THE ELECTRON DIFFRACTION CAMERA AND HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION metal or alloy reacts under varying con NGINEER S of the research ditions, the research engineer would laboratories of the American West- be able to 'mix' his metallic in inghouse Co. have recently developed gredients to produce a product an 'electronic camera' that contains a tiny furnace and takes pictures of exactly right for a specific application. hot metals, in order to aid in the Th e camera search for new metals and alloys that will withstand rust and corrosion. The electronic camera, technically known as an electron diffraction The new instrument uses a high- camera, was developed to make photo power beam of electrons to make graphs of this film under almost every detailed 'portraits' of metal surfaces attainable temperature, gas atmosphere as they react to different temperatures, and pressure. It consists essentially of gases and pressures. Its unique 'hair a 5-ft.-long hollow cylinder with the pin ' furnace makes possible close electron gun at the top end and a study of metals while they are being photographic film at the bottom. heated to temperatures as high as Powerful magnets inside the cylinder 2,000°F. act as lenses to guide the beam. The furnace is attached to the lower half Corrosio n at high temperatures of the camera. The camera was designed by Dr. A sample of the metal or alloy under Joseph W. Hickman, Dr. Earl A. study is placed inside the camera with Gulbransen and Rudolph J. Bertl. its surface at a slight angle to the Future advances in gas turbine and electron beam. When the high-power jet engine design will depend upon stream of electrons strikes the metal the development of new metals and surface, the electrons ricochet off and alloys capable of withstanding the strike the photo film at the bottom of terrific temperatures at which these that separates the metal from the hot the camera. machines operate. At such tempera gases surrounding it. When the scien The resulting pattern traced by the tures the danger of corrosion is very tists find out the exact nature of the electron beam appears as a series of great and puts a definite limit on reaction that takes place in this film, concentric half-circles. Research en engine speed and efficiency. it will be of great value to the metal gineers measure the distance between lurgist in developing new metals and This corrosion danger is concen these rings to determine the distance alloys. Knowing how every type of trated in a microscopically thin film between the atoms in the metallic film being studied. This tells them the nature of the film and how the oxida tion or corrosion takes place. Metal a t 2,000°F. To make the metal even hotter than it would be in present jet engines, or gas turbines, the Westinghouse scien tists have devised the tiny furnace which consists of a series of 20 tung sten-wire 'hairpins.' Electric current passing through the wires raises the temperature to around 3,300°F. This heat is transferred to the metal sample through a chrome-nickel-steel block on which the sample is mounted, about 1,300° being lost by radiation during the transfer. At the same time that the scientists vary the temperature for individual tests, they also vary the amount of oxygen in the camera, from near-vacuum almost to atmospheric pressure. One of the most significant things revealed by such studies thus far is that the rate of corrosion increases enormously at high temperatures— jumping as high as 10 times for every 100° rise in temperature. 116 CORROSION TECHNOLOGY, April 1955
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials – Emerald Publishing
Published: Apr 1, 1955
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