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investigations supported by extensive calculations. During the recent war Morris and Head invented and developed a process for the relatively speedy solution of the dynamic equations representing vibrations in complex systems such as the air craft power-plant, and the main aim of the book elements of supersonic aerodynamics, in the ROCKET PROPULSION under notice is to set forth the principles and present state of knowledge. In the present case Ballistics of the Future. By J . M. J. Kooy and method of application of this curiously-named the investigation covers a much vaster field than J . W. H. Uytenbogaart. (The Technical Pub process. The method was, as Captain Morris that usual in ballistics, such factors, for example, lishing Co., H. Stam, Haarlem, Holland, recalls in his preface, first described then in as the acceleration of Coriolis being considerable. 30 Guilders.) AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING, Vol. xiv, November, The rotation and spin of the rocket, conditions of The characteristic trend of modern technical 1942, p. 312, 'Lagrangian Frequency Equations: its stability, the methods of control by gyro pilot and scientific development is expressed by the an "Escalator" Method for Numerical Solution', are equally examined. In Chapters X and XI fact that, in most important inventions and dis and so need not be explained here. we find a detailed description of the flying bomb coveries the first experiments are preceded by a V-1 and of the rocket V-2. The material is treated large amount of pure theoretical work, including Preliminary chapters deal with such subjects as mathematically at a high level. Other guided mis generally a lot of mathematical speculations at a slope-deflexion formulae, Castigliano's theorem, siles such as Wasserfall, Rheintochter, etc., very high level; less opportunity being left to the stresses in rigid-jointed frames, the Hardy Cross equally used by the Germans are not mentioned mere ingenuity of the skilled technician, which process and reciprocal theorems. The escalator in the book. Special attention is given to the was sufficient not so long ago to make very im process is then introduced, and the remainder of automatic pilot and the electric control system. portant discoveries and inventions by purely ex the book describes its application to various im Completing the theory explained in the previous perimental methods with only a minimum of the portant aeronautical problems and discusses the chapters practical solutions are given. Numerous oretical knowledge. The most conspicuous exam analysis of further problems. The treatment is drawings and figures of different devices used in ple of that kind of scientific discovery is, of course, sophisticated and, of course, intensively mathe both engines are very clearly presented and the release of atomic energy, which was preceded matical. In places, a curious and rather irritating enable a technically minded reader to understand by an enormous amount of theoretical work in phraseology obtrudes on the attention, but the and reconstruct the operation of automatic and mathematical physics. This assertion can be arrangement is logical and the arguments are radio control, as used in the V-1 and V-2. applied on a more modest scale to the recent admirably illustrated by diagrams and examples. We find the description of launching systems development of the liquid fuel propelled rocket. The production has that clarity of typography equally well illustrated by drawings and photos. Though the powder propelled rockets have a and excellence of general appearance that one This gives an unexpectedly personal touch to the long story, which goes far back into history, we associates with the publishers, who are to be con book. In fact the authors stayed in the neighbour may consider the liquid fuel rocket as a new in gratulated upon having made available an import hood of the German launching site at the Hague, vention. It had been preceded by a quite consider ant text which will be welcomed by the specialists where out of 1,027 V-2 rockets launched in able literature, and before the first successful bi- for whom it was written. 1944-45, 79 failed, landing mostly on the town fuel rocket took the air, the theoretical aspect of In any technical book it is easy to find minor itself. Of others about 600 reached London. Some the problem had been fairly well developed. blemishes; but the duty of the reviewer is not to exceptionally high ascents were observed per Picking up some works on this subject we may indicate how he would have written it if he had sonally by Prof. Uytenbogaart. The survey of reconstitute the milestones of the rocket develop set about the task himself. In this case, indeed, no thermodynamic problems of the rocket com ment. The first description of a liquid fuel rocket one but Captain Morris could have produced such pletes this part of the volume. (hydrogen, plus oxygen) appeared in Russia as a book. It stands as a record of solid achievement In the treatment of the propulsive efficiency the far back as 1930. But the work and its author. in one of the most complicated and exasperating authors have introduced another formula than Mr Ziolokwski, passed completely unnoticed. As subjects of engineering science. As he tells us that generally adopted. They use the expression a second milestone the booklet by Goddard, A himself on pages 57 and 159 he has gained several Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes (1919), can prizes for original papers in this field; an en be considered. Though not dealing specially with thusiastic reception of this volume should con liquid fuel rockets, it gave the first experimental stitute a comparable award. and theoretical data on the value of thrust effi We will not, however, revive the discussion on R. G. MANLEY ciency, shape of the nozzle, etc. this subject, started by Mr Cleaver, which has Then followed the famous book by Oberth, already been closed by the Editorial comment in Wege zur Raumschiffahrt, giving a full account of the April issue of AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING after the theory of liquid fuel rockets and also a vivid having dragged on for twenty months through description of the conditions of possible inter the pages of this journal. Unfortunately, the planetary travels. A solid foundation of the rocket problem is not only of academic interest, the flight theory, based on a strict mathematical computation of the optimum terminal velocity treatment can be found in such classical books as THE PERFORMANCE OF ROTATING- of the rocket and of the period of its propulsion l'Astronautique by Esnault-Pelterie (1930) and being based on the estimation of the mean pro WING AIRCRAFT ROTORS Raketenflugtechnik by Sanger (1933). pulsive efficiency. The title of the majority of books on rockets The primary aim of rocket development is not To the Editor published at that time indicated that their authors forgotten in the volume and the whole of Chapter Dear Sir, were mainly concerned with interplanetary travels. XII is concerned with the extra-terrestrial dy I should like to draw your attention to the The experimental data being still lacking, they namics of the rocket, including such items as following misprints in my article, 'The Perform tackled rather the theoretical side of the problem. steering the rocket in a vacuum and aiming with ance of Rotating-Wing Aircraft Rotors' in your Now we may add to the existent pre-war mile a rocket at a lunar target. The calculations for a May issue: stones the newly published volume Ballistics of flight round the moon are also presented. the Future by J. M. J. Kooy and J. W. H. Uyten- Page 151, col. 2, line 11: delete the 'squared' Generally speaking the book presents an essen bogaart. symbol in the denominator in the bracket. tial contribution to the study of rocket engines. It seems that the eminent authors have made It is especially valuable for the students of auto Page 152, col. 1, line 17: change the sign in the an effort to cover the whole field o f guided missiles matic and radio controls for guided missiles. second bracket from 'plus' to 'minus'. with special consideration given to rockets, in P. B. Page 152, col. 2 : in the expression for Tan θ, their large volume (page 472) and moreover to insert a 'plus' sign immediately after the 'one' in SOLVING DYNAMIC EQUATIONS produce a self-contained entity. This can explain the square bracket in the numerator. the introduction of the first four chapters, treating The Escalator Method in Engineering Vibration with the general problems of vector calculus, Page 154, col. 2 : in the second line of the ex Problems. By J . Morris. With a foreword by mechanics and dynamics of the solid body. This pressions for σ the 'ten' in the numerator should Professor G. Temple, FRS. (Chapman and provides the reader with a sound refresher course be dropped, as in the previous line. Hall. 21s.) —there are, however, many excellent books on The engineer who is not continually encounter this subject. Chapter V on numerical integration The expression for τ, should read ing vibration problems is fortunate indeed; and has. equally a general character, but may be very it is fairly safe to say that no aeronautical engineer useful for the reader, collecting the material Page 155, col. 1: the last term in the expres of moderately wide experience can hope to find usually scattered in special treatises and publica sion for k should read: himself in so enviable a position. Almost from tions. the start of flying, vibration in one or other of its J (5·13 C'α0 + D'α 0) u1 R 8 In the following four chapters (VI to IX) a full FIG. 12 should be viewed with the rotor axis aspects has engaged the attentions of those who vertical. account is given of the theory of rocket flight. design, build and test flying machines, and many Computation of trajectory taking into account papers on the subject have appeared in the pages It may also be noted that the value of α used in the air resistance, wind, earth's rotation and cur of AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING. The problems vary constructing the appropriate charts is 0·10 per vature of earth's surface is thoroughly treated, over a wide range; treatment and cure may be degree. using the ballistic methods developed by Cranz effected by inspired guess-work, coupled with Yours faithfully, Veithen and others; which may still be more surgical operations of the 'hacksaw and file' C. F. TOMS reliable for the computation of a trajectory than variety, or they may require intensive theoretical 45 Zetland Road, Redland, Bristol, 6. July 1947 229
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology – Emerald Publishing
Published: Jul 1, 1947
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