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The Effect of WaterBorne Blast

The Effect of WaterBorne Blast AIRCRAF T ENGINEERING April, 1945 List of Selected Translations APPLICATIONS for the loan of copies of translations mentioned below should be addressed to the SECRETARY (R.T.P.3), MINISTRY OF AIRCRAF T PRODUCTION, LONDON, S.W.I, and copies will be loaned as far as availability of stocks permits. Suggestions concerning new translations will be considered in relation to general interest and facilities available. Lists of selected translations have appeared in AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING since September, 1938 LIST No. 79 Translation No. Title and Reference Translation No. Title and Reference Translation No. Title and Reference and Author and Author and Author (Z.F. Metallk, Vol. 35, No. 8, (2421) Aero and Hydrodynamics Aug, 1943, pp . 163-166.) GIBELLE, H. ... Polyvinylacetal Resins. (Kunst- (2403) (2405) stoffe Vol. 32, No. 6, 1942, KALSCHER, M. ... Discontinuous Solutions of the pp. 180-182.) STAUDINGER, H. High Polymer Compounds—The Equation of Motion of Fluid Relationship between Viscosity Flow. (L.F.F., Vol. 17, No. 5, and Molecular Weight of Poly- 20.2.40, pp. 154-160.) Wireless and Electricity stynols. (Ber. Deutsch. Chem. (2406) (2407) Ges., Vol. 63, 1930, pp. 222- DAETWYLER, G. Apparatus for Measuring Flow WEISSLOCH, A.... A Precision Wavemeter and Fre­ 234.) Turbulence. (Mitt. Inst. Aero- quency Range Recorder. (E.T-Z, (2413) dyn. E.T.H., Zurich, No. 8, Vol. 64, No. 39-40, 7.10.43, STAUDINGER, H. Isoprene Rubber—18th Com- 1943. pp. 34-43.) p . 539.) LEUPOLD, E. O. munication. Viscosity Tests (2411) Engines and Accessories on Batata. (Ber. Deutsch Blind Flying Device—German (2404) Chem. Ges., Vol. 63, 1930, Patent No. 654113. (All Elek- MAZZUCHELLI, P. The Aero-Engine Cylinder. pp. 730-733.) trizitats-Gescll, Berlin.) (Flugwehr and Technik, Vol. (2414) (2420) 5, No. 12, Dec, 1943, pp. STAUDINGER, H. Isoprene and Rubber—19th Com- SCHMIO, G. ... Influence and Longitudinal High 328-330.) BONDY, H. F. ... munication. The size of Rubber JETTER, U. ... Frequency (Supersonic) Vi­ (2410) and Batata Molecules. (Ber., brations on the Magnetic Be­ SALEZ, J. ... Flight Test with the Poincaré- Duetsche. Chem. Ges., Vol. 63 haviour of Nichel. (Z.f. Elek- Farman Torque Meter. (Bull 1930, pp. 734-736). tro. Ang. Phys Chemie, Vol. des Services Techniques No. (2415) 42, 10.10.1942, pp. 53-522.) 82, Nov., 1938.) STAUDINGER, H. High Polymer Compounds—35th (2422) ASHDOWN, A. A. Communication. Poly-a-Phe- WEBER, H. ... Measurement of Phase Shifts by Fuel s and Lubricants nyl Butadiene. (Ber. Deutsche using one Ammeter. (Elektro (2418) Chem. Ges., Vol. 63, 1930, Tech. Zeit. Vol. 63, No. 19-20, PRETTRE, M. ... Mechanism of the Oxidation of pp. 717-721.) 21.5.42.) Hydro-carbons. (Acta Physio, (2416) U.S.S.R., Vol. 9, No. 3-4, STAUDINGER, H. Isoprene and Rubber—17th Com- Miscellaneous 1938, pp. 581-582.) BONDY, H. F. ... munication. The Fractionation (2412) (2419) of Balata. (Ber. Deutsche BACH, A. ... Theories of Spontaneous Oxida­ METZ, L. ... Construction and Equipment of Chem. Ges., Vol. 63, 1940, tion. (Acta Physio, U.S.S.R., Test Chambers Simulating pp. 724-730.) Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1938, pp. Tropical Conditions. (Z.V.D. 1, (2417) 381-394. Vol. 87, No. 9-10, 6.3.43, STAUDINGER, H. High Polymer Compounds—36th pp. 132-136.) Material s NODZU, R. ... Communication. Viscosity (2426) Tests on Paraffin Solutions. (2401) KUHLENKAMP, A. Anti-Aircraft Gun Sights. (Ber. Deutsch.. Chem. Ges., KOSTER, W. Hardness and Conductivity of (Z.V.D. 1.,Vol. 87, No. 37-38, Vol. 63, 1940, pp . 721-724.) BREITFELD ... Cold-Aged Aluminium Alloys. 18.9.43, pp. 577-585.) By R. G. Worcester, A.R.Ae.S. HI S subject would be irrelevant to airmen second. I n the water the effect of blast becomes fore inadvisable to lie face downwards on a bu t for the facts that , firstly, the Japanese progressively worse with depth—the pressure partiall y submerged object; on the contrary the war is clearly a more amphibious affair is not necessarily greater but it lasts longer. survivor should lie face up on the raft with as tha n war nearer home, and secondly, the Blast is least on the surface where the uneven- much as possible of the front of the body out of Japanese (according to British experience, ness of the sea breaks up the shock waves. This the water. If this is impossible the body should doubtless confirmed by the Americans) will go was first shown some years ago and late r demon­ float flat so as to be as near the surface as t o extraordinary lengths to destroy even one strated in America by volunteers who, early in possible. Treading water in th e vertical position man and have no scruples over emptying their 1943, descended in diving suits to 20 feet and would tend to expose the- vita l parts unneces­ bombracks among surviving airmen in the water a n American Mark V depth charge was ex­ sarily. The first action of the survivor should be if there is no better target. ploded a t 929 yards . Whe n the y got closer to the t o get as far away as he can—upwards of 100 explosion point they all agreed the discomfort yards—from the likely explosion point. This Although it was realized after Dunkirk that was considerable but they managed to get to distance will be adequate for smaller explosive water-borne blast was likely to play an within 300 yards, and one man actually got to charges with the unprotected body. With the increasing par t (when men were standing up to a point within 150 yards from the explosion, Mae West worn the distance need not be so th e neck in water and the objects of Stuka without ill-effects. much. All this is of course just one more reason attacks) it is only recently tha t the subject has had a wider reception. why the Mae West must not only be worn but At this depth they were shown to be carefully adjusted for correct fitting. This is Whether th e survivor is u p against a Japan­ able to withstand a pressure corresponding because th e shock waves travel like a light wave ese, a bomb, a shark or anything else, the best t o 50 lb./sq. in; whereas on the surface and and not a sound wave. That is to say, it is defence is knowledge. Blast in the water acts in ordinary flying gear and Mae West and possible to get protection behind some object, quite differently from airborne blast; for one head above water they were able to withstand a Mae West, a paddle or some other object, and thing the waves travel faster—at about 5,000 72 lb./sq. in. this form of protection should always be used feet per second instead of 1,000 feet per second Fro m these facts it is possible t o pick ou t the whenever possible. It is the same thing as in the air. Great pressures are recorded under the first principles of how to avoid injury from blast getting behind a tree as a protection against water measured in tons per square inch as in th e water. Th e main thin g is tha t as th e water airborne blast. This action is instinctive in the against pounds per square inch in the air. In blast will only affect parts of the body actually ai r but possibly may not be in the water until th e water the waves are of shorter duration and in the water the survivor should tr y to get as th e effect is explained. The instinctive part of the y lose intensity in inverse ratio with the much of his body as possible out of the water; the mind is no t creative bu t once the basic facts distance. The cross section of an y form of shock particularly the organs which contain any are understood the instinctive mind can always wave is much the same, the explosion causes a quantit y of air, such as th e intestines, particu­ be relied upon (except when the body is injured) wall of compression to move outwards which, larly the lungs and the head. The shock waves t o carry out those functions with remarkable when airborne, lasts about 0·006 second fol­ pass through the body but have a most de­ speed and accuracy. lowed by a depression which lasts about 0·025 structive effect on these vital parts. I t is there­ http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

The Effect of WaterBorne Blast

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Emerald Publishing
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0002-2667
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10.1108/eb031240
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Abstract

AIRCRAF T ENGINEERING April, 1945 List of Selected Translations APPLICATIONS for the loan of copies of translations mentioned below should be addressed to the SECRETARY (R.T.P.3), MINISTRY OF AIRCRAF T PRODUCTION, LONDON, S.W.I, and copies will be loaned as far as availability of stocks permits. Suggestions concerning new translations will be considered in relation to general interest and facilities available. Lists of selected translations have appeared in AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING since September, 1938 LIST No. 79 Translation No. Title and Reference Translation No. Title and Reference Translation No. Title and Reference and Author and Author and Author (Z.F. Metallk, Vol. 35, No. 8, (2421) Aero and Hydrodynamics Aug, 1943, pp . 163-166.) GIBELLE, H. ... Polyvinylacetal Resins. (Kunst- (2403) (2405) stoffe Vol. 32, No. 6, 1942, KALSCHER, M. ... Discontinuous Solutions of the pp. 180-182.) STAUDINGER, H. High Polymer Compounds—The Equation of Motion of Fluid Relationship between Viscosity Flow. (L.F.F., Vol. 17, No. 5, and Molecular Weight of Poly- 20.2.40, pp. 154-160.) Wireless and Electricity stynols. (Ber. Deutsch. Chem. (2406) (2407) Ges., Vol. 63, 1930, pp. 222- DAETWYLER, G. Apparatus for Measuring Flow WEISSLOCH, A.... A Precision Wavemeter and Fre­ 234.) Turbulence. (Mitt. Inst. Aero- quency Range Recorder. (E.T-Z, (2413) dyn. E.T.H., Zurich, No. 8, Vol. 64, No. 39-40, 7.10.43, STAUDINGER, H. Isoprene Rubber—18th Com- 1943. pp. 34-43.) p . 539.) LEUPOLD, E. O. munication. Viscosity Tests (2411) Engines and Accessories on Batata. (Ber. Deutsch Blind Flying Device—German (2404) Chem. Ges., Vol. 63, 1930, Patent No. 654113. (All Elek- MAZZUCHELLI, P. The Aero-Engine Cylinder. pp. 730-733.) trizitats-Gescll, Berlin.) (Flugwehr and Technik, Vol. (2414) (2420) 5, No. 12, Dec, 1943, pp. STAUDINGER, H. Isoprene and Rubber—19th Com- SCHMIO, G. ... Influence and Longitudinal High 328-330.) BONDY, H. F. ... munication. The size of Rubber JETTER, U. ... Frequency (Supersonic) Vi­ (2410) and Batata Molecules. (Ber., brations on the Magnetic Be­ SALEZ, J. ... Flight Test with the Poincaré- Duetsche. Chem. Ges., Vol. 63 haviour of Nichel. (Z.f. Elek- Farman Torque Meter. (Bull 1930, pp. 734-736). tro. Ang. Phys Chemie, Vol. des Services Techniques No. (2415) 42, 10.10.1942, pp. 53-522.) 82, Nov., 1938.) STAUDINGER, H. High Polymer Compounds—35th (2422) ASHDOWN, A. A. Communication. Poly-a-Phe- WEBER, H. ... Measurement of Phase Shifts by Fuel s and Lubricants nyl Butadiene. (Ber. Deutsche using one Ammeter. (Elektro (2418) Chem. Ges., Vol. 63, 1930, Tech. Zeit. Vol. 63, No. 19-20, PRETTRE, M. ... Mechanism of the Oxidation of pp. 717-721.) 21.5.42.) Hydro-carbons. (Acta Physio, (2416) U.S.S.R., Vol. 9, No. 3-4, STAUDINGER, H. Isoprene and Rubber—17th Com- Miscellaneous 1938, pp. 581-582.) BONDY, H. F. ... munication. The Fractionation (2412) (2419) of Balata. (Ber. Deutsche BACH, A. ... Theories of Spontaneous Oxida­ METZ, L. ... Construction and Equipment of Chem. Ges., Vol. 63, 1940, tion. (Acta Physio, U.S.S.R., Test Chambers Simulating pp. 724-730.) Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1938, pp. Tropical Conditions. (Z.V.D. 1, (2417) 381-394. Vol. 87, No. 9-10, 6.3.43, STAUDINGER, H. High Polymer Compounds—36th pp. 132-136.) Material s NODZU, R. ... Communication. Viscosity (2426) Tests on Paraffin Solutions. (2401) KUHLENKAMP, A. Anti-Aircraft Gun Sights. (Ber. Deutsch.. Chem. Ges., KOSTER, W. Hardness and Conductivity of (Z.V.D. 1.,Vol. 87, No. 37-38, Vol. 63, 1940, pp . 721-724.) BREITFELD ... Cold-Aged Aluminium Alloys. 18.9.43, pp. 577-585.) By R. G. Worcester, A.R.Ae.S. HI S subject would be irrelevant to airmen second. I n the water the effect of blast becomes fore inadvisable to lie face downwards on a bu t for the facts that , firstly, the Japanese progressively worse with depth—the pressure partiall y submerged object; on the contrary the war is clearly a more amphibious affair is not necessarily greater but it lasts longer. survivor should lie face up on the raft with as tha n war nearer home, and secondly, the Blast is least on the surface where the uneven- much as possible of the front of the body out of Japanese (according to British experience, ness of the sea breaks up the shock waves. This the water. If this is impossible the body should doubtless confirmed by the Americans) will go was first shown some years ago and late r demon­ float flat so as to be as near the surface as t o extraordinary lengths to destroy even one strated in America by volunteers who, early in possible. Treading water in th e vertical position man and have no scruples over emptying their 1943, descended in diving suits to 20 feet and would tend to expose the- vita l parts unneces­ bombracks among surviving airmen in the water a n American Mark V depth charge was ex­ sarily. The first action of the survivor should be if there is no better target. ploded a t 929 yards . Whe n the y got closer to the t o get as far away as he can—upwards of 100 explosion point they all agreed the discomfort yards—from the likely explosion point. This Although it was realized after Dunkirk that was considerable but they managed to get to distance will be adequate for smaller explosive water-borne blast was likely to play an within 300 yards, and one man actually got to charges with the unprotected body. With the increasing par t (when men were standing up to a point within 150 yards from the explosion, Mae West worn the distance need not be so th e neck in water and the objects of Stuka without ill-effects. much. All this is of course just one more reason attacks) it is only recently tha t the subject has had a wider reception. why the Mae West must not only be worn but At this depth they were shown to be carefully adjusted for correct fitting. This is Whether th e survivor is u p against a Japan­ able to withstand a pressure corresponding because th e shock waves travel like a light wave ese, a bomb, a shark or anything else, the best t o 50 lb./sq. in; whereas on the surface and and not a sound wave. That is to say, it is defence is knowledge. Blast in the water acts in ordinary flying gear and Mae West and possible to get protection behind some object, quite differently from airborne blast; for one head above water they were able to withstand a Mae West, a paddle or some other object, and thing the waves travel faster—at about 5,000 72 lb./sq. in. this form of protection should always be used feet per second instead of 1,000 feet per second Fro m these facts it is possible t o pick ou t the whenever possible. It is the same thing as in the air. Great pressures are recorded under the first principles of how to avoid injury from blast getting behind a tree as a protection against water measured in tons per square inch as in th e water. Th e main thin g is tha t as th e water airborne blast. This action is instinctive in the against pounds per square inch in the air. In blast will only affect parts of the body actually ai r but possibly may not be in the water until th e water the waves are of shorter duration and in the water the survivor should tr y to get as th e effect is explained. The instinctive part of the y lose intensity in inverse ratio with the much of his body as possible out of the water; the mind is no t creative bu t once the basic facts distance. The cross section of an y form of shock particularly the organs which contain any are understood the instinctive mind can always wave is much the same, the explosion causes a quantit y of air, such as th e intestines, particu­ be relied upon (except when the body is injured) wall of compression to move outwards which, larly the lungs and the head. The shock waves t o carry out those functions with remarkable when airborne, lasts about 0·006 second fol­ pass through the body but have a most de­ speed and accuracy. lowed by a depression which lasts about 0·025 structive effect on these vital parts. I t is there­

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Apr 1, 1945

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