Purpose– The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of offset angle in wave soldering by using thermal fluid structure interaction modeling with experimental validation. Design/methodology/approach– The authors used a thermal coupling approach that adopted mesh-based parallel code coupling interface between finite volume-and finite element-based software (ABAQUS). A 3D single pin-through-hole (PTH) connector with five offset angles (0 to 20°) on a printed circuit board (PCB) was built and meshed by using computational fluid dynamics preprocessing software called GAMBIT. An implicit volume of fluid technique with a second-order upwind scheme was also applied to track the flow front of solder material (Sn63Pb37) when passing through the solder pot during wave soldering. The structural solver and ABAQUS analyzed the temperature distribution, displacement and von Mises stress of the PTH connector. The predicted results were validated by the experimental solder profile. Findings– The simulation revealed that the PTH offset angle had a significant effect on the filling of molten solder through the PCB. The 0° angle yielded the best filling profile, filling time, lowest displacement and thermal stress. The simulation result was similar to the experimental result. Practical implications– This study provides a better understanding of the process control in wave soldering for PCB assembly. Originality/value– This study provides fundamental guidelines and references for the thermal coupling method to address reliability issues during wave soldering. It also enhances understanding of capillary flow and PTH joint issues to achieve high reliability in PCB assembly industries.
Soldering & Surface Mount Technology – Emerald Publishing
Published: May 27, 2014
Keywords: Wave soldering; Thermal fluid structure interaction (FSI); Capillary flow; Pin‐through‐hole (PTH)
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