Gene Loss, Silencing and Activation in a Newly Synthesized Wheat Allotetraploid

Gene Loss, Silencing and Activation in a Newly Synthesized Wheat Allotetraploid Khalil Kashkush a , Moshe Feldman a , and Avraham A. Levy a a Department of Plant Sciences, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel Corresponding author: Avraham A. Levy, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel., avi.levy@weizmann.ac.il (E-mail) Communicating editor: J. A. B IRCHLER We analyzed the events that affect gene structure and expression in the early stages of allopolyploidy in wheat. The transcriptome response was studied by analyzing 3072 transcripts in the first generation of a synthetic allotetraploid (genome S l S l A m A m ), which resembles tetraploid wheat (genome BBAA), and in its two diploid progenitors Aegilops sharonensis (S l S l ) and Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (A m A m ). The expression of 60 out of 3072 transcripts was reproducibly altered in the allotetraploid: 48 transcripts disappeared and 12 were activated. Transcript disappearance was caused by gene silencing or by gene loss. Gene silencing affected one or both homeologous loci and was associated in part with cytosine methylation. Gene loss or methylation had occurred already in the F 1 intergeneric hybrid or in the allotetraploid, depending on the locus. The silenced/lost genes included rRNA genes and genes involved in metabolism, disease resistance, and cell cycle regulation. The activated genes with a known function were all retroelements. These findings show that wide hybridization and chromosome doubling affect gene expression via genetic and epigenetic alterations immediately upon allopolyploid formation. These events contribute to the genetic diploidization of newly formed allopolyploids. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Genetics Genetics Society of America

Gene Loss, Silencing and Activation in a Newly Synthesized Wheat Allotetraploid

Genetics, Volume 160 (4): 1651 – Apr 1, 2002

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Publisher
Genetics Society of America
Copyright
Copyright © 2002 by the Genetics Society of America
ISSN
0016-6731
eISSN
1943-2631
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Abstract

Khalil Kashkush a , Moshe Feldman a , and Avraham A. Levy a a Department of Plant Sciences, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel Corresponding author: Avraham A. Levy, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel., avi.levy@weizmann.ac.il (E-mail) Communicating editor: J. A. B IRCHLER We analyzed the events that affect gene structure and expression in the early stages of allopolyploidy in wheat. The transcriptome response was studied by analyzing 3072 transcripts in the first generation of a synthetic allotetraploid (genome S l S l A m A m ), which resembles tetraploid wheat (genome BBAA), and in its two diploid progenitors Aegilops sharonensis (S l S l ) and Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (A m A m ). The expression of 60 out of 3072 transcripts was reproducibly altered in the allotetraploid: 48 transcripts disappeared and 12 were activated. Transcript disappearance was caused by gene silencing or by gene loss. Gene silencing affected one or both homeologous loci and was associated in part with cytosine methylation. Gene loss or methylation had occurred already in the F 1 intergeneric hybrid or in the allotetraploid, depending on the locus. The silenced/lost genes included rRNA genes and genes involved in metabolism, disease resistance, and cell cycle regulation. The activated genes with a known function were all retroelements. These findings show that wide hybridization and chromosome doubling affect gene expression via genetic and epigenetic alterations immediately upon allopolyploid formation. These events contribute to the genetic diploidization of newly formed allopolyploids.

Journal

GeneticsGenetics Society of America

Published: Apr 1, 2002

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