satisfactions and psychological
well-being among women
managers and professionals
Tourism Faculty, Nevsehir University, Nevsehir, Turkey
Ronald J. Burke
Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto, Canada, and
Purpose – Although women continue to enter managerial and professional jobs in increasing
numbers, they continue to be underrepresented at more senior levels of management. Several factors
have been found to account for this, an important one being women’s responsibilities for home and
family functioning, often resulting in work-family conﬂict (WFC). The purpose of this paper is to
examine correlates and consequences of WFC among a sample of managerial and professional women
working in Istanbul, Turkey.
Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from 143 women, most working in the public
sector, using anonymously completed questionnaires. About half were married and about half had
children. WFC, both work interfering with family and family interfering with work (time-, strain- and
behaviour-based) were measured by a scale developed and validated by Carlson et al., in a US study.
Findings – The respondents indicated relatively low levels of WFC. Levels of work interfering with
family and family interfering with work were signiﬁcantly and positively correlated. Hierarchical
regression analyses, controlling for both personal demographic and work situation characteristics,
showed thatWFC generally predicted bothworkand psychologicalwell-being outcomes,work interfering
with family being a consistently stronger predictor of these than was family interfering with work.
Research limitations/implications – Data collected at one point in time make it difﬁcult to
examine causality. In addition, most respondents worked in the public sector, raising the issue of
generalizability to women managers and professionals in the private sector.
Practical implications – Practical implications are offered for individuals, families and workplaces
to address work-family issues.
Originality/value – This is one of the few studies of WFC among women managers and
professionals in Turkey.
Keywords Turkey, Women, Managers, Work-family conﬂict, Women managers and professionals
Paper type Research paper
One of the major challenges facing managerial and professional women in achieving
successful careers in organizations is managing and integrating work and family
(Kaiser et al., 2011). Work-life balance and work-life integration have increasingly
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Gender in Management: An
Vol. 27 No. 3, 2012
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited