FRIGIDA-Independent Variation in Flowering Time of Natural Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions

FRIGIDA-Independent Variation in Flowering Time of Natural Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions FRIGIDA ( FRI ) and FLOWERING LOCUS C ( FLC ) are two genes that, unless plants are vernalized, greatly delay flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana . Natural loss-of-function mutations in FRI cause the early flowering growth habits of many A. thaliana accessions. To quantify the variation among wild accessions due to FRI , and to identify additional genetic loci in wild accessions that influence flowering time, we surveyed the flowering times of 145 accessions in long-day photoperiods, with and without a 30-day vernalization treatment, and genotyped them for two common natural lesions in FRI . FRI is disrupted in at least 84 of the accessions, accounting for only ∼40% of the flowering-time variation in long days. During efforts to dissect the causes for variation that are independent of known dysfunctional FRI alleles, we found new loss-of-function alleles in FLC , as well as late-flowering alleles that do not map to FRI or FLC . An FLC nonsense mutation was found in the early flowering Van-0 accession, which has otherwise functional FRI . In contrast, Lz-0 flowers late because of high levels of FLC expression, even though it has a deletion in FRI . Finally, eXtreme array mapping identified genomic regions linked to the vernalization-independent, late-flowering habit of Bur-0, which has an alternatively spliced FLC allele that behaves as a null allele. Footnotes ↵ 1 Present address: EMBL, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Sequences data from this article have been deposited with the EMBL/GenBank Data Libraries under accession nos. AY781906 , AY785055 , AY849982 , AY849983 , AY849984 , AY849985 , AY849986 , AY849987 , AY849988 , AY849989 , AY849990 , AY849991 , AY849992 , AY849993 , AY849994 , AY849995 , AY849996 , AY849997 , AY849998 , AY849999 , AY850000 , AY850001 , AY850002 , AY854371 , AY854372 , and AH014566 . Communicating editor: V. S undaresan Received September 20, 2004. Accepted January 3, 2005. Genetics Society of America http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Genetics Genetics Society of America

FRIGIDA-Independent Variation in Flowering Time of Natural Arabidopsis thaliana Accessions

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Publisher
Genetics Society of America
Copyright
Copyright © 2005 by the Genetics Society of America
ISSN
0016-6731
eISSN
1943-2631
D.O.I.
10.1534/genetics.104.036533
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

FRIGIDA ( FRI ) and FLOWERING LOCUS C ( FLC ) are two genes that, unless plants are vernalized, greatly delay flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana . Natural loss-of-function mutations in FRI cause the early flowering growth habits of many A. thaliana accessions. To quantify the variation among wild accessions due to FRI , and to identify additional genetic loci in wild accessions that influence flowering time, we surveyed the flowering times of 145 accessions in long-day photoperiods, with and without a 30-day vernalization treatment, and genotyped them for two common natural lesions in FRI . FRI is disrupted in at least 84 of the accessions, accounting for only ∼40% of the flowering-time variation in long days. During efforts to dissect the causes for variation that are independent of known dysfunctional FRI alleles, we found new loss-of-function alleles in FLC , as well as late-flowering alleles that do not map to FRI or FLC . An FLC nonsense mutation was found in the early flowering Van-0 accession, which has otherwise functional FRI . In contrast, Lz-0 flowers late because of high levels of FLC expression, even though it has a deletion in FRI . Finally, eXtreme array mapping identified genomic regions linked to the vernalization-independent, late-flowering habit of Bur-0, which has an alternatively spliced FLC allele that behaves as a null allele. Footnotes ↵ 1 Present address: EMBL, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Sequences data from this article have been deposited with the EMBL/GenBank Data Libraries under accession nos. AY781906 , AY785055 , AY849982 , AY849983 , AY849984 , AY849985 , AY849986 , AY849987 , AY849988 , AY849989 , AY849990 , AY849991 , AY849992 , AY849993 , AY849994 , AY849995 , AY849996 , AY849997 , AY849998 , AY849999 , AY850000 , AY850001 , AY850002 , AY854371 , AY854372 , and AH014566 . Communicating editor: V. S undaresan Received September 20, 2004. Accepted January 3, 2005. Genetics Society of America

Journal

GeneticsGenetics Society of America

Published: Jul 1, 2005

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