Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

THE SPANISH TOXIC OIL SYNDROME

THE SPANISH TOXIC OIL SYNDROME and propylthiouracil, closely related THE SPANISH structurally to IZT, induce many of the features of toxic oil syndrome. It is TOXIC OIL SYNDROME probable that the adulterated rapeseed oil may contain isothiocyanate-derived imidazolidinethione compounds. Thus, it is suggested29 that the toxic oil syn­ drome should be considered as a che­ mically induced GVHD (graft-versus- S P Kochhar PhD, AlFST and J B Rossell BSc, ARCS, DPhil host disease)-type epidemic caused conclude their account by ingestion of oil treated with aniline and then subjected to a conventional high-temperature refining process, Oxidative quality of the oil led free-radical disease25, 26 which which perhaps included an acid wash The average linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6) could have caused the Spanish disas­ in an effort to remove the aniline. This content, measured in several suspect ter. Free radicals — highly reactive high-temperature refining procedure oils, was 42% of the total fatty acids18. molecules — are thought to cause caused the aniline and fatty-acid ani­ The peroxide values of the oil samples widespread destruction to proteins and lides initially present to decompose were high (18 to 57 mEq/kg) compared genetic material in the body. They are and led to the formation of a variety of with those of olive oil (9.8 mEq/kg) specifically implicated in lipid peroxida­ compounds, some of which have purchased locally in Spain. The sam­ tion in the cell membrane. It is possible already been identified and been ples were very susceptible to oxidative that several contaminants10, 25. In the shown to be highly toxic. deterioration, indicating a low content refined, denatured oils, particularly ox­ of the natural antioxidants, tocopherols idation and degradation products of This still confused situation will prob­ (Vitamin E). The oxidative stabilities of aniline, and oxygen-free radicals could ably be clarified slightly when the pro­ the oils measured by the AOM test have activated the polyunsaturated fat­ ceedings of a WHO Conference held in were generally low19. There are no ty-acid free-radical chain reactions. As Madrid last year became available to data available on the concentrations of a result, an excess of free radicals the public later this year. tocopherols, pro-oxidant trace metal could have been generated in the (eg copper and iron) contents, levels of bodies of the consumers. This would in References polyunsaturated fatty acids or hydroxy turn saturate the special enzyme su­ 18 Pestana, A. & Munoz, E. (1982). Anilides and and epoxy derivatives in the suspect peroxide dismatase, one of the body's the Spanish toxic oil syndrome. Nature, Lon­ oils. main defences against free-radical don, 298; 608 damage. The detection of pentane27 in It is possible that the consumers of 19 Gutiérrez Rosales, F. & Gutiérrez González- excessive amounts in the breath of the the unstable, oxidised oils may have Quijano, R. (1982). AOM stability and perox­ patients , and occurrence of ide value determination in different samples developed vitamin E deficiency20. This of toxic oils. Grasas y Aceites, 33 (2), 77-8 malondialdehyde28 in relatively high may have 'triggered' the peroxidative 20 McMurray, C.H. & Rice, D.A. (1981). Toxic levels in the post-mortem samples damage of membrane lipids. Clinical edible oils. Nature, London, 233,332 appear to confirm the attack of free treatment with vitamin E was not effec­ 21 Aldridge. W.N. & Connors, T.A. (1982). Toxic radicals on the body. These two com­ tive, but it should be borne in mind that oil syndrome in Spain. Fd Chem. Toxic., 20, pounds are in fact degradation pro­ 989-92 the disease was at an advanced stage 22 Cunningham, V.J., Tucker, S.P. & Bailey, E. ducts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. when the treatment was applied. (1983). Hydrolysis of oleylanilide in the rate. Moreover, some improvements26 have Perhaps a well-known fact should be Arch Toxicol., 54,157-62 been observed in the patients receiv­ mentioned here—that tocopherols, or 23 Fournier, E., Efthymlou, M.L. & Lecorsier, A. ing the superoxide dismatase treat­ any other natural/synthetic antiox­ (1982). Spanish adulterated oil matter. An ment. important discovery by Spanish toxicologists: idants or free radical acceptors/ the toxicity of anilides of unsaturated fatty scavengers, are ineffective when acids. Toxicol. Eur. Res., 4 (2), 107-12 added to already oxidised oils. In other 24 World Health Organisation (1981). Analysis Replication words, the antioxidants, in order to be of contaminated rapeseed oil. Document effective, should be added to the oils ICP/RCE 903,8920B, p 22 According to the WHO report17, the 25 Anon. (1982). Free radical clue to Spanish oil and fats as early as possible. In medic­ technical details on the denaturation disease. New Scientist, 8 April, p 85 al treatment with vitamin E it may there­ and refining operation at the ITH refin­ 26 MacKenzle, D. (1983). Japanese clue to fore be essential to start treatment at a ery in Seville have just been released, Spanish cooking oil disaster. New Scientist, very early stage. 13 October, p 72 - but it has not, so far, been possible to 27 Vioque, A. & Albi, M.A. (1982). Pentane de­ obtain these details in Leatherhead. Clinical data and toxicological stu­ tection and determination in exhalations of dies have indicated that the acute The refining of denatured oils under people affected by toxic pneumonia. Grasas toxicity of free aniline and fatty-acid 'replica' conditions, and detection and y aceites, 33 (2), 86 identification of toxicants in such repli­ anilides at the levels detected in toxic 28 Borregon, A., Sanz Barrera, F., Caballo Diéguez, C , Fernandez, M., Barea, M., Pol- ca oils would shed more light on the oils, does not alone account for the lastrinl, T., Santa Maria, A., Martin, M., Rubio, Spanish tragedy. varied symptoms of the disease11, 21, C., Garcia Llorente, A., Castano, A., Becerril, 22. It is speculated that the disease Very recently, the formation of heter­ C. & Salas, J . (1981). Malondialdehyde on could have arisen through the syner­ ocyclic compounds such as 1-phenyl- tissues of patients possibly diseased by toxic syndrome. Boletin de Ce.N.A.N., No. 6-7-8, gistic effects of aniline/fatty acid ani­ 5-vinyl-2-imidazolidinethione (IZT) be­ 38-41 lides and the peroxidative damage, re­ tween aniline and the degradation pro­ 29 Kammuller, M.E., Penninks, A.H. & Seinen, sulting from the poor oil quality18,23,24. ducts of glucosinolates present in W. (1984). Spanish toxic oil syndrome is a The authors, at present, support the rapeseed has been proposed29. The chemically induced GVHD-like epidemic. drugs such as phenytoin, nitrofurantoin Lancet, May 26, p 1174-5 general opinion concerning the so-cal­ 20 Nutrition and Food Science http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Nutrition & Food Science Emerald Publishing

THE SPANISH TOXIC OIL SYNDROME

Nutrition & Food Science , Volume 84 (6): 1 – Jun 1, 1984

Loading next page...
 
/lp/emerald-publishing/the-spanish-toxic-oil-syndrome-0Pf3Zy0cPP

References (5)

Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0034-6659
DOI
10.1108/eb059041
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

and propylthiouracil, closely related THE SPANISH structurally to IZT, induce many of the features of toxic oil syndrome. It is TOXIC OIL SYNDROME probable that the adulterated rapeseed oil may contain isothiocyanate-derived imidazolidinethione compounds. Thus, it is suggested29 that the toxic oil syn­ drome should be considered as a che­ mically induced GVHD (graft-versus- S P Kochhar PhD, AlFST and J B Rossell BSc, ARCS, DPhil host disease)-type epidemic caused conclude their account by ingestion of oil treated with aniline and then subjected to a conventional high-temperature refining process, Oxidative quality of the oil led free-radical disease25, 26 which which perhaps included an acid wash The average linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6) could have caused the Spanish disas­ in an effort to remove the aniline. This content, measured in several suspect ter. Free radicals — highly reactive high-temperature refining procedure oils, was 42% of the total fatty acids18. molecules — are thought to cause caused the aniline and fatty-acid ani­ The peroxide values of the oil samples widespread destruction to proteins and lides initially present to decompose were high (18 to 57 mEq/kg) compared genetic material in the body. They are and led to the formation of a variety of with those of olive oil (9.8 mEq/kg) specifically implicated in lipid peroxida­ compounds, some of which have purchased locally in Spain. The sam­ tion in the cell membrane. It is possible already been identified and been ples were very susceptible to oxidative that several contaminants10, 25. In the shown to be highly toxic. deterioration, indicating a low content refined, denatured oils, particularly ox­ of the natural antioxidants, tocopherols idation and degradation products of This still confused situation will prob­ (Vitamin E). The oxidative stabilities of aniline, and oxygen-free radicals could ably be clarified slightly when the pro­ the oils measured by the AOM test have activated the polyunsaturated fat­ ceedings of a WHO Conference held in were generally low19. There are no ty-acid free-radical chain reactions. As Madrid last year became available to data available on the concentrations of a result, an excess of free radicals the public later this year. tocopherols, pro-oxidant trace metal could have been generated in the (eg copper and iron) contents, levels of bodies of the consumers. This would in References polyunsaturated fatty acids or hydroxy turn saturate the special enzyme su­ 18 Pestana, A. & Munoz, E. (1982). Anilides and and epoxy derivatives in the suspect peroxide dismatase, one of the body's the Spanish toxic oil syndrome. Nature, Lon­ oils. main defences against free-radical don, 298; 608 damage. The detection of pentane27 in It is possible that the consumers of 19 Gutiérrez Rosales, F. & Gutiérrez González- excessive amounts in the breath of the the unstable, oxidised oils may have Quijano, R. (1982). AOM stability and perox­ patients , and occurrence of ide value determination in different samples developed vitamin E deficiency20. This of toxic oils. Grasas y Aceites, 33 (2), 77-8 malondialdehyde28 in relatively high may have 'triggered' the peroxidative 20 McMurray, C.H. & Rice, D.A. (1981). Toxic levels in the post-mortem samples damage of membrane lipids. Clinical edible oils. Nature, London, 233,332 appear to confirm the attack of free treatment with vitamin E was not effec­ 21 Aldridge. W.N. & Connors, T.A. (1982). Toxic radicals on the body. These two com­ tive, but it should be borne in mind that oil syndrome in Spain. Fd Chem. Toxic., 20, pounds are in fact degradation pro­ 989-92 the disease was at an advanced stage 22 Cunningham, V.J., Tucker, S.P. & Bailey, E. ducts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. when the treatment was applied. (1983). Hydrolysis of oleylanilide in the rate. Moreover, some improvements26 have Perhaps a well-known fact should be Arch Toxicol., 54,157-62 been observed in the patients receiv­ mentioned here—that tocopherols, or 23 Fournier, E., Efthymlou, M.L. & Lecorsier, A. ing the superoxide dismatase treat­ any other natural/synthetic antiox­ (1982). Spanish adulterated oil matter. An ment. important discovery by Spanish toxicologists: idants or free radical acceptors/ the toxicity of anilides of unsaturated fatty scavengers, are ineffective when acids. Toxicol. Eur. Res., 4 (2), 107-12 added to already oxidised oils. In other 24 World Health Organisation (1981). Analysis Replication words, the antioxidants, in order to be of contaminated rapeseed oil. Document effective, should be added to the oils ICP/RCE 903,8920B, p 22 According to the WHO report17, the 25 Anon. (1982). Free radical clue to Spanish oil and fats as early as possible. In medic­ technical details on the denaturation disease. New Scientist, 8 April, p 85 al treatment with vitamin E it may there­ and refining operation at the ITH refin­ 26 MacKenzle, D. (1983). Japanese clue to fore be essential to start treatment at a ery in Seville have just been released, Spanish cooking oil disaster. New Scientist, very early stage. 13 October, p 72 - but it has not, so far, been possible to 27 Vioque, A. & Albi, M.A. (1982). Pentane de­ obtain these details in Leatherhead. Clinical data and toxicological stu­ tection and determination in exhalations of dies have indicated that the acute The refining of denatured oils under people affected by toxic pneumonia. Grasas toxicity of free aniline and fatty-acid 'replica' conditions, and detection and y aceites, 33 (2), 86 identification of toxicants in such repli­ anilides at the levels detected in toxic 28 Borregon, A., Sanz Barrera, F., Caballo Diéguez, C , Fernandez, M., Barea, M., Pol- ca oils would shed more light on the oils, does not alone account for the lastrinl, T., Santa Maria, A., Martin, M., Rubio, Spanish tragedy. varied symptoms of the disease11, 21, C., Garcia Llorente, A., Castano, A., Becerril, 22. It is speculated that the disease Very recently, the formation of heter­ C. & Salas, J . (1981). Malondialdehyde on could have arisen through the syner­ ocyclic compounds such as 1-phenyl- tissues of patients possibly diseased by toxic syndrome. Boletin de Ce.N.A.N., No. 6-7-8, gistic effects of aniline/fatty acid ani­ 5-vinyl-2-imidazolidinethione (IZT) be­ 38-41 lides and the peroxidative damage, re­ tween aniline and the degradation pro­ 29 Kammuller, M.E., Penninks, A.H. & Seinen, sulting from the poor oil quality18,23,24. ducts of glucosinolates present in W. (1984). Spanish toxic oil syndrome is a The authors, at present, support the rapeseed has been proposed29. The chemically induced GVHD-like epidemic. drugs such as phenytoin, nitrofurantoin Lancet, May 26, p 1174-5 general opinion concerning the so-cal­ 20 Nutrition and Food Science

Journal

Nutrition & Food ScienceEmerald Publishing

Published: Jun 1, 1984

There are no references for this article.