The Probability of Preservation of a Newly Arisen Gene Duplicate

The Probability of Preservation of a Newly Arisen Gene Duplicate Michael Lynch a , Martin O'Hely b , Bruce Walsh c , and Allan Force d a Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, b Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, c Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 d Virginia Mason Research Center, Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98101 Corresponding author: Michael Lynch, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405., mlynch@bio.indiana.edu (E-mail) Communicating editor: M. A. A SMUSSEN Newly emerging data from genome sequencing projects suggest that gene duplication, often accompanied by genetic map changes, is a common and ongoing feature of all genomes. This raises the possibility that differential expansion/contraction of various genomic sequences may be just as important a mechanism of phenotypic evolution as changes at the nucleotide level. However, the population-genetic mechanisms responsible for the success vs. failure of newly arisen gene duplicates are poorly understood. We examine the influence of various aspects of gene structure, mutation rates, degree of linkage, and population size ( N ) on the joint fate of a newly arisen duplicate gene and its ancestral locus. Unless there is active selection against duplicate genes, the probability of permanent establishment of such genes is usually no less than 1/(4 N ) (half of the neutral expectation), and it can be orders of magnitude greater if neofunctionalizing mutations are common. The probability of a map change (reassignment of a key function of an ancestral locus to a new chromosomal location) induced by a newly arisen duplicate is also generally >1/(4 N ) for unlinked duplicates, suggesting that recurrent gene duplication and alternative silencing may be a common mechanism for generating microchromosomal rearrangements responsible for postreproductive isolating barriers among species. Relative to subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization is expected to become a progressively more important mechanism of duplicate-gene preservation in populations with increasing size. However, even in large populations, the probability of neofunctionalization scales only with the square of the selective advantage. Tight linkage also influences the probability of duplicate-gene preservation, increasing the probability of subfunctionalization but decreasing the probability of neofunctionalization. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Genetics Genetics Society of America

The Probability of Preservation of a Newly Arisen Gene Duplicate

Genetics, Volume 159 (4): 1789 – Dec 1, 2001

Loading next page...
1
 
/lp/genetics-society-of-america/the-probability-of-preservation-of-a-newly-arisen-gene-duplicate-N1XB8quw3r
Publisher
Genetics Society of America
Copyright
Copyright © 2001 by the Genetics Society of America
ISSN
0016-6731
eISSN
1943-2631
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Michael Lynch a , Martin O'Hely b , Bruce Walsh c , and Allan Force d a Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, b Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, c Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 d Virginia Mason Research Center, Benaroya Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98101 Corresponding author: Michael Lynch, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405., mlynch@bio.indiana.edu (E-mail) Communicating editor: M. A. A SMUSSEN Newly emerging data from genome sequencing projects suggest that gene duplication, often accompanied by genetic map changes, is a common and ongoing feature of all genomes. This raises the possibility that differential expansion/contraction of various genomic sequences may be just as important a mechanism of phenotypic evolution as changes at the nucleotide level. However, the population-genetic mechanisms responsible for the success vs. failure of newly arisen gene duplicates are poorly understood. We examine the influence of various aspects of gene structure, mutation rates, degree of linkage, and population size ( N ) on the joint fate of a newly arisen duplicate gene and its ancestral locus. Unless there is active selection against duplicate genes, the probability of permanent establishment of such genes is usually no less than 1/(4 N ) (half of the neutral expectation), and it can be orders of magnitude greater if neofunctionalizing mutations are common. The probability of a map change (reassignment of a key function of an ancestral locus to a new chromosomal location) induced by a newly arisen duplicate is also generally >1/(4 N ) for unlinked duplicates, suggesting that recurrent gene duplication and alternative silencing may be a common mechanism for generating microchromosomal rearrangements responsible for postreproductive isolating barriers among species. Relative to subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization is expected to become a progressively more important mechanism of duplicate-gene preservation in populations with increasing size. However, even in large populations, the probability of neofunctionalization scales only with the square of the selective advantage. Tight linkage also influences the probability of duplicate-gene preservation, increasing the probability of subfunctionalization but decreasing the probability of neofunctionalization.

Journal

GeneticsGenetics Society of America

Published: Dec 1, 2001

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off