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body-centred cubic, the face-centred cubic and the closely packed hexagonal. The formation of crystals around atomic metal nuclei in cooling from the liquid to the solid state is then discussed and the different effects of slow or rapid cooling explained. To the engineer this is a fascinating Heat-Resistant Metals— glimpse into a strange world with which he will in the future need to be better acquainted. In Chap Another R.Ae.S. Monograph ter II we are back on more familiar ground with the temperature equilibrium diagrams for alloys and the formation of solid solutions and inter- metallic compounds. Many of the latter obey laws Metals at High Temperatures. By Frances Hurd peratures. The author has clearly preferred to related to the atomic structure of the constituent Clark. [Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New deal fairly fully, in the available space, with metals. Only binary alloys are considered but York. (Chapman & Hall.) 56s.] general features of plastic flow than with the even so the treatment is so condensed as to be The purpose of the book, the author states, is causes and utilization of metallurgical effects in somewhat confusing to the uninitiated. to present currently available information on the connexion with high temperature materials. The structure of a given piece of metal may be properties of metallic materials at elevated tem Test methods and equipment for high-tempera modified in either of two ways, mechanical defor peratures for the use of the design engineer. ture property studies are described in the next mation (rolling, forging, extruding, etc.), or by industrial uses of metals and alloys at high chapter. Creep and creep-rupture test equipment heat treatment. The next two chapters deal with temperatures have greatly increased and the are given main attention, and very brief reference these two processes. Plastic deformation is attri temperatures required for many operations are is made to relaxation tests and fatigue tests. buted to slip along the basal planes in the crystals steadily rising. In the chemical and petroleum Hardness tests at room and at elevated tempera and this slip is caused by the movement of dis industries, alloy steels and stainless steels are tures are discussed. Impact tests are barely men locations in the atomic lattice. used in large amounts for service at moderately tioned here but data on tests are given for An interesting discussion on the mechanism of elevated temperatures. Industrial furnaces con particular materials in later chapters. There are, diffusion will be found in Chapter IV on heat sume large quantities of heat-resistant alloys. however, some useful notes on creep tests of treatment. There are a number of 'vacant sites' in The more recent and very rapid development of notched specimens. Reference is made to presenta the atomic lattice and in favourable conditions the gas turbine has very greatly stimulated re tion of data on creep and stress-rupture properties atoms move into these, leaving vacancies else search and development towards improved high by plotting time to a particular strain or rupture, where. Atoms can thus wander at random and temperature alloys, and has led to great activity log scale, as a function of the applied stress, the different constituents of an alloy diffuse into in the special area of the production world from linear scale, a method now widely used. Gas one another. The rate of diffusion falls rapidly which high temperature alloys come. Present turbine engineers are interested in the effects of with temperature and this phenomenon is sig gas turbines require materials to operate at dynamic stresses combined with mean tensile nificant in heat treatment and age-hardening. temperatures up to 815° C. under high stress due stresses, thermal shock resistance, and related After a short Chapter on the techniques for the to centrifugal forces and under other stresses, effects which can be studied in laboratory tests determination of metallic structure (of which X- and in this application improved performance of and are of importance in relation to service ray diffraction measurement is the most power the materials for blades to permit higher inlet performance; possibly these aspects of the subject ful), we reach the sixth and last Chapter on gas temperature is of first importance towards will receive more prominence in later editions. mechanical properties and their dependence on improvement of efficiency and for successful The rest of the book is mainly a catalogue of metallic structure. This comprises about a third of competition with other means of providing published data on creep and other properties of the whole book, and covers both the specific pro power. metals and alloys at elevated temperatures, and perties associated with the shape of the stress- deals in succession with carbon and low-alloy strain curve and more general qualities such as The subject of the book is one on which few steels, chromium irons, austenitic steels, cobalt- creep, toughness, notch-brittleness, fatigue, re have been written. G. V. Smith's Properties of base alloys, nickel-base alloys, and low-melting peated loading and damping capacity. A matter Metals at Elevated Temperatures appeared a few alloys. The data given are mainly from U.S. of particular interest in aircraft structures is the months earlier. Hessenbruch's Metalle und Legierungen fur hohe Temperaturen was published sources and refer generally to U.S. materials, but work, begun we believe by Professor Chalmers in 1940. The fact that the textbooks on this there are references to British work, e.g. R. W. when at the R.A.E., on increasing Young's subject may be counted on one hand and can all Bailey and A. M. Roberts on spheroidization modulus in the aluminium alloys. In the labora effects in carbon steels, J. Glen on low alloy be carried in one attache case affords little satis tory it is possible to make an aluminium alloy steels. faction. The literature of the subject is really vast with an 'E' of 15x10° p.s.i. and alloys in the range 12—13 x 108 p.s.i. may have practical value. and is widely scattered in the scientific and Each chapter has at its end a useful list of Repeated loading is distinguished from fatigue technical journals of the countries of the world, references which include many of the important by the stresses exceeding the proof stress with mainly U.S.A., United Kingdom, Germany and papers published in the literature of various resulting greater plastic distortion and work Russia. The amount of information being made countries. Compositions, treatments of the vari available to the student of the subject is very hardening. ous materials, etc., are given and fatigue data considerable and the release of information is are given in addition to stress-rupture and creep Throughout, the full-scale phenomena are ex increasing at a high rate. The writer of a book on data for many of the more important materials. plained, as far as they can be, in terms of atomic the subject must be possessed of great courage As regards property studies of light alloys, both structure. It is clear that the comparatively new as the first parts to be written will be due for magnesium-rich and aluminium-rich, the author science of the physics of metals has a long way to revision in the light of new information before presents data from exclusively U.S. sources. go before it can provide full explanations. Already the last parts are completed, and the whole work There are useful chapters on manufacturing it is throwing much new light on the behaviour of must have dated somewhat before the printed processes and scaling. metals and showing the way to better under text is available to its potential host of readers. The book is well printed and illustrated. The standing. It is, therefore, advisable that readers shall, for general index at the end is mainly a general guide We cordially recommend this book not only to their better appreciation of the work, bear in to the parts of the work at which particular students of metallurgy but also to all engineers mind the immense difficulties which confront the materials or aspects of the subject are dealt with, concerned with the use of metals in structures or writer of a book of this kind. and is a useful supplement to the bibliographies machines. H. B. H. of references at the ends of the chapters. The first chapter is very appropriately con cerned with an introduction to the subject and H. s. BOOKS RECEIVED theoretical aspects. In high temperature applica tions under stress, the behaviour of metal parts The Structure and Mechanical Properties of All books received from Publishers are listed under generally depends more upon the plastic pro Metals. By Bruce Chalmers. [Chapman & Hall. this heading. Extended reviews of a selection appear perties than upon the elastic properties. The 18*.] later. Inclusion in this list, therefore, neither precludes, author gives a good introduction to the study of This is the second of the monographs on nor implies, in any particular instance, further notice. metal plasticity, following Prager and Nadai in metallic materials published under the authority Coal. Raw Material Survey Scries No. 4. T. A. connexion with combined stress, and Becker, of the Royal Aeronautical Society, and fully Eagles. 2s. Orowan and Andrade in the formulation of maintains the high standard set by the first. It sur Non-Ferrous Metals. Raw Material Survey Series transient creep. Dislocation theory is outlined No. 5. H. H. C. Wood. 2s. 6d. veys, simply and without mathematics, the present Manufactured Abrasives and Industrial Diamonds. very briefly and the reader's imagination is not state of knowledge relating the atomic structure Raw Material Survey Scries No. 6. 2s. 6d. Pam tested by any reference to screw dislocations. of metals to their mechanical properties. After a phlets. [Purchasing Offices Assn., 146a Queen The last section of this chapter deals with grain brief glance at the constitution of the atom itself Victoria Street, E.C.4.] boundaries, fracture, and precipitation of micro- and the properties of protons, neutrons and elec Pressure Vessels. W. B. Ritchie. Paper bound, 71 constituents very briefly and without special trons, we are introduced in the first Chapter on pages, illustrated. 3.s. consideration of the effects of alloy constitution pure metals to the three most important arrange Automatic Control of Industrial Plant and Processes. and structure on resistance to flow at high tem ments of atoms within the crystals; these are the J. W. Ashley. Paper bound, 65 pages, illustrated. 3s. 112 Aircraft Engineering
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology – Emerald Publishing
Published: Apr 1, 1951
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