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The Library Shelf

The Library Shelf survival in crash-landings. In this connexion it is perhaps surprising that no analysis is made of blind landing aids from the standpoint of a psychologist so interested in the practical aspects of flight. Aviation Medicine as Applied to Civil Air This first edition will no doubt prove of the utmost value to many, not only as a reference Transport—and the new 'Jane' text-book, but also as a most readable, if some­ what lengthy, manual on these problems and portant to those responsible for the delineation of Human Factors in Air Transport Design. By R. A. factors in aviation medicine as applied to civil McFarland. (McGraw Hill. 30s.) aircraft requirements; for convenience, the author air transport. Its material refers entirely to the would have been well advised to have included The author of this book is a well-known larger type of aircraft. It is to be hoped that Dr. an appendix summarizing the known physio­ American psychologist who has utilized physio­ McFarland will extend his studies towards the logical variables or tolerances which affect the logical techniques in much of his work. A basic light private passenger aircraft. basic design requirements as regards the safety interest in biology was originally supplemented by W. K. STEWART and comfort of passengers, as well as the efficiency practical studies of acclimatization to high alti­ of the crew in flight. tudes, and directly stimulated his interest in the Practising air-line operatives, both executive Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1947. Compiled problems of anoxia which occur in flight. and medical, will also be repaid by a close study and edited by Leonard Bridgman. (Sampson Experience undoubtedly must have led to a of certain sections, such as for example, those Low, Marston & Co. Ltd. £3 3s.) gradual widening of activity and knowledge as dealing with prevention of accidents, general other factors arose which tended to reduce the In the middle of August the 1947 Jane's aircraft sanitation, in-flight feeding, the preven­ comfort of passengers or efficiency of the flying arrives, but it is complete up till December 31st, tion of spread of air-borne diseases and insect personnel. 1946 only—could anything be more indicative of control. A close liaison over a long period with the the printing problems of today? The volume is Indeed, some readers may consider that, as a major American Air Lines in a consultant slimmer than last year, but the Editor in his text-book, it suffers from the necessity of in­ capacity has obviously led to a profitable mutual preface points out that, although he has dropped cluding material for the satisfaction of so many association with aircraft designers and has placed the veritable mine of information on the German diverse and catholic interests. It is to the author's the author in the fortunate position of being a and Japanese aviation industries, which he then credit, that he has succeeded in this difficult task natural recipient of all forms of data, not merely published, there has been some increase in the by a blend of information derived from past ex­ physiological, or psychological, but also relating information available from other countries. In perience, or practical sources, and from applied to airworthiness requirements and many other Part C, Aeroplanes, alone, out of 513 illustrations or fundamental research in all the various aspects of aeronautical engineering. 461 are new, a very fine achievement. Incident­ branches of the field. Much of the information is obtained directly ally, the large number of new blocks may account If certain information be presented without from civilian practice, but consideration is also in large part for the eight months printing period. critical analysis or indication of possible fallacies, given to war-time research, which was available The quality of the art paper, too, this year reflects and if some of the more recent technical advances current difficulties, as it is certainly not what the in an unrestricted classification, and which had a be omitted, this but arises from a lack of actual Editor or Publishers would have chosen in normal general bearing on transport of passengers. experience in those particular research problems times. However, we can only sympathize with The book is well annotated, the presentation is which could only be investigated at establishments them for we, in common with all publishers in clear, the figures and tables are easily scanned and such as Wright Field or the R.A.E. this country, are suffering acutely under the some indication of the scope can be gained from Also the profusion of data tends to submerge desperate shortage of labour and materials which the inclusion of 143 figures and 82 tables in a some deductions with which most flight biologists afflicts this industry perhaps just a little more total of 650 pages. For the convenience of readers would concur; recommendations are not classified than most. We certainly do feel that Sampson a table is appended giving the identification of in order of importance, thus detracting from their Low, Marston provide astonishing value for aircraft referred to in the text by numbers. usefulness. For instance, the author submits that, money, for, even though they have 124 pages of It could be inferred that, to some, the chief until pressure cabins are mechanically perfect, advertising, the production costs of such a volume value of the book may lie in the provision of no large passenger aircraft should fly above are very, very high. these illustrations and tables in which is aggre­ 25,000 feet, since anoxia, attendant upon an ex­ gated an immense amount of useful information When it comes to criticism, Jane's is always a plosive decompression, may prove extremely from all sources. To the practising aviation problem, not only because it is so vast, but also dangerous, if not fatal to some passengers. This is physiologist, this would be of great convenience because to select individual items for praise or of fundamental importance, whereas the re­ even without the subject matter. It can be as­ blame is to be invidious. The omission of the commendation that the safe and reasonable limit sumed, however, that the book is almost of equal customary excellent selection of service views for carbon-monoxide contamination of cabin air importance to workers in the military, as well as from the historical Part A is decidedly a dis­ should be 0.003 per cent, for flights o f 8-12 hours' the civilian, field since it fills to a large extent the appointment, though one is glad that the sketches duration, is much less so and would obscure the need for a modern text-book and will be especi­ of the insignia have been retained. Part B on application of a proper acceptance limit. ally welcomed by those who do not have access Civil Aviation, Mr Bridgman says was most The technically trained reader may perceive to a good reference library of aviation physiology. difficult to compile, but he has managed to some degree of unbalance in the treatment of The total of 416 references is of particular obtain remarkable order from chaos. equally important subjects. Usually this can be ex­ value, both from the engineering and medical In Part C, Aeroplanes, the reappearance of plained by the incorporation of a review of the aspects. three-view outline drawings was most welcome literature, where the physiology of the problems Experienced aircraft designers and engineers and although more would have been appreciated, under discussion is not on a firm basis. An ex­ can be assured that the presence of this text-book the fact that all were drawn by one man Mr. H. J. ample of this is the discussion on the control of on their shelves will pay a handsome dividend. Cooper, in a few months is a good effort. As vibration in contrast to that on the control of In addition to a comprehensive index the author usual in this section Mr Bridgman has succeeded noise in which the physiology is well known. has included useful summaries and recommenda­ in maintaing his usually high percentage of Thirty-three pages are devoted to a detailed dis­ tions at the end of each chapter and from the hitherto unpublished photographs—many of cussion of the effects of carbon monoxide and utilitarian aspect much can be learned from a unusual pictorial value. The view of the Fire­ only four to other toxic gases with the omission of perusal of these alone. The final chapter is de­ brand IV touching down on the deck of an air­ important vapours such as methyl alcohol. This voted to a brief consideration of general methods craft carrier is exceptionally well calculated to is largely due to the author's personal interest in of obtaining basic information and its presenta­ illustrate all the parts, fixed and movable, of this the physiology of carbon monoxide, but in tion in the most concise and practical manner to aeroplane. The omission of a G. A. drawing of practice many fatalities may be caused by toxic the aeronautical designer. The thesis is presented the Meteor is surprising, but good photographs substances other than carbon monoxide. that major manufacturers should establish teams illustrate the variants well. Dominion types are In particular most should peruse with special of scientists with training in human problems as well covered, as are Denmark, France, Italy and interest the chapters on high-altitude operations, an integral part of the engineering and design Sweden, although Czechoslovakia has more types the control of ventilation, temperature and departments, and that there should be in addition than are shown. Characteristically, fresh inform­ humidity, the control of noise and vibration and a central co-ordinating agency through which all ation on Russian aeroplanes is represented by most of the chapters on the design of cockpit and information could be pooled. photographs of machines captured by the Ger­ control cabins and of passenger accommodation. mans. The vast industry of the United States is While such an organization may be suitable to very fully illustrated as usual. Much of the data presented in the latter should the American system, the British interpretation furnish new arguments for advocates of standard­ must be somewhat different, but perhaps could The engine section, Part D, has grown con­ ization of cockpits. The applications of physiology be presented as an extension of the existing siderably and it certainly emphasizes our lead in to problems of both day and night vision and of military policy of a central laboratory, capable of the jet propulsion field. The first sectioned psychology to presentation of instruments are conducting research into fundamental or applied drawing to be published of the General Electric thoroughly discussed. problems, with liaison officers actively engaged 1-40 (J-33) engine is of special interest. May we into investigations of 'user' problems in the field. The second last chapter is devoted to a con­ again repeat our plea for an airscrew section; it sideration of aircraft accidents with statistical really would be useful. The subject material is not only of importance analyses of rates, causes and the probability of to the designers of aircraft but it is even more im­ J. H. S. 298 Aircraft Engineering http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

The Library Shelf

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology , Volume 19 (9): 1 – Sep 1, 1947

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb031550
Publisher site
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Abstract

survival in crash-landings. In this connexion it is perhaps surprising that no analysis is made of blind landing aids from the standpoint of a psychologist so interested in the practical aspects of flight. Aviation Medicine as Applied to Civil Air This first edition will no doubt prove of the utmost value to many, not only as a reference Transport—and the new 'Jane' text-book, but also as a most readable, if some­ what lengthy, manual on these problems and portant to those responsible for the delineation of Human Factors in Air Transport Design. By R. A. factors in aviation medicine as applied to civil McFarland. (McGraw Hill. 30s.) aircraft requirements; for convenience, the author air transport. Its material refers entirely to the would have been well advised to have included The author of this book is a well-known larger type of aircraft. It is to be hoped that Dr. an appendix summarizing the known physio­ American psychologist who has utilized physio­ McFarland will extend his studies towards the logical variables or tolerances which affect the logical techniques in much of his work. A basic light private passenger aircraft. basic design requirements as regards the safety interest in biology was originally supplemented by W. K. STEWART and comfort of passengers, as well as the efficiency practical studies of acclimatization to high alti­ of the crew in flight. tudes, and directly stimulated his interest in the Practising air-line operatives, both executive Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1947. Compiled problems of anoxia which occur in flight. and medical, will also be repaid by a close study and edited by Leonard Bridgman. (Sampson Experience undoubtedly must have led to a of certain sections, such as for example, those Low, Marston & Co. Ltd. £3 3s.) gradual widening of activity and knowledge as dealing with prevention of accidents, general other factors arose which tended to reduce the In the middle of August the 1947 Jane's aircraft sanitation, in-flight feeding, the preven­ comfort of passengers or efficiency of the flying arrives, but it is complete up till December 31st, tion of spread of air-borne diseases and insect personnel. 1946 only—could anything be more indicative of control. A close liaison over a long period with the the printing problems of today? The volume is Indeed, some readers may consider that, as a major American Air Lines in a consultant slimmer than last year, but the Editor in his text-book, it suffers from the necessity of in­ capacity has obviously led to a profitable mutual preface points out that, although he has dropped cluding material for the satisfaction of so many association with aircraft designers and has placed the veritable mine of information on the German diverse and catholic interests. It is to the author's the author in the fortunate position of being a and Japanese aviation industries, which he then credit, that he has succeeded in this difficult task natural recipient of all forms of data, not merely published, there has been some increase in the by a blend of information derived from past ex­ physiological, or psychological, but also relating information available from other countries. In perience, or practical sources, and from applied to airworthiness requirements and many other Part C, Aeroplanes, alone, out of 513 illustrations or fundamental research in all the various aspects of aeronautical engineering. 461 are new, a very fine achievement. Incident­ branches of the field. Much of the information is obtained directly ally, the large number of new blocks may account If certain information be presented without from civilian practice, but consideration is also in large part for the eight months printing period. critical analysis or indication of possible fallacies, given to war-time research, which was available The quality of the art paper, too, this year reflects and if some of the more recent technical advances current difficulties, as it is certainly not what the in an unrestricted classification, and which had a be omitted, this but arises from a lack of actual Editor or Publishers would have chosen in normal general bearing on transport of passengers. experience in those particular research problems times. However, we can only sympathize with The book is well annotated, the presentation is which could only be investigated at establishments them for we, in common with all publishers in clear, the figures and tables are easily scanned and such as Wright Field or the R.A.E. this country, are suffering acutely under the some indication of the scope can be gained from Also the profusion of data tends to submerge desperate shortage of labour and materials which the inclusion of 143 figures and 82 tables in a some deductions with which most flight biologists afflicts this industry perhaps just a little more total of 650 pages. For the convenience of readers would concur; recommendations are not classified than most. We certainly do feel that Sampson a table is appended giving the identification of in order of importance, thus detracting from their Low, Marston provide astonishing value for aircraft referred to in the text by numbers. usefulness. For instance, the author submits that, money, for, even though they have 124 pages of It could be inferred that, to some, the chief until pressure cabins are mechanically perfect, advertising, the production costs of such a volume value of the book may lie in the provision of no large passenger aircraft should fly above are very, very high. these illustrations and tables in which is aggre­ 25,000 feet, since anoxia, attendant upon an ex­ gated an immense amount of useful information When it comes to criticism, Jane's is always a plosive decompression, may prove extremely from all sources. To the practising aviation problem, not only because it is so vast, but also dangerous, if not fatal to some passengers. This is physiologist, this would be of great convenience because to select individual items for praise or of fundamental importance, whereas the re­ even without the subject matter. It can be as­ blame is to be invidious. The omission of the commendation that the safe and reasonable limit sumed, however, that the book is almost of equal customary excellent selection of service views for carbon-monoxide contamination of cabin air importance to workers in the military, as well as from the historical Part A is decidedly a dis­ should be 0.003 per cent, for flights o f 8-12 hours' the civilian, field since it fills to a large extent the appointment, though one is glad that the sketches duration, is much less so and would obscure the need for a modern text-book and will be especi­ of the insignia have been retained. Part B on application of a proper acceptance limit. ally welcomed by those who do not have access Civil Aviation, Mr Bridgman says was most The technically trained reader may perceive to a good reference library of aviation physiology. difficult to compile, but he has managed to some degree of unbalance in the treatment of The total of 416 references is of particular obtain remarkable order from chaos. equally important subjects. Usually this can be ex­ value, both from the engineering and medical In Part C, Aeroplanes, the reappearance of plained by the incorporation of a review of the aspects. three-view outline drawings was most welcome literature, where the physiology of the problems Experienced aircraft designers and engineers and although more would have been appreciated, under discussion is not on a firm basis. An ex­ can be assured that the presence of this text-book the fact that all were drawn by one man Mr. H. J. ample of this is the discussion on the control of on their shelves will pay a handsome dividend. Cooper, in a few months is a good effort. As vibration in contrast to that on the control of In addition to a comprehensive index the author usual in this section Mr Bridgman has succeeded noise in which the physiology is well known. has included useful summaries and recommenda­ in maintaing his usually high percentage of Thirty-three pages are devoted to a detailed dis­ tions at the end of each chapter and from the hitherto unpublished photographs—many of cussion of the effects of carbon monoxide and utilitarian aspect much can be learned from a unusual pictorial value. The view of the Fire­ only four to other toxic gases with the omission of perusal of these alone. The final chapter is de­ brand IV touching down on the deck of an air­ important vapours such as methyl alcohol. This voted to a brief consideration of general methods craft carrier is exceptionally well calculated to is largely due to the author's personal interest in of obtaining basic information and its presenta­ illustrate all the parts, fixed and movable, of this the physiology of carbon monoxide, but in tion in the most concise and practical manner to aeroplane. The omission of a G. A. drawing of practice many fatalities may be caused by toxic the aeronautical designer. The thesis is presented the Meteor is surprising, but good photographs substances other than carbon monoxide. that major manufacturers should establish teams illustrate the variants well. Dominion types are In particular most should peruse with special of scientists with training in human problems as well covered, as are Denmark, France, Italy and interest the chapters on high-altitude operations, an integral part of the engineering and design Sweden, although Czechoslovakia has more types the control of ventilation, temperature and departments, and that there should be in addition than are shown. Characteristically, fresh inform­ humidity, the control of noise and vibration and a central co-ordinating agency through which all ation on Russian aeroplanes is represented by most of the chapters on the design of cockpit and information could be pooled. photographs of machines captured by the Ger­ control cabins and of passenger accommodation. mans. The vast industry of the United States is While such an organization may be suitable to very fully illustrated as usual. Much of the data presented in the latter should the American system, the British interpretation furnish new arguments for advocates of standard­ must be somewhat different, but perhaps could The engine section, Part D, has grown con­ ization of cockpits. The applications of physiology be presented as an extension of the existing siderably and it certainly emphasizes our lead in to problems of both day and night vision and of military policy of a central laboratory, capable of the jet propulsion field. The first sectioned psychology to presentation of instruments are conducting research into fundamental or applied drawing to be published of the General Electric thoroughly discussed. problems, with liaison officers actively engaged 1-40 (J-33) engine is of special interest. May we into investigations of 'user' problems in the field. The second last chapter is devoted to a con­ again repeat our plea for an airscrew section; it sideration of aircraft accidents with statistical really would be useful. The subject material is not only of importance analyses of rates, causes and the probability of to the designers of aircraft but it is even more im­ J. H. S. 298 Aircraft Engineering

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Sep 1, 1947

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