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The effectiveness of UEFA Financial Fair Play: evidence from England and France, 2008–2018

The effectiveness of UEFA Financial Fair Play: evidence from England and France, 2008–2018 This paper analyses the effectiveness of UEFA's Financial Fair Play (FFP) under the break-even requirement.Design/methodology/approachData was collected from English and French football clubs competing in the English Premier League (EPL) and in Ligue 1 (L1) for the financial years 2008–2018. Our sample includes 395 club-year observations. Relevant statistical tests have been conducted with the aim of analysing the effects of pre (2008–2012) and post (2012–2018) FFP enforcement under both profitability and cost-efficiency assumptions.FindingsIn the EPL, an increase is observed in clubs' profitability through both operating and break-even results. In L1, this improvement is only significant for break-even results of clubs not participating regularly in European competitions (non Euro-oriented clubs). Player expenditures, measured through two wage-to-revenue ratios excluding trading activity for one and including it for the other, have significantly decreased in the EPL except for the Euro-oriented clubs for this latter. Conversely, in L1, this decrease is only significant in both wage-to-revenue ratios for non Euro-oriented clubs and for the whole sample when trading is included.Practical implicationsIn addition to evidencing contrasting results in FFP effectiveness across countries, our results suggest it is not the sole cause of such an improvement in clubs' finances. We suggest that UEFA should pursue its efforts to scrutinise the level of clubs' player expenditures and that there is a need for a wider look at the FFP regulations.Originality/valueThis article provides further contribution to empirical studies on FFP effectiveness that have often been focused on a single country. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Sport Business and Management An International Journal Emerald Publishing

The effectiveness of UEFA Financial Fair Play: evidence from England and France, 2008–2018

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References (87)

Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
© Emerald Publishing Limited
ISSN
2042-678X
DOI
10.1108/sbm-03-2021-0024
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

This paper analyses the effectiveness of UEFA's Financial Fair Play (FFP) under the break-even requirement.Design/methodology/approachData was collected from English and French football clubs competing in the English Premier League (EPL) and in Ligue 1 (L1) for the financial years 2008–2018. Our sample includes 395 club-year observations. Relevant statistical tests have been conducted with the aim of analysing the effects of pre (2008–2012) and post (2012–2018) FFP enforcement under both profitability and cost-efficiency assumptions.FindingsIn the EPL, an increase is observed in clubs' profitability through both operating and break-even results. In L1, this improvement is only significant for break-even results of clubs not participating regularly in European competitions (non Euro-oriented clubs). Player expenditures, measured through two wage-to-revenue ratios excluding trading activity for one and including it for the other, have significantly decreased in the EPL except for the Euro-oriented clubs for this latter. Conversely, in L1, this decrease is only significant in both wage-to-revenue ratios for non Euro-oriented clubs and for the whole sample when trading is included.Practical implicationsIn addition to evidencing contrasting results in FFP effectiveness across countries, our results suggest it is not the sole cause of such an improvement in clubs' finances. We suggest that UEFA should pursue its efforts to scrutinise the level of clubs' player expenditures and that there is a need for a wider look at the FFP regulations.Originality/valueThis article provides further contribution to empirical studies on FFP effectiveness that have often been focused on a single country.

Journal

Sport Business and Management An International JournalEmerald Publishing

Published: Jun 2, 2022

Keywords: Financial Fair Play; Regulation; Effectiveness; Cross-national comparisons; Football

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