During the past several decades, national distance (ND) increasingly became a vital cornerstone in international business (IB) research, as both explicit and implicit distance are parts of the essential reasons for IB activities. However, there are various and chaotic methods to measure ND in the last literature; therefore, this paper aims to suggest legitimate uses of ND in the IB field and the best ND dimensions for various situations.Design/methodology/approachThis paper used a historical overview of the theoretical background and conceptual development of ND based on the past four decades worth of studies in leading 17-IB journals using Google Scholar. The authors also focus on multiform ND measurement methods and details through qualitative and quantitative analysis based on previous studies’ data collection.FindingsThis research summarized the common measurement methods and elements of different ND and proposed solutions based on a multifaceted analysis.Originality/valueThe micro analysis examines each type of ND in terms of the proportion of variables, issues, measurement methods, representative proxies beyond previous studies. This research also tried to provide clarity and suggest solutions to these problems through our macro& micro-analysis.
Review of International Business and Strategy – Emerald Publishing
Published: May 17, 2021
Keywords: International business; Measurement; National distance
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