shear stress and stress required to produce further strain after considerable glide has taken place but the effect varies with diameter of the specimen. to present Symposium on The Effect of Surface Conditions on the Strength of Brittle Materials by Prof. C. Gurney shows that the Propertie s of Metallic strength of crystalline non-metallic materials is very sensitive to surface defects but the strength of plastics and glass, except when drawn into fibres, is Surface s not so dependent upon the mechanical perfection of the surface. Plastics are less sensitive to surface damage than glass. A SYMPOSIUM on "Properties of Metallic Sur- The Influence of Surface Conditions on the Fatigue faces" is being organised by The Institute of Strength of Steel by R. J. Lobe shows that good Metals and will be held at The Royal Institution, results have been obtained by carburizing, nitriding, Albermarle Street, London, W.l, on Wednesday, cyaniding, flame-hardening, and cold working by 19th November. The morning session is timed for rolling, pressing, or "presetting." Shot-peening has 9-45 to 12-15 and the afternoon session from 2 to 5. not usually given a marked improvement in fatigue The titles, authors, and brief descriptions of the limit. Several processes which improve fatigue strength set up residual compressive stresses and a papers to be presented and discussed are as follows : few weakening processes set up residual tensile Special Microscopical Techniques in Metallurgy by stresses. Prof. S. Tolansky will survey the four principal func tions of the microscope (a) magnification (b) resolu The Influence of Surface Films on the Friction and tion (c) contrast (d) topography, and will discuss Deformation of Surfaces, by Dr. F. P. Bowden and recent techniques in detail. Dr. D. Tabor discusses physically absorbed films Radioistopes in the Study of Metal Surface Reactions between sliding surfaces. At high speeds of sliding in Solutions by Dr. Massoud T. Simnad introduces the authors refer to the Beilby layer, the stability of results of some recent unpublished work. which may, in the light of recent work, be due to the presence of minute occulsions of impressed oxide, The Influence of Machining and Grinding Methods and because of its extreme hardness the layer may on the Mechanical and Physical Condition of Metal offer considerable protection to the underlying metal Surfaces by Peter Spear, Ian R. Robinson, and during sliding. Reference is also made to the pro R. J. B. Wolfe, shows that the preparation of the tection afforded by soft metal films of sulphides and the cutting portions of the tool have a very pro chlorides. nounced effect on its useful life. Analysis of surfaces produced under various machining conditions, a Diffusion Coatings, by D. M. Dovey, Dr. I. Jenkins, study of swarf formations, multi-point machining and K. S. Randle presents a critical review of the methods, etc. are discussed. production and properties of diffusion coatings. The Effect of Lubrication and the Nature of Super The Nature and Properties of the Anodic Film on ficial Layer After Prolonged Periods of Running, by Aluminium and its Alloys, by H. W. L. Phillips, Dr. F. T. Barwell shows, firstly, how the presence shows that this film is hard and possesses little of an oxide layer generally reduces friction but that ductility, it is translucent or transparent and is a the actual sliding surface after repeated sliding is good electrical insulator. usually a complicated mixture of strained metallic Chemical Behaviour as Influenced by Surface materials, oxides, and other possible reaction or Conditions, by Dr. U. R. Evans, discusses the effect decomposition products. There is evidence that the of surface condition on corrosion, probability, processes of friction and wear may differ between corrosion distribution, and corrosion velocity. Of different crystal planes of the same crystal. Scuffing the various types of surface treatment, peening and pitting are both dealt with and the beneficial appears under some circumstances to reduce the effects of phosphating are mentioned together with liability to corrosion-fatigue and stress-corrosion experiments on anodized surfaces. Finally the cracking, but in certain liquids, peened steel suffers author discusses the formation of protective surface corrosion-fatigue more easily than finely ground steel layers by reaction with a lubricant, and refers to the and in some aircraft alloys there is a risk that surface formation of polymerized films on the metal surface. treatment will lead to the type of intergranular net work favourable to stress-corrosion cracking. The Crystalline Character of Abraded Surfaces by Dr. P. Gay and Dr. P. B. Hirsch, gives results of Effect of Method of Preparation on the High- X-ray and electron-diffraction methods for inves Frequency Surface Resistance of Metals, by Dr. tigating this subject. Large plastic curvatures are R. G. Chambers and Dr. A. B. Pippard shows that found to occur on the surface during abrasion. surface resistance measurements at room tempera The Effect of Surface Conditions on the Mechanical tures, which give information only on roughness, are Properties of Metals, mainly single crystals, by Prof. less direct and less convenient than other methods, E. N. DA C. Andrade includes the effect of oxide but measurements over a range of temperatures films, electrolytes, Rehbinder effect, effect of surface: below room temperatures can give useful information volume ratio, effect of silver. The effect of a thin about the D.C. resistivity of the cold-worked surface coating of oxide markedly increases both critical layers which cannot be obtained by other methods. Scientific LUBRICATION September, 1952 25
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology – Emerald Publishing
Published: Sep 1, 1952
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