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The Library Shelf

The Library Shelf the needs of the instrument technologist and aptly demonstrates the application of standard methods to the problems of measurement. Throughout these two volumes the authors have attempted to include the associated mathe­ A Major German Work on Compressors — matics for the benefit of the reader who is not primarily a mathematician. The examples given Instruments — Batteries are also of great value, since the full significance of the concepts discussed can be appreciated best by relating them to familiar physical situations. Axialkompressoren und Radialkompressoren. By in mind considerations of language and, alas, of The terminology and notation may be found B. Eckert (Springer, Berlin. Dm. 73.50) price (over £6 at the present rate of exchange) it difficult at first but a firm grasp of these is essen­ is fair to say that any firm or institution in any tial before the reader can begin to think of instru­ Despite—or perhaps because of—the tre­ way concerned with the design or use of compres­ ment systems in terms of these ideas. It is sug­ mendous effort which has been concentrated sors should ensure that a copy of this volume is gested that the title 'Instrument Engineering' may during and since the War on the development of on their shelves, for not only will the newcomer be misleading, since this work will not hold great the multistage axial flow compressor there has to the field receive a thorough grounding in the appeal for the practical instrument engineer as he hitherto been a dearth of unrestricted information theory and background of the subject, but the is generally recognized in this country. To the on this vitally important aspect of propulsion old hand will find ample use for it as a reference individual who is seriously interested in the engineering. Most gas turbine textbooks devote book—and in this connexion the bibliography will fundamental approach to measurement, and to a more or less brief chapter to this subject, and be found most useful. J. R. P. the servo-mechanism specialist, however, this one finds scattered information in all manner of work will present an extremely useful reference publications, but it has needed the enterprise of Instrument Engineering. Two volumes. C. S. book and the methods and ideas discussed therein Messrs Springer to bring out the first really de­ Draper, W. McKay and S. Lees. (McGraw-Hill. should find wide application. C. F. B. tailed textbook by one of the leading German Vol. I, 51s.; Vol. II, 120s.) authorities. One hastens to add that, as the title implies, The organized system of technological educa­ Battery Chargers and Charging. By Robert A. this work also devotes considerable space to the tion in the United Kingdom does not cater Harvey. (Iliffe. 35s.) centrifugal compressor: that this does not betoken specifically for the instrument engineer. Mechani­ This book is rather more comprehensive than its a misplaced emphasis becomes immediately evi­ cal and electrical engineers, physicists, and title might suggest. It is in fact a full account of dent on reading through the list of contents, mathematicians all play their part in solving the the practical use of secondary, i.e. rechargeable, many problems involved in measurement and which shows that the subject is dealt with in rela­ batteries. There is an opening section which de­ control. These problems are growing rapidly in tion to all its applications, and not merely to the scribes the development and construction of bat­ aeronautical ones. Thus the first chapter surveys number and in complexity and are to be found in teries, and a brief account of the chemistry in- the use of compressors for air conditioning, every branch of industrial science, not least in involved. General information on charging engine cooling, wind tunnels, blast furnaces and aeronautical engineering. This new contribution methods for differing scales of operation is given. a number of other applications besides gas tur­ to the literature on instrument engineering pre­ The bulk of the book is devoted to a detailed bines. This is followed by a careful discussion of sents a generalized method of solving the prob­ study of the applications in which batteries are similarity considerations and of the resultant non- lems of measurement and control. It is based on used, and recommendations on suitable circuits principles and methods that have been estab­ dimensional parameters: this is particularly neces­ for operating and charging them. Among these lished during a considerable experience of teach­ sary for the British reader, since there are sundry applications is the use of batteries in and around differences from the parameters in use in this ing instrument engineering at the Massachusetts aircraft, but this section is short, as might be ex­ country. Institute of Technology. The statement at the be­ pected. Aircraft battery circuits, apart from the ginning of Volume I that 'over the last decade the Then follows a full discussion of the dynamical need for lightness, do not raise any very unusual personnel of the Instrumentation Laboratory (at and thermodynamic concepts common to both problems from the electrical viewpoint, and in any M.I.T.) has varied in size from about ten to more forms of compressor, with useful tables and curves case the increasing use of high-voltage alternat­ than four hundred members' emphasizes the of fundamental data, and the fundamentals of ing current, and high outputs, is tending to rele­ rapidly growing importance of this branch of heat transfer applied to inter-coolers is discussed. gate the battery to purely emergency functions. engineering science. This leads into the major section of the book, Even in this field the batteries may now be inde­ dealing with the aerodynamics of the axial-flow Volume I, 'Methods for Describing the Situa­ pendent of the main electrical circuit, as with the machine—and it is as well to emphasize here that tions of Instrument Engineering', is devoted to Venner emergency cabin lighting unit described mechanical design and stressing considerations do the fundamental principles underlying this ap­ in the January 1954 issue of AIRCRAFT ENGIN ­ not come within the author's terms of reference— proach to instrument engineering. Any problem ­­­­­­. where the fundamental theory and detailed aero­ in measurement and control can be reduced to a The book has a number of useful appendices, dynamic design procedures are dealt with very vectorial presentation; any physical system can giving references to appropriate British Stan­ fully. Plenty of test data appears among the be represented by a mathematical form. Much of dards, cable sizes for low-voltage wiring, and copious illustrations (one of the best features of this first volume is taken up by definitions, many specific gravity temperature correction tables, the book) together with photographs and draw­ of which will be unfamiliar to the general instru­ among other information. There is also a fairly ings of representative compressors. ment engineer in this country, but the illustration full bibliography. of these ideas by reference to simple and well- A slightly shorter but still extremely compre­ known physical systems is effective in helping the hensive section is devoted to the centrifugal reader to grasp the essential ideas. The method machine, and the volume closes with two short The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied of deriving the performance equations of general­ Mathematics. Vol. 7, Part I, March 1954. (Geoffrey chapters on surge and its prevention, and on the Cumberledge, Oxford University Press, 15s.) ized physical systems is developed and the static control of compressors. and dynamic performance problems are dis­ In the present stage of the art, design pro­ The following papers appear in this issue. cussed. The response of a mechanical system to cedures are far too much the product of individual 'The Problem of an Infinite Plate under an Inclined various types of input forcing function is dis­ experience and inclination for any book to claim Loading', with Tables of the Integrals of Ai (±x) and cussed in detail. absolute authority, nor can the problems of Bi (±x). By M. Rothman. either form of compressor be said to be fully Volume II, 'Methods for Associating Mathe­ 'The Effect of Heat Transfer on the Separation of formulated, let alone solved, but the author has matical Solutions with Common Forms', is a Compressible Laminar Boundary Layer'. By C. R. done a great service in laying the foundations in largely a survey of the mathematical methods Illingworth. so clear and thorough a manner, that others may used to solve performance equations of the type 'Characteristic Surfaces in Ideal Plasticity in Three amplify and enlarge as experience accumulates. developed in Volume I. It is intended as a basic Dimensions'. By J. W. Craggs. It should in fairness be added that while many of reference for engineers who are interested in the 'The Variation of Compressible Flows'. By A. R. the most urgent and interesting problems remain mathematical background of measurement and Manwell. subject to security restrictions, mention of topics control, and is a collection of the methods used 'A Fourier Integral Solution for the Stresses in a like supersonic compressors, blade flutter, surge for solving the type of integro-differential equa­ Semi-infinite Strip'. By L. H. Mitchell. line prediction and multi-rotor axial units cannot tion frequently encountered in the analysis of the be found in such a volume as this. response characteristics of a physical system to a 'The Diffraction and Reflection of Shock Waves'. By W. Chester. given input. Solutions are given of some of the In attempting to assess the value of this work equation forms commonly associated with prob­ to a British reader, one is in danger of losing sight 'The Effect of Rapid Distortion of a Fluid in Turbu­ lems in instrumentation, and families of response lent Motion'. By G. K. Batchelor and I. Proudman. of the wood for the trees, such is the wealth of curves are calculated for different types of forcing information presented. Certainly if it were not 'The Uniform Distortion of Homogeneous Turbu­ function. Most of the material included in this in German, one would recommend it unhesi­ lence'. By A. A. Townsend. volume may be found in the many standard tatingly not merely as the first such textbook, 'The Stability of a Compressed Elastic Ring and of works on differential equations, though the on a scale worthy of Stodola, but for the extremely a Flexible Heavy Structure spread by a System of present volume has been written specifically for able manner in which the task is tackled. Bearing Elastic Rings' (Corrigendum.) By G. W. H. Stevens. May 1954 161 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

The Library Shelf

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology , Volume 26 (5): 1 – May 1, 1954

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb032425
Publisher site
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Abstract

the needs of the instrument technologist and aptly demonstrates the application of standard methods to the problems of measurement. Throughout these two volumes the authors have attempted to include the associated mathe­ A Major German Work on Compressors — matics for the benefit of the reader who is not primarily a mathematician. The examples given Instruments — Batteries are also of great value, since the full significance of the concepts discussed can be appreciated best by relating them to familiar physical situations. Axialkompressoren und Radialkompressoren. By in mind considerations of language and, alas, of The terminology and notation may be found B. Eckert (Springer, Berlin. Dm. 73.50) price (over £6 at the present rate of exchange) it difficult at first but a firm grasp of these is essen­ is fair to say that any firm or institution in any tial before the reader can begin to think of instru­ Despite—or perhaps because of—the tre­ way concerned with the design or use of compres­ ment systems in terms of these ideas. It is sug­ mendous effort which has been concentrated sors should ensure that a copy of this volume is gested that the title 'Instrument Engineering' may during and since the War on the development of on their shelves, for not only will the newcomer be misleading, since this work will not hold great the multistage axial flow compressor there has to the field receive a thorough grounding in the appeal for the practical instrument engineer as he hitherto been a dearth of unrestricted information theory and background of the subject, but the is generally recognized in this country. To the on this vitally important aspect of propulsion old hand will find ample use for it as a reference individual who is seriously interested in the engineering. Most gas turbine textbooks devote book—and in this connexion the bibliography will fundamental approach to measurement, and to a more or less brief chapter to this subject, and be found most useful. J. R. P. the servo-mechanism specialist, however, this one finds scattered information in all manner of work will present an extremely useful reference publications, but it has needed the enterprise of Instrument Engineering. Two volumes. C. S. book and the methods and ideas discussed therein Messrs Springer to bring out the first really de­ Draper, W. McKay and S. Lees. (McGraw-Hill. should find wide application. C. F. B. tailed textbook by one of the leading German Vol. I, 51s.; Vol. II, 120s.) authorities. One hastens to add that, as the title implies, The organized system of technological educa­ Battery Chargers and Charging. By Robert A. this work also devotes considerable space to the tion in the United Kingdom does not cater Harvey. (Iliffe. 35s.) centrifugal compressor: that this does not betoken specifically for the instrument engineer. Mechani­ This book is rather more comprehensive than its a misplaced emphasis becomes immediately evi­ cal and electrical engineers, physicists, and title might suggest. It is in fact a full account of dent on reading through the list of contents, mathematicians all play their part in solving the the practical use of secondary, i.e. rechargeable, many problems involved in measurement and which shows that the subject is dealt with in rela­ batteries. There is an opening section which de­ control. These problems are growing rapidly in tion to all its applications, and not merely to the scribes the development and construction of bat­ aeronautical ones. Thus the first chapter surveys number and in complexity and are to be found in teries, and a brief account of the chemistry in- the use of compressors for air conditioning, every branch of industrial science, not least in involved. General information on charging engine cooling, wind tunnels, blast furnaces and aeronautical engineering. This new contribution methods for differing scales of operation is given. a number of other applications besides gas tur­ to the literature on instrument engineering pre­ The bulk of the book is devoted to a detailed bines. This is followed by a careful discussion of sents a generalized method of solving the prob­ study of the applications in which batteries are similarity considerations and of the resultant non- lems of measurement and control. It is based on used, and recommendations on suitable circuits principles and methods that have been estab­ dimensional parameters: this is particularly neces­ for operating and charging them. Among these lished during a considerable experience of teach­ sary for the British reader, since there are sundry applications is the use of batteries in and around differences from the parameters in use in this ing instrument engineering at the Massachusetts aircraft, but this section is short, as might be ex­ country. Institute of Technology. The statement at the be­ pected. Aircraft battery circuits, apart from the ginning of Volume I that 'over the last decade the Then follows a full discussion of the dynamical need for lightness, do not raise any very unusual personnel of the Instrumentation Laboratory (at and thermodynamic concepts common to both problems from the electrical viewpoint, and in any M.I.T.) has varied in size from about ten to more forms of compressor, with useful tables and curves case the increasing use of high-voltage alternat­ than four hundred members' emphasizes the of fundamental data, and the fundamentals of ing current, and high outputs, is tending to rele­ rapidly growing importance of this branch of heat transfer applied to inter-coolers is discussed. gate the battery to purely emergency functions. engineering science. This leads into the major section of the book, Even in this field the batteries may now be inde­ dealing with the aerodynamics of the axial-flow Volume I, 'Methods for Describing the Situa­ pendent of the main electrical circuit, as with the machine—and it is as well to emphasize here that tions of Instrument Engineering', is devoted to Venner emergency cabin lighting unit described mechanical design and stressing considerations do the fundamental principles underlying this ap­ in the January 1954 issue of AIRCRAFT ENGIN ­ not come within the author's terms of reference— proach to instrument engineering. Any problem ­­­­­­. where the fundamental theory and detailed aero­ in measurement and control can be reduced to a The book has a number of useful appendices, dynamic design procedures are dealt with very vectorial presentation; any physical system can giving references to appropriate British Stan­ fully. Plenty of test data appears among the be represented by a mathematical form. Much of dards, cable sizes for low-voltage wiring, and copious illustrations (one of the best features of this first volume is taken up by definitions, many specific gravity temperature correction tables, the book) together with photographs and draw­ of which will be unfamiliar to the general instru­ among other information. There is also a fairly ings of representative compressors. ment engineer in this country, but the illustration full bibliography. of these ideas by reference to simple and well- A slightly shorter but still extremely compre­ known physical systems is effective in helping the hensive section is devoted to the centrifugal reader to grasp the essential ideas. The method machine, and the volume closes with two short The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied of deriving the performance equations of general­ Mathematics. Vol. 7, Part I, March 1954. (Geoffrey chapters on surge and its prevention, and on the Cumberledge, Oxford University Press, 15s.) ized physical systems is developed and the static control of compressors. and dynamic performance problems are dis­ In the present stage of the art, design pro­ The following papers appear in this issue. cussed. The response of a mechanical system to cedures are far too much the product of individual 'The Problem of an Infinite Plate under an Inclined various types of input forcing function is dis­ experience and inclination for any book to claim Loading', with Tables of the Integrals of Ai (±x) and cussed in detail. absolute authority, nor can the problems of Bi (±x). By M. Rothman. either form of compressor be said to be fully Volume II, 'Methods for Associating Mathe­ 'The Effect of Heat Transfer on the Separation of formulated, let alone solved, but the author has matical Solutions with Common Forms', is a Compressible Laminar Boundary Layer'. By C. R. done a great service in laying the foundations in largely a survey of the mathematical methods Illingworth. so clear and thorough a manner, that others may used to solve performance equations of the type 'Characteristic Surfaces in Ideal Plasticity in Three amplify and enlarge as experience accumulates. developed in Volume I. It is intended as a basic Dimensions'. By J. W. Craggs. It should in fairness be added that while many of reference for engineers who are interested in the 'The Variation of Compressible Flows'. By A. R. the most urgent and interesting problems remain mathematical background of measurement and Manwell. subject to security restrictions, mention of topics control, and is a collection of the methods used 'A Fourier Integral Solution for the Stresses in a like supersonic compressors, blade flutter, surge for solving the type of integro-differential equa­ Semi-infinite Strip'. By L. H. Mitchell. line prediction and multi-rotor axial units cannot tion frequently encountered in the analysis of the be found in such a volume as this. response characteristics of a physical system to a 'The Diffraction and Reflection of Shock Waves'. By W. Chester. given input. Solutions are given of some of the In attempting to assess the value of this work equation forms commonly associated with prob­ to a British reader, one is in danger of losing sight 'The Effect of Rapid Distortion of a Fluid in Turbu­ lems in instrumentation, and families of response lent Motion'. By G. K. Batchelor and I. Proudman. of the wood for the trees, such is the wealth of curves are calculated for different types of forcing information presented. Certainly if it were not 'The Uniform Distortion of Homogeneous Turbu­ function. Most of the material included in this in German, one would recommend it unhesi­ lence'. By A. A. Townsend. volume may be found in the many standard tatingly not merely as the first such textbook, 'The Stability of a Compressed Elastic Ring and of works on differential equations, though the on a scale worthy of Stodola, but for the extremely a Flexible Heavy Structure spread by a System of present volume has been written specifically for able manner in which the task is tackled. Bearing Elastic Rings' (Corrigendum.) By G. W. H. Stevens. May 1954 161

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: May 1, 1954

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