension-contraction movement of earthworms, the head and body are the main position of soil adhesion and force, at the top of the soil bin, including computer, object board, and angle steel, which is responsible for collecting data and and the tail are weak [14–16], so they are equivalent to a cyl- inder when designing biomimetic samples, composed of 10 controlling each device compiled by software. body knots, and the tail curve is designed as the symmetrical After the equipment connection is completed, the bionic sample is placed in the soil bin and the moving speed, the curve of the head. Through the commands of three-point arc, tangent arc, and curve curvature extension in CAXA, the ﬂow rate, and the number and position of the peristaltic pump are set up by the control software, and then the motor smooth curve which is close to the contour curve of the cor- rugated body surface of earthworm is drawn, and the coor- is started. The lead screw moves the bionic sample forward, dinate point data of the smooth curve are extracted. Then, and the data acquisition is transmitted to the computer by the data collector in actual time. The force sensor is Kistler the spline curves of the head shape are drawn by using coor- dinate points. At last, amplifying the size by six times for Triaxial Force Sensor Type 9027C and assembly located and ﬁxed between the traction rope and moving plate. The engineering needs, the biomimetic sample was printed in 3D. As shown in Figure 1(b), the length is 207.18 mm, the test image and the data can be obtained by software. For width is 62.59 mm, the thickness is 31.28 mm, the sample the testing procedure, see Figure 4(b). material is photosensitive resin, and the printing precision is 0.1 mm. For comparative analysis, a smooth specimen of 3. Test and Result Analysis the same size was designed, as shown in Figure 1(c). The lubrication hole’s position of earthworm surface has 3.1. Single Factor Test and Result Analysis. Forward velocity, direct inﬂuence on the lubricating eﬀect , and the hole ﬂow rate of lubricating ﬂuid, and normal pressure are impor- location of the corrugated surface sample is determined by tant factors aﬀecting forward resistance. In order to investi- the test method. According to previous studies, normal pres- gate their eﬀects, a single factor test was carried out when sure is the most important factor aﬀecting adhesion force. So, soil moisture content was 22.2% with lubrication and Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 3 31.28 mm 4.7 mm 54.24 m 98.7 mm 54.24 m 0.44 mm Unit size Head Body Tail (a) Surface specimen of earthworm (b) Bionic specimen (c) Smooth contrast specimen Figure 1: Specimen. resistance is 18.01 N~70.08 N without lubrication and 11.23 N~48.47 N with lubrication, and the drag reduction rate is 36.27%~58.46%. With the increase of normal pressure, the reducing eﬀect is more and more obvious, and the for- ward resistance of unlubricated and lubricated conditions will increase continuously, because the contact area between corrugated surface and soil increases with the increase of nor- mal pressure, and the gap between corrugated surface and soil decreases, which make soil compacted and the friction resistance increased. Figure 2: Adhesion when normal pressure was 34 N. When the normal pressure is 34 N and the forward velocity is 300 cm/min, the eﬀect of the ﬂow rate of lubricat- Table 1: Adhesive quality of diﬀerent parts. ing ﬂuid on the forward resistance is shown in Figure 5(c). From Figure 5(c), it can be seen that the forward resistance Head Body Tail Total Normal decreases ﬁrst and then remains unchanged with the increase adhesion adhesion adhesion adhesion pressure (N) of the ﬂow rate of the lubricating ﬂuid. When the velocity rate (g) (g) (g) (g) is 0.08 ml/s, the forward resistance is 21.32 N that is close to 17 7.4 6.53 0.29 14.22 20.09 N when the rate is 0.1 ml/s. This is because with the 34 13.83 6.95 0.09 20.87 increase of the ﬂow rate of the lubricating ﬂuid, the ﬂuid fully 51 16.21 9.58 0.22 26.01 permeates into the contact interface between corrugated sur- 68 19.36 13.17 0.46 32.99 face and soil and then forms the interfacial lubrication, mak- 85 28.02 14.44 0.12 42.58 ing the resistance decrease. When it increases to a certain condition, the interface water ﬁlm is saturated, so the forward resistance is almost unchanged. nonlubrication, and three repeated tests were carried out to 3.2. Ternary Quadratic Regression Combination Test and reduce the error. The test plan is shown in Table 2. Result Analysis. In order to further explore the eﬀect of these The eﬀect of forward velocity on forward resistance three factors and establish the equation between forward is shown in Figure 5(a) when the normal pressure is 34 N resistance and each factor, the three-element quadratic and the ﬂow rate of lubricating ﬂuid is 0.06 ml/s. From Figure 5(a), it can be seen that the forward resistance regression combination test  was carried out, and the repeated test with m is between 26.32 N~33.14 N without lubrication and =3, r =1:831 was selected. The factor 18.11 N~23.46 N with lubrication, and the drag reduction level and coding are shown in Table 3. According to the testing requirements and the designing rate is 24.19% to 33.71%. In addition, the forward resistance decreases with the increase of the forward speed under both principle of quadratic regression orthogonal, the experimen- lubricated and nonlubricated conditions. Without lubrica- tal scheme is worked out and the regression coeﬃcients and tion, it decreases obviously with the increase of velocity, squares of each sequence are calculated as shown in Table 4. because when the velocity is small, the contact time between By testing the regression coeﬃcient, the equation is obtained as follows: corrugated body surface and soil becomes longer and the dis- turbance to the soil increases in the course of movement. With lubrication, the forward resistance of 500 cm/min is ̂y =16:10 + 5:68x − 0:81x − 1:29x 1 2 3 ð1Þ greater than that of 400 cm/min, which is due to that the ﬂuid 2 2 2 +1:61x − 0:96x − 0:23x : 1 2 3 cannot penetrate the interface between corrugated surface and soil suﬃciently with the increase of velocity, resulting Therefore, the sum of regressing squares is in a reduced lubrication eﬀect. When the forward velocity is 300 cm/min, and the ﬂow rate of lubricating ﬂuid is 0.06ml/s, the eﬀect of normal S = S + S + S + S + S + S = 287:69, 回 x x x ′ ′ ′ x x x 1 2 3 1 2 3 ð2Þ pressure on the forward resistance is shown in Figure 5(b). f =6: From Figure 5(b), it can be seen that the forward 4 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics BB BF HB HF Hose straight connection Rapid-plug joint Infusion hose (a) Lubricating hole design (b) Physical drawing Figure 3: Coupling bionic specimen. 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (a) Structure diagram of the test equipment (b) Testing procedure Figure 4: Test and equipment. 1: data acquisition device, 2: support frame, 3: soil bin, 4: force sensor, 5: bionic sample, 6: peristaltic pump, 7: lubricating adjustment device, 8: water tank, 9: moving plate, 10: motion control device, 11: screw drive set, 12: pulley block. Table 2: Single factor test scheme. s = 〠ðÞ y − y =0:93, i0 0 Factors i=1 ð5Þ Level Forward velocity Flow rate of lubricating Normal f =2, (cm/min) ﬂuid (ml/s) pressure (N) 1 100 0.01 17 2 200 0.02 34 s = 〠 y − y =0:93, ðÞ e i0 0 3 300 0.03 51 ð6Þ i=1 4 400 0.04 68 f =4: lf 5 500 0.05 85 So Because s /f 回 回 F = =51:83 > F 6, 6 =8:47, ð7Þ ðÞ ! 回 s /f 13 17 R R S = 〠 y − 〠 y = 293:24, i i i=1 i=1 ð3Þ s /f lf lf F = =2:97 < F 4, 2 =3:23: ð8Þ ðÞ lf 0:25 f = 12, s /f e e The statistical test results show that the signiﬁcant level of the equation is 0.01 and the ﬁtting is very good, which can be s = s − s =5:55, R 回 considered as the best regression equation. The central pro- ð4Þ f =6, R cessing and coding formula of the factors in the table are Applied Bionics and Biomechanics 5 100 200 300 400 500 17 34 51 68 85 Forward velocity (cm/min) Normal pressure (N) Lubrication Lubrication Without lubrication Without lubrication (a) The eﬀect of forward velocity on forward resistance (b) The eﬀect of normal pressure on forward resistance 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 Flow rate of lubricating fluid (ml/s) (c) The eﬀect of ﬂow rate of lubricating ﬂuid on forward resistance Figure 5: Results of a single factor test. Table 3: Natural factor level and its coding table. x z Z (N) Z (ml/s) Z (cm/min) j j 1 2 3 51 0.1 500 1 46.56 0.09 447.82 0 34 0.06 300 1 21.44 0.03 152.18 -r 17 0.02 100 z − z 2j 1j Δ = 12.56 0.03 147.82 2r z − z j 0j x = x =0:076 ×ðÞ z − 34 x =33:33 ×ðÞ z − 0:06 x =0:006 ×ðÞ z − 300 1 1 2 1 3 1 Note: Z means normal pressure; Z means ﬂow rate of lubricating ﬂuid; Z means forward velocity. 1 2 3 put into equation (1) and the regression equation is obtained cating ﬂuid>forward velocity, and the three factors have a as follows: signiﬁcant eﬀect on the forward resistance. From formula (9), we can see that normal pressure Z , ﬂow rate of lubricating ﬂuid Z , and forward velocity Z have 2 3 y =12:21 + 0:2z + 100:98z − 0:0028z 1 2 3 a secondary eﬀect on the forward resistance, but there is no ð9Þ 2 2 −6 2 +0:0093z − 1066:45z +8:28 × 10 z : interaction between them, as shown in Figure 6. 1 2 3 By testing the regression coeﬃcient of formula (1), it is 4. Conclusion found that the order of the test factors aﬀecting the forward resistance is as follows: normal pressure>ﬂow rate of lubri- We can conclude the following: Forward resistance (N) Forward resistance (N) Forward resistance (N) Forward velocity (cm/min) Forward velocity (cm/min) Normal pressure (N) 6 Applied Bionics and Biomechanics Table 4: Orthogonal rotation combination test plan and results. 2 2 2 X X z X z X z Y ðÞ ðÞ ðÞ ′ ′ ′ X X X X X X 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 i 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 20.09 2 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 22.64 3 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 9.84 4 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 10.14 51 01 r 0 0 26.96 61 -r 00 r 0 0 11.6 r r 71 0 00 0 13.65 -r 81 0 00 r 0 16.18 r r 91 0 0 00 13.53 -r 10 1 0 0 00 r 18.78 11 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 15.35 12 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 15.21 13 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 15.39 j 13 7.66 7.66 7.66 6.19 6.19 6.19 j 209.36 43.53 -6.27 -9.95 10 -5.98 -1.44 16.10 5.68 -0.81 -1.29 1.61 -0.96 -0.23 3371.66 247.37 5.13 12.92 16.16 5.78 0.33 27701.11 574.72 1447.32 1809.08 646.93 37.51 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.05 21.5 20.5 19.5 18.5 0.01 400 0.05 0.02 0.04 100 0.03 0.03 80 200 60 0.04 0.02 100 0.01 0.05 (a) Z =17N (b) Z =0:05 ml/s 1 2 400 100 100 0 (c) Z = 100 N Figure 6: Results of orthogonal rotation combination test. 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