PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to apply the Steady State Kalman Filter for temperature measurements of tissues via magnetic resonance thermometry. Instead of using classical direct inversion, a methodology is proposed that couples the magnetic resonance thermometry with the bioheat transfer problem and the local temperatures can be identified through the solution of a state estimation problem.Design/methodology/approachHeat transfer in the tissues is given by Pennes’ bioheat transfer model, while the Proton Resonance Frequency (PRF)-Shift technique is used for the magnetic resonance thermometry. The problem of measuring the transient temperature field of tissues is recast as a state estimation problem and is solved through the Steady-State Kalman filter. Noisy synthetic measurements are used for testing the proposed methodology.FindingsThe proposed approach is more accurate for recovering the local transient temperatures from the noisy PRF-Shift measurements than the direct data inversion. The methodology used here can be applied in real time due to the reduced computational cost. Idealized test cases are examined that include the actual geometry of a forearm.Research limitations/implicationsThe solution of the state estimation problem recovers the temperature variations in the region more accurately than the direct inversion. Besides that, the estimation of the temperature field in the region was possible with the solution of the state estimation problem via the Steady-State Kalman filter, but not with the direct inversion.Practical implicationsThe recursive equations of the Steady-State Kalman filter can be calculated in computational times smaller than the supposed physical times, thus demonstrating that the present approach can be used for real-time applications, such as in control of the heating source in the hyperthermia treatment of cancer.Originality/valueThe original and novel contributions of the manuscript include: formulation of the PRF-Shift thermometry as a state estimation problem, which results in reduced uncertainties of the temperature variation as compared to the classical direct inversion; estimation of the actual temperature in the region with the solution of the state estimation problem, which is not possible with the direct inversion that is limited to the identification of the temperature variation; solution of the state estimation problem with the Steady-State Kalman filter, which allows for fast computations and real-time calculations.
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow – Emerald Publishing
Published: Feb 5, 2018
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