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The Library Shelf

The Library Shelf and isocyanates, and deal with tackifiers and resins. Tests of a tensile and a peeling nature are described together with the aspect of dynamic fatigue. Notes on the composition and uses of various fluid adhesives are followed by a section on rubber to metal bonding with ebonite and with thermo-plastic adhesives. The important matters The Theory and Practice of Gluing of the adhesion of rubber to fibres and the manu­ facture of adhesive tapes receive attention. The Adhesion and Adhesives. By N. A. De Bruyne and which may be a little disconcerting to the general chapter ends with a list of patents relating to R. Houwink. [Elsevier Publishing Company, reader but has a very clear advantage where the rubbery adhesives. Amsterdam. (Cleaver-Hume Press Ltd., 42A seeker after particular data is concerned. That gluing and soldering have certain simi­ South Audlcy Street, London, W.1.) 70s.] Writing on animal glues, Cornwell deals larities and also obvious differences is pointed out briefly with mechanical and specific theories of With a book of the weight and calibre of by Lewis in his chapter on adhesion in soldered adhesion and the preparation of the glue for use, Adhesion and Adhesives it is of more than passing joints. Of leading importance in this form of join­ and thereafter confines himself to industrial interest to know its intended purpose. The ing is the pretreatment of the metallic surfaces by applications. He factually describes gummed editors, N. A. De Bruyne of Aero Research Ltd., cleaning and coating with flux, and these materials papers, surface-coated abrasives, polishing wheels, England, and R. Houwink of Rubber-Stichting, and their action are thoroughly examined, includ­ paper manufacture, woodworking, textile process­ Holland, in their preface describe the work as ing for oxidized surfaces such as occur with ing, wall paints and a number of minor uses. No ' . . . a symposium by specialists' which 'collects aluminium. Wetting of surfaces plays a prominent account of the manufacture of the glue itself is in one volume information about the scientific and part in soldering and the many factors involved given. technological aspects of adhesion'. are examined in great detail. The nature of the By contrast, Lee's chapter in vegetable adhesives Matters of a fundamental nature concerning compound layers in a joint is treated on metal­ confines itself almost exclusively to the chemistry adhesion are collated in Part One, and the more lurgical lines, and the influence of solder com­ of their origin and preparation. He classifies this technological side of adhesives constitutes Part position on the strength of the bond (as distinct group as starch based adhesives (dextrines, acid- Two. This decision to separate the pure and the from the cohesion within the bar itself) is admir­ hydrolized, enzyme-degraded, oxidized, gelled applied is highly commendable, for there is as yet ably set out. and water-soluble starches), water-soluble cellu­ a wide gulf between the two aspects, and many The concluding chapter on the physical testing lose derivatives, and natural gums. attempts to bridge this have only resulted in the of adhesion and adhesives is by the co-editor of Synthetic resin glues for wood and metal bond­ erection of entanglements. It is an indication of the book, Dr De Bruyne. Two courses were open ing and other purposes are described by Chap­ the present state of knowledge that Part One to him; to deal exhaustively with a limited field man. The formulation and preparation of thermo­ occupies 140 pages compared with the 350 in the (such as wood to wood gluing) and to collate and setting glues for the phenolic-, resorcinol-, urea- technological section, but it should be noted that analyse therein all available data, or to make a and melamine-formaldehyde types are clearly set much in the latter would by current standards be critical survey of testing methods applicable to a out with additional matter on the less well-known regarded as high-level science. wide range of adhesives. In view of the nature of furane, polyurethane, epoxy and silicone resins. Part One opens with chapters on the general the book as a whole, he has wisely chosen the Separately, the solidification or hardening of the conditions for wetting and for adhesion, by latter course, and by a bibliography of 107 first four is described. A rather serious omission is Houwink, and on molecular forces by Staverman, references, has opened wide the door to detailed an account of the recently-introduced phenolic subjects commonly described by the phrase studies by those seeking specialist information. plywood adhesives setting near boiling point 'theories of adhesion'. The first study of the There is an excellent introduction on the signifi­ instead of at 140 deg. C , a development of far- phenomenon of adhesion was made by McBain cance of tests, in which the danger of over­ reaching importance to this particular industry. It and others in the 1920s—usually by the medium emphasizing the importance of any one kind is is unfortunate that the parts on the 'setting of of actual glued joints. In the ten or fifteen years stressed. Tests upon small joints in tension, resins' contain no reference to acid exudates from following 1930, the subject received little atten­ nominal and pure shear, peeling, and under cold-setting glues. The possibility of deleterious tion, but in the meantime, developments in funda­ impact and fatigue are described for wood and effects of these upon the wood causes considerable mental physics have enabled a new approach to be metallic and other materials, and is followed by a if unnecessary concern to users. In the thermo­ made, and it is along these lines that Houwink section on durability and ageing trials. Viscosity plastic field, Chapman treats polyvinyl and acrylic and Staverman have written. Both frankly and other physical tests are also included. resins and the cellulose esters. Sections on the acknowledge that for the time being, improve­ performance and testing of adhesives are well set In evaluating the book as a whole, its symposial ments in the field of adhesives are more likely to out. nature must be borne in mind. Students of the result from direct trials by technologists than particular will find information sieved and from the more theoretical predictions. Saal writes upon asphaltic bitumens, giving analysed for them by specialists both from their their structure, composition, rheology and The rheology of adhesives has a sparse and original work and experience and from other physical properties as materials and allied data scattered bibliography, and Hoekstra and Fritzius sources. The bibliography references, which concerning their practical application. have collated and systematized the data excellently. aggregate to over 750 give indication of the care A lengthy chapter on sodium silicate as an In view of the recent development of this branch taken in preparing the chapters. A symposium of physics, the authors have wisely given several adhesive is contributed by Wills. He gives the has wider appeal however, for it enables a pages of introductory matter before passing to the physical and chemical characteristics of the specialist in one line to compare his outlook, particular rheology of adhesives before, during, material, and its application in the bonding of method of approach and technique with those and after hardening. One small comment can be glass, metals in foil and granular form and the use obtaining in other fields, a task which is often made: the advantages of thin over thick glue lines in plywood manufacture. Water resistance and beyond a worker's possibilities because of the time in respect of joint strength is emphasized, but the ageing characteristics are discussed. Corrugated required to find and read the necessary papers. In paperboard isextensively described with particular writers omit the experimental fact that with this respect, Adhesion and Adhesives meets a real emphasis on the kinds of silicate used, and there certain types of urea resin, the deterioration over need. It may perhaps be asking for too much a number of years is less with thick lines than with is an excellent section on the engineering guidance in the easy path, but the indexing of the thin. characteristics of a good bond—a matter all too book could have been fuller in cross references often neglected in many treatises on adhesives. Mylonas and De Bruyne contribute a masterly between associated subjects. Other applications of sodium silicate are to solid chapter on static problems—more commonly R. A. G. K. fibre-board, the sealing of paper-box flaps, known as the stress distribution problem. They labelling, wallboard manufacture, insulating repeat the frequently-forgotten warning that material and several minor uses. breaking load divided by glued area as a significant expression of stress is fallacious. The writers The same author continues with a chapter on BOOKS RECEIVED examine by quoted and original theories the stress inorganic cements. Whilst it may give surprise to All books received from Publishers are listed under patterns of single and double lap joints with thick find this subject in a treatise on adhesives, the this heading. Extended reviews of a selection appear and thin glue lines together with the case of the data given and the method of treating the subject later. Inclusion in this list, therefore, neither precludes, traditional plywood test-piece. Joints between will find many grateful readers. Included amongst nor implies, in any particular instance, further notice. wood and wood, metal and metal and glass and the material are hydraulic cements, plaster of Fellowship of the Air. Jubilee Book of the Royal Aero metal are considered. Part Two of the chapter pans, lime mortars, sorrel, litharge, iron and Club, 1901-1951. B. J. Hurrcn. 234 pages, illus­ describes experimental investigations into the sulphur cements, and colloidal solutions in their trated. [Iliffe. 30?.] stress in joints and includes much of interest in the application to refractories and acid-resistant Aerodynamics of Supersonic Flight. A. Pope. 184 pages, photoelastic technique. liners. In conclusion, there is an interesting section illustrated. [Pitman. 25s.] The nine authors of the technological chapters on dental cements. Untersuchungen an einem Gegenlaufpropeller im are not only specialists in the general meaning of Rubbery adhesives are described by Salomon Windkanal. M. Dcgen. (Mitteilungen aus dem the term, but each is a specialist in a part of his and Schonlau. They open with the correlation be­ Institut fur Aerodynamik an der E.T.H. No. 18) own particular field. This has resulted in differing tween the structure and properties of the raw Paper bound, 65 pages, illustrated. [Verlag Lee- approaches in each type of adhesive described, polymers, vulcanization and ebonite formations, man, Zurich. No price stated.] December 1951 373 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

The Library Shelf

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology , Volume 23 (12): 1 – Dec 1, 1951

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb032111
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

and isocyanates, and deal with tackifiers and resins. Tests of a tensile and a peeling nature are described together with the aspect of dynamic fatigue. Notes on the composition and uses of various fluid adhesives are followed by a section on rubber to metal bonding with ebonite and with thermo-plastic adhesives. The important matters The Theory and Practice of Gluing of the adhesion of rubber to fibres and the manu­ facture of adhesive tapes receive attention. The Adhesion and Adhesives. By N. A. De Bruyne and which may be a little disconcerting to the general chapter ends with a list of patents relating to R. Houwink. [Elsevier Publishing Company, reader but has a very clear advantage where the rubbery adhesives. Amsterdam. (Cleaver-Hume Press Ltd., 42A seeker after particular data is concerned. That gluing and soldering have certain simi­ South Audlcy Street, London, W.1.) 70s.] Writing on animal glues, Cornwell deals larities and also obvious differences is pointed out briefly with mechanical and specific theories of With a book of the weight and calibre of by Lewis in his chapter on adhesion in soldered adhesion and the preparation of the glue for use, Adhesion and Adhesives it is of more than passing joints. Of leading importance in this form of join­ and thereafter confines himself to industrial interest to know its intended purpose. The ing is the pretreatment of the metallic surfaces by applications. He factually describes gummed editors, N. A. De Bruyne of Aero Research Ltd., cleaning and coating with flux, and these materials papers, surface-coated abrasives, polishing wheels, England, and R. Houwink of Rubber-Stichting, and their action are thoroughly examined, includ­ paper manufacture, woodworking, textile process­ Holland, in their preface describe the work as ing for oxidized surfaces such as occur with ing, wall paints and a number of minor uses. No ' . . . a symposium by specialists' which 'collects aluminium. Wetting of surfaces plays a prominent account of the manufacture of the glue itself is in one volume information about the scientific and part in soldering and the many factors involved given. technological aspects of adhesion'. are examined in great detail. The nature of the By contrast, Lee's chapter in vegetable adhesives Matters of a fundamental nature concerning compound layers in a joint is treated on metal­ confines itself almost exclusively to the chemistry adhesion are collated in Part One, and the more lurgical lines, and the influence of solder com­ of their origin and preparation. He classifies this technological side of adhesives constitutes Part position on the strength of the bond (as distinct group as starch based adhesives (dextrines, acid- Two. This decision to separate the pure and the from the cohesion within the bar itself) is admir­ hydrolized, enzyme-degraded, oxidized, gelled applied is highly commendable, for there is as yet ably set out. and water-soluble starches), water-soluble cellu­ a wide gulf between the two aspects, and many The concluding chapter on the physical testing lose derivatives, and natural gums. attempts to bridge this have only resulted in the of adhesion and adhesives is by the co-editor of Synthetic resin glues for wood and metal bond­ erection of entanglements. It is an indication of the book, Dr De Bruyne. Two courses were open ing and other purposes are described by Chap­ the present state of knowledge that Part One to him; to deal exhaustively with a limited field man. The formulation and preparation of thermo­ occupies 140 pages compared with the 350 in the (such as wood to wood gluing) and to collate and setting glues for the phenolic-, resorcinol-, urea- technological section, but it should be noted that analyse therein all available data, or to make a and melamine-formaldehyde types are clearly set much in the latter would by current standards be critical survey of testing methods applicable to a out with additional matter on the less well-known regarded as high-level science. wide range of adhesives. In view of the nature of furane, polyurethane, epoxy and silicone resins. Part One opens with chapters on the general the book as a whole, he has wisely chosen the Separately, the solidification or hardening of the conditions for wetting and for adhesion, by latter course, and by a bibliography of 107 first four is described. A rather serious omission is Houwink, and on molecular forces by Staverman, references, has opened wide the door to detailed an account of the recently-introduced phenolic subjects commonly described by the phrase studies by those seeking specialist information. plywood adhesives setting near boiling point 'theories of adhesion'. The first study of the There is an excellent introduction on the signifi­ instead of at 140 deg. C , a development of far- phenomenon of adhesion was made by McBain cance of tests, in which the danger of over­ reaching importance to this particular industry. It and others in the 1920s—usually by the medium emphasizing the importance of any one kind is is unfortunate that the parts on the 'setting of of actual glued joints. In the ten or fifteen years stressed. Tests upon small joints in tension, resins' contain no reference to acid exudates from following 1930, the subject received little atten­ nominal and pure shear, peeling, and under cold-setting glues. The possibility of deleterious tion, but in the meantime, developments in funda­ impact and fatigue are described for wood and effects of these upon the wood causes considerable mental physics have enabled a new approach to be metallic and other materials, and is followed by a if unnecessary concern to users. In the thermo­ made, and it is along these lines that Houwink section on durability and ageing trials. Viscosity plastic field, Chapman treats polyvinyl and acrylic and Staverman have written. Both frankly and other physical tests are also included. resins and the cellulose esters. Sections on the acknowledge that for the time being, improve­ performance and testing of adhesives are well set In evaluating the book as a whole, its symposial ments in the field of adhesives are more likely to out. nature must be borne in mind. Students of the result from direct trials by technologists than particular will find information sieved and from the more theoretical predictions. Saal writes upon asphaltic bitumens, giving analysed for them by specialists both from their their structure, composition, rheology and The rheology of adhesives has a sparse and original work and experience and from other physical properties as materials and allied data scattered bibliography, and Hoekstra and Fritzius sources. The bibliography references, which concerning their practical application. have collated and systematized the data excellently. aggregate to over 750 give indication of the care A lengthy chapter on sodium silicate as an In view of the recent development of this branch taken in preparing the chapters. A symposium of physics, the authors have wisely given several adhesive is contributed by Wills. He gives the has wider appeal however, for it enables a pages of introductory matter before passing to the physical and chemical characteristics of the specialist in one line to compare his outlook, particular rheology of adhesives before, during, material, and its application in the bonding of method of approach and technique with those and after hardening. One small comment can be glass, metals in foil and granular form and the use obtaining in other fields, a task which is often made: the advantages of thin over thick glue lines in plywood manufacture. Water resistance and beyond a worker's possibilities because of the time in respect of joint strength is emphasized, but the ageing characteristics are discussed. Corrugated required to find and read the necessary papers. In paperboard isextensively described with particular writers omit the experimental fact that with this respect, Adhesion and Adhesives meets a real emphasis on the kinds of silicate used, and there certain types of urea resin, the deterioration over need. It may perhaps be asking for too much a number of years is less with thick lines than with is an excellent section on the engineering guidance in the easy path, but the indexing of the thin. characteristics of a good bond—a matter all too book could have been fuller in cross references often neglected in many treatises on adhesives. Mylonas and De Bruyne contribute a masterly between associated subjects. Other applications of sodium silicate are to solid chapter on static problems—more commonly R. A. G. K. fibre-board, the sealing of paper-box flaps, known as the stress distribution problem. They labelling, wallboard manufacture, insulating repeat the frequently-forgotten warning that material and several minor uses. breaking load divided by glued area as a significant expression of stress is fallacious. The writers The same author continues with a chapter on BOOKS RECEIVED examine by quoted and original theories the stress inorganic cements. Whilst it may give surprise to All books received from Publishers are listed under patterns of single and double lap joints with thick find this subject in a treatise on adhesives, the this heading. Extended reviews of a selection appear and thin glue lines together with the case of the data given and the method of treating the subject later. Inclusion in this list, therefore, neither precludes, traditional plywood test-piece. Joints between will find many grateful readers. Included amongst nor implies, in any particular instance, further notice. wood and wood, metal and metal and glass and the material are hydraulic cements, plaster of Fellowship of the Air. Jubilee Book of the Royal Aero metal are considered. Part Two of the chapter pans, lime mortars, sorrel, litharge, iron and Club, 1901-1951. B. J. Hurrcn. 234 pages, illus­ describes experimental investigations into the sulphur cements, and colloidal solutions in their trated. [Iliffe. 30?.] stress in joints and includes much of interest in the application to refractories and acid-resistant Aerodynamics of Supersonic Flight. A. Pope. 184 pages, photoelastic technique. liners. In conclusion, there is an interesting section illustrated. [Pitman. 25s.] The nine authors of the technological chapters on dental cements. Untersuchungen an einem Gegenlaufpropeller im are not only specialists in the general meaning of Rubbery adhesives are described by Salomon Windkanal. M. Dcgen. (Mitteilungen aus dem the term, but each is a specialist in a part of his and Schonlau. They open with the correlation be­ Institut fur Aerodynamik an der E.T.H. No. 18) own particular field. This has resulted in differing tween the structure and properties of the raw Paper bound, 65 pages, illustrated. [Verlag Lee- approaches in each type of adhesive described, polymers, vulcanization and ebonite formations, man, Zurich. No price stated.] December 1951 373

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Dec 1, 1951

There are no references for this article.