A Monthly Selection of Recent Equipment and New Methods TOGGLE ACTION CLAMPS The advantages derived from the utilization of toggle-type clamping in, the build-up of jigs, tooling and fixtures can perhaps best be described by segre gating them into their individual application to specific types of tools for various jobs. These advan tages are dealt with below under three sub-headings. There are, however, many obvious general benefits in lar disposition to the aircraft contours. Rapid and, toggle clamping as compared with the stereotyped rigid clamping was ensured without the costly fabrica swing latch or screw clamping methods previously tion of mountings for heavy and cumbersome sliding employed. These are briefly: or swinging clamping members. Moreover, the toggle clamp in the open position left the fixture clear for (i) Increased clamping speed, component loading and removal. The advantages over (ii) Adjustable nose taking up variations in work- the old type of screwed and pressure pad clamp, which pieces, often bruised the surface of sheet metal, were obvious and as the application of the new toggle clamps was (iii) High clamping pressure by hand without the almost universal it was found that they could be built use of spanner or tommy bar, into a range of sizes as standard units; thus cutting (iv) Low initial cost due to unit production of down costs and generally facilitating fixture construc standard clamps, tion. (v) Interchangeability of clamp on almost any jig In the automobile industry these positive and quick- or fixture permitting the clamp to be salvaged acting clamps have also been put to extremely good from scrap, or obsolete tools. purpose where the success of a steady production flow is entirely dependent on the rapid loading and The foregoing claims are well recognized by all clearing of almost every conceivable type of fixture. practical engineers. Some specific applications to a Here the toggle-action clamp has entirely demon few selected industries are now dealt with. It is, of strated its efficiency on welding, hammering, rivet course, intended that these should be regarded as ing, drilling and many other types of assembly jig representative only. There are wide similar possi or fixture. Experimental Work and Tooling for Small Production Runs In the majority of cases this type of tooling must be cheap and designed to promote rapid manufacture. Here the toggle clamp is ideal as, by reason of its cheapness alone, it can replace all finger and latch clamps. When its purpose has been served in one direc tion, the clamp can be removed and used elsewhere. Machine Shop Tools It would appear that up to now the toggle clamp has made its entry into the machine shop primarily on the more intricate type of jig and fixture designed for mass producing components where the speed of its action literally demanded a trial. Although fully successful in this particular sphere its use up to now in the normal shop on medium production runs has bilities in other directions where quick-acting toggle been somewhat limited. This appears, however, to be clamps will offer material advantages and savings. largely due to the fact that although the advantages are apparent, many tool designers and foremen regard Assembly Jigs and Fixtures it as not sufficiently positive for precision tooling. The toggle clamp has been used on this type of This point of view is quite erroneous and many in fixture probably more than in any other sphere, parti stances exist where the application of a toggle clamp cularly in the aircraft and automobile industries. to a jig or fixture in the machine shop would result The production of aircraft on a large scale is a in a considerable saving in tool manufacturing cost comparatively new industry without a proved and and operators' time. conventional basis of tool design. In its relatively It is safe to say that toggle-action clamps have early stages it was confronted by heavy and urgent proved and established their application and efficiency production demands especially during the war period. in many of the leading industries in this country. Production engineers set out and developed from rigs, Bearing in mind the importance of utilizing all modern elaborate assembly fixtures incorporating new ideas technical media which assist in tool efficiency and and methods. It was here, in particular, that the poten manufacture, there appears to be no doubt that this tialities of the toggle clamp were recognized and form of clamping will ultimately find its way into accepted. It was found that cheap, light, adaptable other fields where its efficiency will be reflected in clamping arms (with screwed, swivel or fixed pressure competitive market prices. pad) could be installed in almost any awkward station The illustrations in this note on toggle clamps are and were readily adjustable by shimming or cerro- reproduced by courtesy of Speed Tools Ltd., Gresse matrix to secure clamping pressure at a correct angu Street, London, W.l. 30 Aircraft Engineering
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology – Emerald Publishing
Published: Jan 1, 1948
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