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The Electron Microscope Looks At Detergent Oils

The Electron Microscope Looks At Detergent Oils The Electron Microscope Looks At deposits is beginning. Definite flocculation shows in the 60-hr. sample (Fig. 4) and floccules average, Detergen t Oils perhaps , 1,000 Angstrom units in diameter. These pas s easily through ordinary filters. Engine data Figs. 1, 2 and 3, respectively :— Fresh Detergent Oil, DETERIORATION in performance of a detergent 20-hour Sample (Detergent Oil). oil usually corresponds with changes in dis- 40-hour Sample (Detergent Oil). persancy and the electron microscope enables these changes to be observed in detail. An earlier paper shows that the detergent oil no longer prevents (abstracted in our December, 1952 issue, p . 23) dealt deposition although rate of deposition is still below with this work, but a more recent paper has given tha t of a straight mineral oil. details of how this work is carried out. This paper Th e 80-hr. sample shows little change from the was given by J. B. Peri of the California Research 60-hr. sample, but it should be remembered that we Corporation, at the Society of Automobile Engineers ar e concerned here, chiefly with the appearance of National Fuels and Lubricants Meeting in Chicago th e numerous small background particles rathe r than in November. We have extracted the main points wit h th e few relatively large particles to be seen. By from this paper hereunder. 100 hours, further aggregation occurs and many of The electron microscope is capable of resolving th e large particles present in the oil can now be particles with diameters down to 30 Angstrom units remove d by a good filter. By 120 hours the effect and is therefore a most valuable instrument in lubricant research. Preparation of specimen for Figs. 4, 5 and 6, respectively :— examination is simple, several drops of a 2% Par- 60-hour Sample (Detergent Oil), 80-hour Sample (Detergent Oil), lodion solution in amyl acetate are dropped on to the 100-hour Sample (Detergent Oil). surface of some distilled water held in an evaporating dish. This solution spreads on the water to form a of the detergent additives has almost completely thin film, the amyl acetate evaporates quickly leaving vanished . At 160 hours, the oil closely resembles a a thin Parlodion film, a portion of which is mounted used uncompounded mineral oil a t 40 hours and the on circular 200-mesh wire screens one-eighth inch in oil is almos t free of extremel y small colloidal particles. diameter by means of a quite simple procedure. I t might be mentioned that no flocculation could Further thinning of the oil layer occurs in the electron b e detected under the light microscope a t 50" magni­ microscope owing to the collection of the oil under fications for any of the above samples and blotter the wires of the supporting screen. Specimen test s failed to indicate significant changes in dis­ preparations are usually quite reproducible. persion during the 100-hour test. The illustrations show the type of information Th e author concluded from these tests that this available. They are enlargements of four times the detergen t oil did not fail abruptly either to prevent original plates. Low level detergent oil was used in a 160-hr. CRC test L-1-545 in a Caterpillar diesel Figs. 7, 8 and 9, respectively :— engine using one per cent sulphur fuel. The metal 120-hour Sample (Detergent Oil), edge full flow filter removed particles which were 160-hour Sample (Detergent Oil), relatively coarse compared to those studied with the Straight Mineral Oil at 40-hours. microscope. It must be remembered that normally, a low level detergent oil such as tested would not be flocculation of suspended particles or to reduce rate used under service conditions as severe as those of piston deposit formation. While large numbers of experienced in the test. extremel y small particles remain individually dis­ Fig. 1. shows the detergent additive initially persed in the oil, the rate of deposit formation on pisto n surfaces is very low. As these particles dispersed in the form of small particles or micelles cluster, rate of deposit formation increases gradually, like short rods which average about 50 Angstrom approachin g the rate of a straight mineral oil. The units in diameter and about 200 Angstrom units in detergen t oil effectively prevented piston' deposits for length. The magnification is about 32,000. Such additive cannot be removed by filtration or high 4 0 hours, but because these additives function speed centrifugation. After 20 hours use (Fig. 2.) principall y to prevent deposition rather than to remov e existing deposits, it is undesirable to permit single particles less than 300 Angstrom units in engine deposits to form before changing the oil. No diameter are still present in large numbers, probably make-u p was added during this test. Higher composed of detergent plus resins and gums, but detergen t oil level oils as well as milder operating showing no tendency to flocculate. At 40 hours, however, there is a tendency to cluster and engine levels would of course permi t longer intervals between data at this time show that formation of piston oil drains. Scientific LUBRICATION August, 1954 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Industrial Lubrication and Tribology Emerald Publishing

The Electron Microscope Looks At Detergent Oils

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology , Volume 6 (8): 1 – Aug 1, 1954

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0036-8792
DOI
10.1108/eb052290
Publisher site
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Abstract

The Electron Microscope Looks At deposits is beginning. Definite flocculation shows in the 60-hr. sample (Fig. 4) and floccules average, Detergen t Oils perhaps , 1,000 Angstrom units in diameter. These pas s easily through ordinary filters. Engine data Figs. 1, 2 and 3, respectively :— Fresh Detergent Oil, DETERIORATION in performance of a detergent 20-hour Sample (Detergent Oil). oil usually corresponds with changes in dis- 40-hour Sample (Detergent Oil). persancy and the electron microscope enables these changes to be observed in detail. An earlier paper shows that the detergent oil no longer prevents (abstracted in our December, 1952 issue, p . 23) dealt deposition although rate of deposition is still below with this work, but a more recent paper has given tha t of a straight mineral oil. details of how this work is carried out. This paper Th e 80-hr. sample shows little change from the was given by J. B. Peri of the California Research 60-hr. sample, but it should be remembered that we Corporation, at the Society of Automobile Engineers ar e concerned here, chiefly with the appearance of National Fuels and Lubricants Meeting in Chicago th e numerous small background particles rathe r than in November. We have extracted the main points wit h th e few relatively large particles to be seen. By from this paper hereunder. 100 hours, further aggregation occurs and many of The electron microscope is capable of resolving th e large particles present in the oil can now be particles with diameters down to 30 Angstrom units remove d by a good filter. By 120 hours the effect and is therefore a most valuable instrument in lubricant research. Preparation of specimen for Figs. 4, 5 and 6, respectively :— examination is simple, several drops of a 2% Par- 60-hour Sample (Detergent Oil), 80-hour Sample (Detergent Oil), lodion solution in amyl acetate are dropped on to the 100-hour Sample (Detergent Oil). surface of some distilled water held in an evaporating dish. This solution spreads on the water to form a of the detergent additives has almost completely thin film, the amyl acetate evaporates quickly leaving vanished . At 160 hours, the oil closely resembles a a thin Parlodion film, a portion of which is mounted used uncompounded mineral oil a t 40 hours and the on circular 200-mesh wire screens one-eighth inch in oil is almos t free of extremel y small colloidal particles. diameter by means of a quite simple procedure. I t might be mentioned that no flocculation could Further thinning of the oil layer occurs in the electron b e detected under the light microscope a t 50" magni­ microscope owing to the collection of the oil under fications for any of the above samples and blotter the wires of the supporting screen. Specimen test s failed to indicate significant changes in dis­ preparations are usually quite reproducible. persion during the 100-hour test. The illustrations show the type of information Th e author concluded from these tests that this available. They are enlargements of four times the detergen t oil did not fail abruptly either to prevent original plates. Low level detergent oil was used in a 160-hr. CRC test L-1-545 in a Caterpillar diesel Figs. 7, 8 and 9, respectively :— engine using one per cent sulphur fuel. The metal 120-hour Sample (Detergent Oil), edge full flow filter removed particles which were 160-hour Sample (Detergent Oil), relatively coarse compared to those studied with the Straight Mineral Oil at 40-hours. microscope. It must be remembered that normally, a low level detergent oil such as tested would not be flocculation of suspended particles or to reduce rate used under service conditions as severe as those of piston deposit formation. While large numbers of experienced in the test. extremel y small particles remain individually dis­ Fig. 1. shows the detergent additive initially persed in the oil, the rate of deposit formation on pisto n surfaces is very low. As these particles dispersed in the form of small particles or micelles cluster, rate of deposit formation increases gradually, like short rods which average about 50 Angstrom approachin g the rate of a straight mineral oil. The units in diameter and about 200 Angstrom units in detergen t oil effectively prevented piston' deposits for length. The magnification is about 32,000. Such additive cannot be removed by filtration or high 4 0 hours, but because these additives function speed centrifugation. After 20 hours use (Fig. 2.) principall y to prevent deposition rather than to remov e existing deposits, it is undesirable to permit single particles less than 300 Angstrom units in engine deposits to form before changing the oil. No diameter are still present in large numbers, probably make-u p was added during this test. Higher composed of detergent plus resins and gums, but detergen t oil level oils as well as milder operating showing no tendency to flocculate. At 40 hours, however, there is a tendency to cluster and engine levels would of course permi t longer intervals between data at this time show that formation of piston oil drains. Scientific LUBRICATION August, 1954

Journal

Industrial Lubrication and TribologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Aug 1, 1954

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