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The Library Shelf

The Library Shelf artificial limbs. The fifth paper gives data on the forces applied to a pilot's body during a crash as obtained from actual crashes. The remaining paper in this group describes the measurement of stresses in structures subject to pressure waves Rocket Propulsion — Papers on The from underwater explosions, and discusses the problem of keeping strain gauges in place under Analysis of Stresses accelerations of the order of 10,000 g. Of the three papers on residual stress one gives further information on a well-tried method—that of skimming off the surface layer of metal and Rakctcnantriebc—Ihre Entwicklung, Anwcndunj; contained units: the Walter, Schmidding, B.M.W. calculating the residual stress from the change of und Zukunft. By Ing. Josef Stemmer. (With con­ (described by Gartmann), Reaction Motors, curvature of the exposed surfaces. The second tributions by Dr Ing. Eugen Sanger and Dipl. Ing. Bowmann and Aerojet developments are dealt describes the latest techniques of measuring resi­ Heinz Gartmann.) [Schweizer Druck-und with here. dual stresses by the inspection of X-ray diffraction Verlagshaus A.G., Zurich 8, price 19.75 Swiss The second of these sections deals with com­ patterns. The third paper discusses the method of francs.] plete rocket propelled missiles and piloted air­ estimating residual stresses by examining the As its title (in English, 'Rocket Propulsion—Its craft: each of the major German projects of the stress-coat pattern thrown up by drilling a hole Development, Application and Future') implies last war is described in detail, as are the early through the surface of the metal. It does not and its foreword emphasizes, this volume is Fairey and Vickers-Armstrong projects in this seem to be a foolproof method although it can be concerned more with rocket design and con­ country, and the American Bell, Douglas and A4 made practical, according to the authors, by rigidly structional practice up to the present day, with work. Although a considerable amount of further following their technique; they imply, however, indications of probable future trends, than with information has been released since these sections that the technique is more an art than a science. detailed theoretical analysis of the thermo­ were written, they give a most valuable summary Of the three papers dealing with photo-elastic dynamic, aerodynamic, metallurgical, and chem­ of information available up to 1951. work two describe straightforward applications ical problems involved. Within these terms of Finally, there is a short chapter on space travel of the method to particular structures—calendar reference it presents an unusually thorough and in which the author has wisely confined himself rolls and threaded drill pipe joints. The third comprehensive descriptive survey of the available to enumerating the broad requirements for arti­ paper discusses the suitability of various plastic unclassified data, together with sufficient theoret­ ficial satellites and interplanetary vehicles, without materials for making photo-elastic models, and ical background to enable the newcomer to the speculating on their possible form. gives data applicable to the rather unfavourable field to understand the trends of development. To sum up, this book fulfils a real need for a conditions represented by a temperature of 84 deg. The first section presents a detailed chronology detailed and painstaking digest of the mass of F. and a 35 per cent average humidity. of rocket and jet propulsion ranging from Chinese descriptive matter relating to rocketry that has The first of the two papers on fatigue examines fireworks in 3000 B.C. to the 2nd International become available since the war, and while its the claims made by those who advocate measur­ Astronautical Congress in A.D. 1951. The more various phases—historical, theoretical, descrip­ ing the state of fatigue of a metal by X-ray strain important persons and organizations are accorded tive and prophetic—have individually been measurements. The author finds the claims to be admirable potted histories of a page or more in covered more fully elsewhere, one is not aware of unwarranted. The second paper is a valuable length, entered under the earliest relevant date: any book in English which provides such a piece of ad hoc work designed to show the reasons this arrangement necessarily tends to disturb the wealth of descriptive data under one cover. for fatigue failures in stranded cable. The main continuity of date, and particularly emphasizes J. R . p. reason appears to be the excessive dry friction the need for an index to future editions. However, between the individual strands. this section alone makes the book worth having. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Stress There are five miscellaneous papers dealing ,Jn the interests of accuracy one should point out Analysis. Vol. IX. No. 2. [Society for Experi­ with the following matters: the stresses and re­ a photograph of a Heinkel 162 masquerading as mental Stress Analysis, Central Square Station, actions for model arches, the design of a basic a He 178, and a reference to the first flight of the P.O. Box 168, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. S6.] amplifier providing standard elements for elec­ Gloster E.28/39 having taken place at Hucclecote The papers in this number of the proceedings tronic circuits, the measurement and control of (actually Cranwell). may be conveniently grouped under four heads— keel-block loads during dry-docking tests, the The author then deals with the available solid dynamic loads, residual stress, photo-elasticity design of a differential transformer for measuring and liquid fuels and oxidants, with extensive and fatigue. In the 'dynamic loads' group the first small displacements, and the use of resistance tables of properties of solid propellents and of paper is concerned with testing the efficacy of a strain-gauges on underwater work for protracted various liquid fuel-oxidant combinations, with method described by the reviewer at the 6th periods. particular reference to the German '-stoff' and International Congress of Applied Mechanics D. w. 'Tonka' fuels. Less conventional substances such (Paris 1946). The problem is how to estimate the as metallic powders and dispersions are discussed, dynamic stresses in a complex structure that has also the use of fluorine as an 'oxidant', while the no well-defined resonance modes, and it arises, general possibilities of atomic energy are reviewed. for example, when a fuselage absorbs the shock There follows a chapter on powder rocket of turret gun-fire. The approach advocated in the design dealing mainly with small missiles, though Paris paper consists in carrying out a resonance a section is devoted to the Aerojet type of take-off test, in which local force pulses are applied to the boost rocket. After this a brief chapter reviews structure at the points concerned and the stresses a variety of problems of high speed and high in the neighbouring structure rather than the altitude flight, compressibility, the effects of deflexions are measured. The same test enables acceleration on the human body, etc. The need the damping factor to be evaluated, and this in for such material in a book devoted mainly to conjunction with the stress response enables the power plant design is questionable, since the effect of any force input on the particular mode treatment is necessarily superficial, and it would to be calculated. It is gratifying to find that, on certainly seem that this section should come later the basis of the experimental work carried out at in the book, when rocket, air- and spacecraft M.I.T., the two authors find that 'in general the are dealt with. method is practical'. Liquid-fuel rocket principles are then described The second paper in this subject group describes at some length, dealing in turn with combustion an experimental check of the theory of the trans­ processes, nozzle design, cooling problems, fuel verse impact of a mass on a column. After vindi­ pumps, ignition and metallurgy—the latter includ­ cating the theory for a simple solid, rod the ing useful tables of properties of heat-resistant authors make some surprising statements con­ materials. This is followed by a brief theoretical cerning the importance of structural damping, discussion which is more in the nature of a set which seem to be at variance with accepted views of definitions of the terminology—specific im­ in this country. The third paper gives an account pulse, efficiency, effective discharge velocity, etc. of some very neat experimental work on the —than a detailed gas- and thermodynamic natural transverse frequencies and modes of analysis. plates of rectangular and parallelogram plan The next two sections form the backbone of form, with the view of applying the results for the book. The first, on current motor design estimating the behaviour of the fins of missiles. practice, leads via a concise account by Sanger The fourth paper will be of interest to bio­ of the basic problems and a description of test chemists in that it investigates the forces acting on the human body in the act of walking and technique to a detailed descriptive review of the obtains valuable new data for the design of principal rocket motors built or intended as self- January 1953 11 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

The Library Shelf

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology , Volume 25 (1): 1 – Jan 1, 1953

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb032248
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

artificial limbs. The fifth paper gives data on the forces applied to a pilot's body during a crash as obtained from actual crashes. The remaining paper in this group describes the measurement of stresses in structures subject to pressure waves Rocket Propulsion — Papers on The from underwater explosions, and discusses the problem of keeping strain gauges in place under Analysis of Stresses accelerations of the order of 10,000 g. Of the three papers on residual stress one gives further information on a well-tried method—that of skimming off the surface layer of metal and Rakctcnantriebc—Ihre Entwicklung, Anwcndunj; contained units: the Walter, Schmidding, B.M.W. calculating the residual stress from the change of und Zukunft. By Ing. Josef Stemmer. (With con­ (described by Gartmann), Reaction Motors, curvature of the exposed surfaces. The second tributions by Dr Ing. Eugen Sanger and Dipl. Ing. Bowmann and Aerojet developments are dealt describes the latest techniques of measuring resi­ Heinz Gartmann.) [Schweizer Druck-und with here. dual stresses by the inspection of X-ray diffraction Verlagshaus A.G., Zurich 8, price 19.75 Swiss The second of these sections deals with com­ patterns. The third paper discusses the method of francs.] plete rocket propelled missiles and piloted air­ estimating residual stresses by examining the As its title (in English, 'Rocket Propulsion—Its craft: each of the major German projects of the stress-coat pattern thrown up by drilling a hole Development, Application and Future') implies last war is described in detail, as are the early through the surface of the metal. It does not and its foreword emphasizes, this volume is Fairey and Vickers-Armstrong projects in this seem to be a foolproof method although it can be concerned more with rocket design and con­ country, and the American Bell, Douglas and A4 made practical, according to the authors, by rigidly structional practice up to the present day, with work. Although a considerable amount of further following their technique; they imply, however, indications of probable future trends, than with information has been released since these sections that the technique is more an art than a science. detailed theoretical analysis of the thermo­ were written, they give a most valuable summary Of the three papers dealing with photo-elastic dynamic, aerodynamic, metallurgical, and chem­ of information available up to 1951. work two describe straightforward applications ical problems involved. Within these terms of Finally, there is a short chapter on space travel of the method to particular structures—calendar reference it presents an unusually thorough and in which the author has wisely confined himself rolls and threaded drill pipe joints. The third comprehensive descriptive survey of the available to enumerating the broad requirements for arti­ paper discusses the suitability of various plastic unclassified data, together with sufficient theoret­ ficial satellites and interplanetary vehicles, without materials for making photo-elastic models, and ical background to enable the newcomer to the speculating on their possible form. gives data applicable to the rather unfavourable field to understand the trends of development. To sum up, this book fulfils a real need for a conditions represented by a temperature of 84 deg. The first section presents a detailed chronology detailed and painstaking digest of the mass of F. and a 35 per cent average humidity. of rocket and jet propulsion ranging from Chinese descriptive matter relating to rocketry that has The first of the two papers on fatigue examines fireworks in 3000 B.C. to the 2nd International become available since the war, and while its the claims made by those who advocate measur­ Astronautical Congress in A.D. 1951. The more various phases—historical, theoretical, descrip­ ing the state of fatigue of a metal by X-ray strain important persons and organizations are accorded tive and prophetic—have individually been measurements. The author finds the claims to be admirable potted histories of a page or more in covered more fully elsewhere, one is not aware of unwarranted. The second paper is a valuable length, entered under the earliest relevant date: any book in English which provides such a piece of ad hoc work designed to show the reasons this arrangement necessarily tends to disturb the wealth of descriptive data under one cover. for fatigue failures in stranded cable. The main continuity of date, and particularly emphasizes J. R . p. reason appears to be the excessive dry friction the need for an index to future editions. However, between the individual strands. this section alone makes the book worth having. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Stress There are five miscellaneous papers dealing ,Jn the interests of accuracy one should point out Analysis. Vol. IX. No. 2. [Society for Experi­ with the following matters: the stresses and re­ a photograph of a Heinkel 162 masquerading as mental Stress Analysis, Central Square Station, actions for model arches, the design of a basic a He 178, and a reference to the first flight of the P.O. Box 168, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. S6.] amplifier providing standard elements for elec­ Gloster E.28/39 having taken place at Hucclecote The papers in this number of the proceedings tronic circuits, the measurement and control of (actually Cranwell). may be conveniently grouped under four heads— keel-block loads during dry-docking tests, the The author then deals with the available solid dynamic loads, residual stress, photo-elasticity design of a differential transformer for measuring and liquid fuels and oxidants, with extensive and fatigue. In the 'dynamic loads' group the first small displacements, and the use of resistance tables of properties of solid propellents and of paper is concerned with testing the efficacy of a strain-gauges on underwater work for protracted various liquid fuel-oxidant combinations, with method described by the reviewer at the 6th periods. particular reference to the German '-stoff' and International Congress of Applied Mechanics D. w. 'Tonka' fuels. Less conventional substances such (Paris 1946). The problem is how to estimate the as metallic powders and dispersions are discussed, dynamic stresses in a complex structure that has also the use of fluorine as an 'oxidant', while the no well-defined resonance modes, and it arises, general possibilities of atomic energy are reviewed. for example, when a fuselage absorbs the shock There follows a chapter on powder rocket of turret gun-fire. The approach advocated in the design dealing mainly with small missiles, though Paris paper consists in carrying out a resonance a section is devoted to the Aerojet type of take-off test, in which local force pulses are applied to the boost rocket. After this a brief chapter reviews structure at the points concerned and the stresses a variety of problems of high speed and high in the neighbouring structure rather than the altitude flight, compressibility, the effects of deflexions are measured. The same test enables acceleration on the human body, etc. The need the damping factor to be evaluated, and this in for such material in a book devoted mainly to conjunction with the stress response enables the power plant design is questionable, since the effect of any force input on the particular mode treatment is necessarily superficial, and it would to be calculated. It is gratifying to find that, on certainly seem that this section should come later the basis of the experimental work carried out at in the book, when rocket, air- and spacecraft M.I.T., the two authors find that 'in general the are dealt with. method is practical'. Liquid-fuel rocket principles are then described The second paper in this subject group describes at some length, dealing in turn with combustion an experimental check of the theory of the trans­ processes, nozzle design, cooling problems, fuel verse impact of a mass on a column. After vindi­ pumps, ignition and metallurgy—the latter includ­ cating the theory for a simple solid, rod the ing useful tables of properties of heat-resistant authors make some surprising statements con­ materials. This is followed by a brief theoretical cerning the importance of structural damping, discussion which is more in the nature of a set which seem to be at variance with accepted views of definitions of the terminology—specific im­ in this country. The third paper gives an account pulse, efficiency, effective discharge velocity, etc. of some very neat experimental work on the —than a detailed gas- and thermodynamic natural transverse frequencies and modes of analysis. plates of rectangular and parallelogram plan The next two sections form the backbone of form, with the view of applying the results for the book. The first, on current motor design estimating the behaviour of the fins of missiles. practice, leads via a concise account by Sanger The fourth paper will be of interest to bio­ of the basic problems and a description of test chemists in that it investigates the forces acting on the human body in the act of walking and technique to a detailed descriptive review of the obtains valuable new data for the design of principal rocket motors built or intended as self- January 1953 11

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Jan 1, 1953

There are no references for this article.